A Pied Flycatcher population breeding in nest-boxes in a Karelia forest was studied from 1981 to 2007. Breeding density varied between 47.3 and 94.6 pairs/km2. The density of the breeding population was influenced by three demographic factors: maximum summer population density in the previous season, male return rate and immigration rate. Three relatively independent processes play a significant part in the population dynamics of the study area: 1) initial abundance and reproductive intensity, 2) survival rate between breeding seasons, and 3) redistribution of birds across their range. The weather in spring, when the birds arrive and settle, was found to be equally important. The population density, nest site fidelity of adults and yearlings, and immigration rate were related to temperature patterns in May. It may be assumed that the spring weather influences the birds' survival and their distribution across the northern part of their range, as well as the participation of one-year old birds in breeding.
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