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1 September 2016 Characteristics of Larval Breeding Sites and Insecticide Resistance in the Anopheles gambiae Complex in Mpumalanga, South Africa
C. Davies, M. Coetzee, C.L. Lyons
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The larval breeding sites of anopheline mosquitoes in eastern Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, were investigated. Using abiotic parameter data collected in the field, environmental conditions that correlate with larval community composition and productivity are reported. Twelve anopheline species were identified, with the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) ranking as the second most abundant. There was a significant difference in the mean abundance of each species of anopheline from each of the geographically separate breeding sites (Kruskal-WallisANOVA, P<0.05, d.f.= 6,H2 = 17.09). Anopheles merus Dönitz showed a significant positive correlation with salinity (Pearson's product moment, r = 0.971, P < 0.05). Habitats such as rain puddles, hoof prints and residual pools left after rivers recede were important breeding sites and these were characteristically short-lived, and fully or partially sunlit. Anopheles gambiae complex members from the breeding sites surveyed during this study were completely susceptible to the insecticides bendiocarb and deltamethrin that are used for vector control in the area, while An. merus showed possible resistance to DDT according to WHO criteria (<98 % mortality). Larval control operations should include all available breeding sites and focus efforts during the dry season when these areas are discrete.

©Entomological Society of Southern Africa
C. Davies, M. Coetzee, and C.L. Lyons "Characteristics of Larval Breeding Sites and Insecticide Resistance in the Anopheles gambiae Complex in Mpumalanga, South Africa," African Entomology 24(2), 421-431, (1 September 2016).
Accepted: 1 November 2015; Published: 1 September 2016

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Anopheles arabiensis
Anopheles merus
Anopheles quadriannulatus
breeding sites
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