Here we describe the first record of a chalicothere from the Miocene of Myanmar. The chalicothere, documented by a partial mandible, was unearthed from the lower portion of the Irrawaddy Formation in the region of Magway, Central Myanmar. The Burmese material belongs to an early late Miocene fauna which recently yielded hominoid remains attributed to Khoratpithecus. The specimen, which is attributed to a chalicotheriine, does not reliably match with any described Miocene Eurasian species of this subfamily, suggesting the possibility it belongs to a new taxon. The discovery of a chalicotheriine in the surroundings of Magway contributes to the hypothesis that closed habitats were an important component of the paleoenvironment of Khoratpithecus.
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Vol. 55 • No. 1