Current trends in global honeybee population changes have been linked to drastic declines in honeybee populations caused by complex interactions between pathogens, arthropod pests such as Varroa, pesticides, honeybee stress and habitat loss. Although substantial information exists for this sudden decline in honeybee populations in Europe and North America, in Africa the effect of this threat continues to draw debate. Despite recent reports showing the presence of V. destructor mites across the continent, knowledge on pathogens associated with bees and this mite in various parts of the continent is scanty. This review provides a comprehensive update on the documented diversity and geographic distribution of honeybee pathogens and points to the need of further information on these constraints of honeybee health.
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Vol. 22 • No. 3