We studied age-related sexual dimorphism of the terminal abdominal ganglion in the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus using osmium/ethyl-gallate staining and GABA immunohistochemistry. We determinedthat the volume of the terminal abdominal ganglion increases with increasing body size. The growth ratio between longitude and width in the terminal abdominal ganglion is the same in all nymph stages and sexes. However, the longitudinal growth of the male terminal abdominal ganglion ceases in the 8th instar and the adult stage. Therefore, in the adult stage, sexual dimorphism is observed in ganglion morphology. Additionally, sexual dimorphism is also observed in numbers of neuronal somata and GABA-like immunoreactive neurons in the terminal abdominal ganglion. At the beginning of the 8th instar, the number of somata is greater in female crickets than in males. GABA-like immunoreactive neurons, which were classified into eight clusters, increased between the 8th instar and adult in both sexes, but their numbers were sexually dimorphic in the 7th and 8th instars, and in the adult. Females had a greater number of GABA-like immunoreactive neurons than males. These differences occurred mainly in the 8th neuromere cluster, as well as the anterior region of the 9–11th neuromeres.
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