The Chiroptera do not have an extensive fossil record. To date, for the Quaternary of Brazil, only material from Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Bahia and Goiás States are known. For Rio Grande do Sul State, in contrast to the studies about the Pleistocene megafauna, little is known about Holocene small mammals, this being the first contribution about the Chiroptera of this age found in Rio Grande do Sul. The material was excavated from two archaeological sites, dating from ± 9,400 yrs BP to ± 4,250 yrs BP. The taxa recorded were: Chrotopterus auritus, Pygoderma bilabiatum (Phyllostomidae); Eptesicus brasiliensis, E. fuscus, Myotis cf. Myotis ruber, Vespertilionidae aff. Lasiurus (Vespertilionidae); Tadarida brasiliensis, and Molossus molossus (Molossidae). The presence of E. fuscus extends its Holocene distribution far southwards into the south temperate zone; its previous Quaternary occurrences were in Bahia State, Brazil, as well as in Venezuela, Mexico and the USA.
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