Open Access
Translator Disclaimer
1 July 2003 Temperature Dependence of the Breeding Phenology of the Collared Flycatcher Ficedula albicollis in the Białowieża Forest (NE Poland)
Cezary Mitrus
Author Affiliations +

The breeding phenology of Collared Flycatchers was monitored for 7 years (1993 and 1995–2000) in oldgrowth, oak-lime-hornbeam stands in the primeval Białowieża Forest. In most years, egg laying commenced in the second half of May. The earliest first-egg date (179 broods) was 1 May, the latest such date was 13 May; these dates differed from year to year. The associations between the first-egg date and the mean temperature of the last ten days of April indicated that birds were breeding earlier as a consequence of warmer April temperatures. The earliest hatching date was 21 May, the latest 1 June. Fledging usually started in the first half of June. The length of the breeding season varied from 40 to 53 days and the breeding cycle was negatively related to mean temperature in the first ten days of May.



S. Cramp 1993. Birds of Europe the Middle East and North Africa. The Birds of the Western Palearctic Vol. VII. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford. Google Scholar


Z. Głowaciński 1973. Phenology and breeding success in a population of Collared Flycatcher, Ficedula albicollis (Temm.), in the Niepołomice Forest (Southern Poland). Ekol. Pol. 21: 219–228. Google Scholar


H. Löhrl 1976. Studies of less familiar birds Collared Flycatcher. Brit. Birds 69: 20–26. Google Scholar


T. Meijer , R. Drent 1999. Re-examination of the capital-income dichotomy in breeding birds. Ibis 142: 399–415. Google Scholar


T. Meijer , U. Nienaber , U. Langer , F. Trillmich 1999. Temperature and timing of egg-laying of European Starlings. Condor 101: 124–132. Google Scholar


E. O. Minot 1981. Effects of interspecific competition for food in breeding blue and great tits. J. Anim. Ecol 50: 375–386. Google Scholar


C. Mitrus , W. Walankiewicz , D. Czeszczewik , P. M. Jabłoński 1996. Age and arrival date of Collared Flycatcher Ficedula albicollis males do not influence quality of natural cavities used. Acta Ornithol. 31: 101–106. Google Scholar


C. Mitrus , B. Rogala 2001. Egg size variation in Collared Flycatchers Ficedula albicollis in the Białowieża Forest (NE Poland). Acta Ornithol. 36: 7–12. Google Scholar


R. K. Murton , N. J. Westwod 1977. Avian breeding cycles. Clarendon, Oxford. Google Scholar


R. G. Nager 1994. Plasticity of Great Tit's laying date: effects of local temperature and food availability. J. Ornithol. 135: 345. Google Scholar


S. G. Nilsson 1984. The evolution of nest-site selection among hole-nesting birds: the importance of nest predation and competition. Ornis Scand. 15: 167–175. Google Scholar


S. G. Nilsson 1986. The evolution of hole-nesting in birds: on balancing selection pressures. Auk 103: 432–435. Google Scholar


A. M. Peklo 1987. [Fauna of the flycatchers of the USSR]. Naukova Dumka, Kyiv. Google Scholar


C. T. Robbins 1981. Estimation of the relative protein cost of reproduction in birds. Condor 83: 177–179. Google Scholar


P. Rowiński , T. Wesołowski 1999. Timing of Marsh Tit (Parus palustris) and Nuthatch (Sitta europaea) breeding in relation to their caterpillar food in primeval conditions — preliminary data. Ring 21: 126. Google Scholar


T. Slagsvold 1976. Annual and geographical variation in the time of breeding of Great Tit Parus major and the Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca in relation to environmental phenology and spring temperature. Ornis Scand. 7: 127–145. Google Scholar


K.-H. von Schmidt 1984. Frühjahrstemperaturen und Legebeginn bei Meisen (Parus). J. Ornithol. 125: 321–331. Google Scholar


L. Tomiałojć 1991. Characteristics of old growth in the Bialowieża Forest, Poland. Nat. Areas J. 11: 7–18. Google Scholar


W. Walankiewicz 1991. Do secondary cavity nesting birds suffer more from competition for cavities or from predation in a primeval deciduous forest? Nat. Areas J. 11: 203–211. Google Scholar


W. Walankiewicz 2002. Breeding losses in the Collared Flycatcher Ficedula albicollis caused by nest predators in the Białowieża National Park (Poland). Acta Ornithol. 37: 21–26. Google Scholar


W. Walankiewicz , D. Czeszczewik , C. Mitrus , A. Szymura 1997. How the territory mapping technique reflects yearly fluctuations in the Collared Flycatcher Ficedula albicollis numbers? Acta Ornithol. 32: 201–207. Google Scholar


T. Wesołowski 1989. Nest-sites of hole-nesters in a primaeval temperate forest (Białowieża National Park, Poland). Acta Ornithol. 25: 321–351. Google Scholar


T. Wesołowski 1998. Timing and synchronization of breeding in Marsh Tit Parus palustris population from primeval forest. Ardea 86: 89–100. Google Scholar


D. A. Wiggins , T. Pärt , L. Gustafsson 1998. Timing of breeding and reproductive costs in Collared Flycatcher. Auk 115: 1063–1067. Google Scholar
Cezary Mitrus "Temperature Dependence of the Breeding Phenology of the Collared Flycatcher Ficedula albicollis in the Białowieża Forest (NE Poland)," Acta Ornithologica 38(1), 73-76, (1 July 2003).
Received: 1 February 2003; Accepted: 1 May 2003; Published: 1 July 2003

ambient temperature
Białowieża Forest
Collared Flycatcher
Ficedula albicollis
time of breeding
Get copyright permission
Back to Top