Open Access
How to translate text using browser tools
1 July 2005 The Turnover of White Storks Ciconia ciconia on Nests During Spring Migration
Andrzej Wuczyński
Author Affiliations +

It is widely accepted that the first White Storks to arrive at a nest remain there to breed. In contrast to this belief, the paper describes the replacement of at least three males and at least one female at one nest in SW Poland during the spring of 1994. The first pair occupied the nest for 5–8 days, the second pair for one day, and probably only the third pair remained at the nest to actually breed. Additional data on arrival patterns show that such replacements of non-breeding storks may occur much more frequently than was previously thought, especially in areas of intense migration. Consequently, the most common phenological observations (e.g. the arrival dates of the first and second White Storks) are not really useful for defining the timing of breeding. It is suggested that the beginning of nest occupancy should be defined by the beginning of the permanent stay of the second partner, and not just by the date of the birds' first appearance.



P. Berthold , W. von der Bossche , Z. Jakubiec , C. Kaatz , U. Querner 2002. Long-term satellite tracking sheds light upon variable migration strategies of White Storks (Ciconia ciconia). J. Ornithol. 143: 489–495. Google Scholar


G. Creutz 1985. Der Weiβstorch Ciconia ciconia. A. Ziemsen Verlag, Wittenberg Lutherstadt. Google Scholar


J. Kosicki , T. Sparks , P. Tryjanowski 2004. Does arrival date influence autumn departure of the White Stork Ciconia ciconia? Ornis Fennica 81: 91–95. Google Scholar


S. Kuźniak 1994. [The White Stork Ciconia ciconia in the Leszno Province in 1974–1990]. Prace Zakładu Biologii i Ekologii ptaków UAM 3: 69–89. Google Scholar


P. Profus 1991. The breeding biology of White Stork Ciconia ciconia (L.) in the selected area of Southern Poland. Studia Naturae 37A: 11–57. Google Scholar


J. Ptaszyk 1994. [Spring arrival of the White Stork Ciconia ciconia in the Wielkopolska region in 1983–1992]. Prace Zakładu Biologii i Ekologii Ptaków UAM 3:149–164. Google Scholar


J. Ptaszyk , J. Kosicki , T. H. Sparks , P. Tryjanowski 2003. Changes in the timing and pattern of arrival of the White Google Scholar


Stork (Ciconia ciconia) in western Poland. J. Ornithol. 144: 323–329. Google Scholar


H. Schulz 1998. Ciconia ciconia White Stork. BWP Update 2: 69–105. Google Scholar


T. H. Sparks , D. R. Roberts , H. Q. P. Crick 2001. What is the value of first arrival dates of spring migrants in phenology? Avian Ecol. Behav. 7: 75–85. Google Scholar


P. Tryjanowski , T. H. Sparks , J. Ptaszyk , J. Kosicki 2004. Do White Storks Ciconia ciconia always profit from an early return to their breeding grounds? Bird Study 51: 222–227. Google Scholar


A. Wuczyński 1997. [The history and breeding of the White Stork population in the Sudetic Foreland]. Chrońmy Przyrodę Ojczystą 53: 28–44. Google Scholar
Andrzej Wuczyński "The Turnover of White Storks Ciconia ciconia on Nests During Spring Migration," Acta Ornithologica 40(1), 83-85, (1 July 2005).
Received: 1 October 2004; Accepted: 1 March 2005; Published: 1 July 2005
Ciconia ciconia
white stork
Back to Top