Open Access
Translator Disclaimer
1 December 2006 Prolonged Incubation of Non-Viable Eggs in the Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus
Antoni Margalida, Joan Bertran
Author Affiliations +
Abstract

We present the frequency and duration of prolonged incubation in the Bearded Vulture and test different hypotheses on the possible adaptive significance of this behaviour. The mean and median prolonged incubation lasted 29 and 25 days respectively (n = 10), i.e., 54% and 46% respectively longer than the average incubation period. There was a negative correlation between the duration of prolonged incubation and the egg-laying date: prolonged incubation lasted longer in earlier clutches than in later ones, and territories with many breeding attempts showed short incubation prolongations. On the other hand, no correlation was found between the duration of prolonged incubation and productivity or breeding success. The results suggest that more experienced birds, which occupy higher quality territories and lay their eggs earlier, prolonged their incubation to a greater extent. Although prolonged incubation may constitute an example of adaptive behaviour, the extensive periods documented in some cases do not appear to support this assumption.

REFERENCES

1.

B. E. Arroyo , M. Razin 2006. Effect of human activities on bearded vulture behaviour and breeding success in the French Pyrenees. Biol. Conserv. 128: 276–284. Google Scholar

2.

J. Bertran , A. Margalida 2002. Social organization of a trio of Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus): Sexual and parental roles. J. Raptor Res. 36: 65–69. Google Scholar

3.

P. D. Boersma , N. T. Wheelwright 1979. Egg neglect in the Procellariiformes: reproductive adaptations in the Forktailed Storm-petrel. Condor 81: 157–165. Google Scholar

4.

C. J. Brown 1990. Breeding biology of the Bearded Vulture in southern Africa. Vol. I. The pre-laying and incubation periods. Ostrich 61: 24–32. Google Scholar

5.

R. B. Brua , G. L. Nuechterlein , D. Buitron 1996. Vocal response of eared grebe embryos to egg cooling and egg turning. Auk 113: 525–533. Google Scholar

6.

J. D. Buntin 1996. Neural and hormonal control of parental behavior in birds. Adv. Study Behav. 25: 161–213. Google Scholar

7.

T. Chaurand , H. Weimerskirch 1994. Incubation routine, body mass regulation and egg neglect in the Blue Petrel Halobaena caerulae. Ibis 136: 285–290. Google Scholar

8.

N. E Collias, E. C. Collias 1984. Nest building and bird behaviour. Princeton Univ. Press. Google Scholar

9.

R. H. Drent , J. M. Tinbergen , H. Biebach 1985. Incubation in the starling Sturnus vulgaris: resolution of the conflict between egg care and foraging. Netherl. J. Zool. 35: 103–123. Google Scholar

10.

R. S. Ferguson , S. G. Sealy 1983. Breeding ecology of the Horned Grebe, Podiceps auritus, in southwestern Manitoba. Can. Field Nat. 97: 401–408. Google Scholar

11.

P. Forslund , T. Pärt 1995. Age and reproduction in birds: hypotheses and tests. Trends Ecol. Evol. 10: 374–378. Google Scholar

12.

B. J. Hatchwell , M. K. Fowlie , D. J. Ross , A. F. Russell 1999. Incubation behaviour of Long-tailed Tits: why do males provision incubating females? Condor 101: 681–686. Google Scholar

13.

F. Hiraldo , M. Delibes , J. Calderón 1979. El Quebrantahuesos Gypaetus barbatus L. Monografía 22. Instituto para la Conservación de la Naturaleza, Madrid. Google Scholar

14.

L. C. Holcomb 1970. Prolonged incubation behaviour of Red-winged Blackbird incubating several egg sizes. Behaviour 36: 74–83. Google Scholar

15.

N. Huin 1997. Prolonged incubation in the Black-browed Albatross Diomedea melanophris at South Georgia. Ibis 139: 178–180. Google Scholar

16.

J. Kloskowski 1999. Prolonged incubation of unhatchable eggs in Red-necked Grebes (Podiceps grisegena). J. Ornithol. 140: 101–104. Google Scholar

17.

A. Margalida , B. E. Arroyo , G. R. Bortolotti , J. Bertran 2006a. Prolonged incubation in raptors: adaptive or nonadaptive behavior? J. Raptor Res. 40: 159–163. Google Scholar

18.

A. Margalida , J. Bertran 2000. Breeding behaviour of the Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus: minimal sexual differences in parental activities. Ibis 142: 225–234. Google Scholar

19.

A. Margalida , J. Bertran 2002. First replacement clutch by a polyandrous trio of Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) in the Spanish Pyrenees. J. Raptor Res. 36: 154–155. Google Scholar

20.

A. Margalida , J. Bertran , J. Boudet , R. Heredia 2004. Hatching asynchrony, sibling aggression and cannibalism in the Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus. Ibis 146: 386–393. Google Scholar

21.

A. Margalida , S. Ecolan , J. Boudet , J. Bertran , J. M. Martinez , R. Heredia 2006b. A solar-powered transmitting video camera for monitoring cliff-nesting raptors. J. Field Ornithol. 77: 7–12. Google Scholar

22.

A. Margalida , D. García , J. Bertran , R. Heredia 2003. Breeding biology and success of the Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus in the eastern Pyrenees. Ibis 145: 244–252. Google Scholar

23.

J. S. Marks 1983. Prolonged incubation by a Long-eared Owl. J. Field Ornithol. 54: 199–200. Google Scholar

24.

J. A. Nilsson , H. G. Smith 1988. Incubation feeding as a male tactic for early hatching. Anim. Behav. 36: 641–647. Google Scholar

25.

G. L. Nuechterlein , D. Buitron 2002. Nocturnal egg neglect and prolonged incubation in the Red-necked Grebe. Waterbirds 25: 485–491. Google Scholar

26.

J. Pefaur 1974. Egg-neglect in the Wilson's Storm Petrel. Wilson Bull. 86:16–22. Google Scholar

27.

C. Rauter , H.-U. Reyer 1997. Incubation pattern and foraging effort in female Water Pipit Anthus spinoletta. Ibis 139: 441–446. Google Scholar

28.

J. M. Reid , P. Monaghan , R. G. Nager 2002. Incubation and the costs of reproduction. In: D. C. Deeming (ed.). Avian incubation. Behaviour, environment, and evolution. Oxford Univ. Press, pp. 314–325. Google Scholar

29.

A. F. Skutch 1962. The constancy of incubation. Wilson Bull. 74: 115–152. Google Scholar
Antoni Margalida and Joan Bertran "Prolonged Incubation of Non-Viable Eggs in the Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus," Acta Ornithologica 41(2), 181-184, (1 December 2006). https://doi.org/10.3161/068.041.0204
Received: 1 June 2006; Accepted: 1 October 2006; Published: 1 December 2006
JOURNAL ARTICLE
4 PAGES


Share
SHARE
KEYWORDS
Bearded Vulture
birds of prey
energy constraints
Gypaetus barbatus
prolonged incubation
unhatchable eggs
RIGHTS & PERMISSIONS
Get copyright permission
Back to Top