Six species of small vespertilionid bat were recently collected in Madagascar. Neoromicia matroka (included by some in Eptesicus) and N. malagasyensis were already recorded from the island. Pipistrellus hesperidus was known but under a different name, P. kuhlii. Neoromicia melckorum is a new species record for the island. Hypsugo anchietae represents a new species and genus record. The last taxon is a previously undescribed species of Pipistrellus, which shows affinities to three South-east and East Asian pipistrelle taxa. In this paper, the new species is described and further information on the taxonomy, distribution, ecology, and behaviour of all six taxa are provided.
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