Open Access
How to translate text using browser tools
1 June 2002 Differential Ingestion of Ficus Seeds by Frugivorous Bats: A First Experimental Test in Ptenochirus Jagori (Pteropodidae)
Jochen Reiter
Author Affiliations +



M. C. Anstett , M. Hossaert-Mckey , and F. Kjellberg . 1997. Figs and fig pollinators: evolutionary conflicts in a coevolved mutualism. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 12: 94–99. Google Scholar


P. V. August 1981. Fig consumption and seed dispersal by Artibeus jamaicensis in the Llanos of Venezuela. Biotropica, 13: 70–76. Google Scholar


P. P. Boon , and R. T. Corlett . 1989. Seed dispersal by the lesser short-nosed fruit bat (Cynopterus brachyotis, Pteropodidae, Megachiroptera). Malayan Nature Journal, 42: 251–256. Google Scholar


J. L. Bronstein 1988. Mutualism, antagonism, and the fig-pollinator interaction. Ecology, 69: 1298–1302. Google Scholar


C. O. Handley Jr , D. O. Wilson , and A. L. Gardner . 1991. Demography and natural history of the common fruit bat, Artibeus jamaicensis, on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 511: 1–173. Google Scholar


P. D. Heideman , and L. R. Heaney . 1989. Population biology and estimates of abundance of fruit bats (Pteropodidae) in Philippine submontane rainforest. Journal of Zoology (London), 218: 565–586. Google Scholar


D. H. Janzen 1978. A bat-generated fig seed shadow in rainforest. Biotropica, 10: 121. Google Scholar


D. H. Janzen 1979. How to be a fig. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 10: 13–51. Google Scholar


E. K. V. Kalko , E. A. Herre , and C. O. Handley Jr . 1996. The relation of fig fruit syndromes to fruit-eating bats in the New and Old World tropics. Journal of Biogeography, 23: 565–576. Google Scholar


S. Kaufmann , D. B. Mckey , M. Hossaert-Mckey , and C. C. Horvitz . 1991. Adaptations for a two-phase seed dispersal system involving vertebrates and ants in a hemiepiphytic fig (Ficus microcarpa: Moraceae). American Journal of Botany, 78: 971–977. Google Scholar


Lin , Tsan-Piao, Chih-Chen Liu , and Shu-Wen Chen . 1989. Purification and characterization of pectinmethylesterase from Ficus awkeotsang Makino achenes. Plant Physiology, 91: 1445–1453. Google Scholar


S. Luft 1998. Feldökologische Untersuchungen an Flughunden (Megachiroptera: Pteropodidae) auf der Philippinen-Insel Panay. M. Sc. Thesis, Ruhr-University, Bochum, 122 pp. Google Scholar


L. Machlis , P W. D. Dodd , and J. C. Fentress . 1985. The pooling fallacy: problems arising when individuals contribute more than one observation to the data set. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 68: 201–214. Google Scholar


A. G. Marshall 1983. Bats, flowers and fruit: evolutionary relationships in the Old World. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 20: 115–135. Google Scholar


A. G. Marshall 1985. Old World phytophagous bats (Megachiroptera) and their food plants: a survey. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 83: 351–369. Google Scholar


M. G. Murray 1985. Figs and fig wasps: hypotheses for an ancient symbiosis. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 26: 69–81. Google Scholar


J. Reiter , and E. Curio . 2001. Home range, roost switching, and foraging area in a Philippine fruit bat (Ptenochirus jagori). Ecotropica, 7: 109–113. Google Scholar


G. C. Richards 1990. The spectacled flying-fox, Pteropus conspicillatus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae), in North Queensland. 2. Diet, seed dispersal and feeding ecology. Australian Mammalogy, 13: 25–31. Google Scholar


L. Sachs 1999. Angewandte Statistik: Anwendung statistischer Methoden. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 884 pp. Google Scholar


L. A. Shilton , J. D. Altringham , S. G. Compton , and R. J. Whittaker . 1999. Old World fruit bats can be long-distance seed dispersers through extended retention of viable seeds in the gut. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 266: 219–223. Google Scholar


R. C. B. Utzurrum 1995. Feeding ecology of Philippine fruit bats: patterns of resource use and seed dispersal. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London, 67: 63–77. Google Scholar


R. C. B. Utzurrum , and P. D. Heideman . 1991. Differential ingestion of viable vs nonviable Ficus seeds by fruit bats. Biotropica, 23: 311–312. Google Scholar


R. J. Whittaker , and S. H. Jones . 1994. The role of frugivorous bats and birds in the rebuilding of a tropical forest ecosystem, Krakatau, Indonesia. Journal of Biogeography, 21: 346–354. Google Scholar
©Museum and Institute of Zoology PAS
Jochen Reiter "Differential Ingestion of Ficus Seeds by Frugivorous Bats: A First Experimental Test in Ptenochirus Jagori (Pteropodidae)," Acta Chiropterologica 4(1), 99-106, (1 June 2002).
Received: 28 January 2002; Accepted: 1 May 2002; Published: 1 June 2002
differential ingestion
Ptenochirus jagori
seed dispersal
Back to Top