Nineteen genera of Recent brachiopods, i.e. Discradisca Stenzel, 1964, Novocrania Lee & Brunton, 2001, Basiliola Dall, 1908, Cryptopora Jeffreys, 1869, Gryphus Megerle von Mühlfeldt, 1811, Dallithyris Muir-Wood, 1959, Stenosarina Cooper, 1977, Xenobrochus Cooper, 1981, Terebratulina d'Orbigny, 1847, Chlidonophora Dall, 1903, Eucalathis Fischer & Oehlert, 1890, Macandrevia King, 1859, Frenulina Dall, 1895, Jolonica Dall, 1920, Argyrotheca Dall, 1900, Phaneropora Zezina, 1981, Nipponithyris Yabe & Hatai, 1934, Megerlia King, 1850 and Megerella n. gen. have been identified in the material collected during three French cruises MAINBAZA, MIRIKY and ATIMO VATAE to the Mozambique-Madagascar area during the years 2009–2010. One genus and four species are described as new: the genus Megerella n. gen. with type species M. hilleri n. gen., n. sp. and the species Eucalathis daphneae n. sp., Eucalathis malgachensis n. sp. and Macandrevia emigi n. sp. Eucalathis daphneae n. sp. differs from congeneric species in having an incomplete loop. It is ornamented by single, broad, rounded costae. Eucalathis malgachensis n. sp. is characterized by a fascicostate surface with strong ribs triangular in cross-section. Macandrevia emigi n. sp. differs from other species of the genus by its triangular outline and much smaller size. Megerella hilleri n. gen., n. sp. is a small kraussinid with a bifurcate loop with distal extensions uniting to form a complete ring. The genus Macandrevia and the species Frenulina sanguinolenta (Gmelin, 1971) are recorded for the first time from the Indian Ocean. While minor regional differences occur within the three study regions of Madagascar, a comparison of the overall Madagascar brachiopod biota with those of other parts of the Indian Ocean shows a strong similarity to faunas from southern Africa, with 12 out of 25 species common to both areas.
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