We describe a new species of Scotophilus (Vespertilionidae) from western Madagascar. This bat differs from the other members of this genus known from the island, Africa, and Asia based on its notably diminutive size, pelage coloration, and tragus shape and length. Scotophilus sp. nov. is known from seven different specimens taken at three different sites in the central western portion of the island, in zones with anthropogenic savanna dominated by palms (Bismarckia nobilis) and dry deciduous forest. The holotype was collected in the palm leaf roof of a thatched dwelling, which is the first evidence of the synanthropic occurrence of a member of this genus on Madagascar. Four species of Scotophilus are now known to occur on Madagascar of which three are endemic.
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