Translator Disclaimer
30 June 2015 Revision of the Afrotropical Species of Deinodryinus Perkins, 1907 (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae), with Description of a New Species from Madagascar
Author Affiliations +
Abstract

The Afrotropical species of Deinodryinus Perkins, 1907 are revised and in part redescribed. A new species, D. sofiensis, is described from Sofia District, Mahajanga Province, Madagascar. A new key to the females and males of the Afrotropical species of Deinodryinus is presented.

INTRODUCTION

The Dryinidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea) are parasitoids of auchenorrhynchan Hemiptera (Guglielmino & Bückle 2003, 2010; Guglielmino et al. 2006, 2013; Guglielmino & Olmi 1997, 2006, 2007; Guglielmino et al. 2013; Guglielmino & Virla 1998; Mangione & Virla 2004; Virla & Mangione 2000).

Among the Dryinidae, the genus Deinodryinus Perkins, 1907 (Anteoninae) is one of the most interesting from a biological perspective. Species of Deinodryinus are known to parasitise hosts belonging to the Cicadellidae (Guglielmino & Olmi 2006, 2007). They form a typical larval cyst (=thylacium) situated dorsally between the head and pronotum (Fig. 39).

Deinodryinus is a cosmopolitan genus originally proposed for one species, D. paradoxus Perkins, 1907, inhabiting Arizona (USA). Since then, around 154 species have been described from all continents (Xu et al. 2013) and the genus revised by Olmi (1984). In recent years many new species have been described and a new monograph of world species is now needed.

Species of Afrotropical Deinodryinus were studied mainly by Olmi (1984, 1987b , 1991, 1994, 1998, 2004, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2010). In recent years we have examined specimens of Madagascan Deinodryinus and found a new species, described herein.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The descriptions follow the terminology used by Olmi (1984), Olmi and Guglielmino (2010) and Xu et al. (2011, 2012, 2013). The terms used to define each type of sculpture are those proposed by Olmi (1984). The measurements reported are relative, except for the total length (head to abdominal tip, without the antennae), which is expressed in millimetres.

In the descriptions, POL is the distance between the inner edges of the lateral ocelli; OL — between the inner edges of a lateral ocellus and the median ocellus; OOL — from the outer edge of a lateral ocellus to the compound eye; OPL — from the posterior edge of a lateral ocellus to the occipital carina, and TL — from the posterior edge of an eye to the occipital carina.

In figures, male genitalia usually have the right half removed.

The types of all Afrotropical Deinodryinus species were examined as part of the revision. The material studied in this paper are deposited in the following collections:

Glossary

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA;

BMNH

The Natural History Museum, London, UK;

CAS

California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California, USA;

CNC

Canadian National Collection of Insects, Ottawa, Canada;

DETAM

Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA;

FAG

Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques de l'État, Gembloux, Belgium;

MNHN

Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris, France;

OLM

Department of Plant Protection, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy (Massimo Olmi's collection);

MRAC

Musée royal de l'Afrique centrale, Tervuren, Belgium;

SANC

South African National Collection of Insects, Pretoria, South Africa;

NMNW

Namibian National Insect Collection, Windhoek, Namibia;

SAMC

Iziko South African Museum, Cape Town, South Africa;

USNM

National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA;

MZLU

Lund Museum of Zoology, Lund, Sweden.

TAXONOMY

Family Dryinidae Haliday, 1833
Subfamily Anteoninae Perkins, 1912
Genus Deinodryinus Perkins, 1907

  • Deinodryinus Perkins, 1907: 45; Kieffer 1914: 138; Olmi 1984: 118; Olmi 1999: 96; He & Xu 2002: 98; Virla & Olmi 2008: 369; Moya-Raygoza & Olmi 2010: 91; Olmi et al. 2010: 30; Xu et al. 2013: 201.

  • Trisanteon Kieffer, 1913: 300 (synonymized by Olmi 1984); type species: Trisanteon hirticornis (Kieffer, 1911), by monotypy and original designation; Kieffer 1914: 196.

  • Electrodryinus Ponomarenko, 1975: 126 (synonymized by Olmi 1984); type species: Electrodryinus areolatus Ponomarenko, 1975, by monotypy.

  • Prioranteon Olmi, 1984: 589 (synonymized by Olmi 2007); type species: Prioranteon casalei Olmi, 1984, by original designation; Olmi 1999: 148.

  • Type species: Deinodryinus paradoxus Perkins, 1907, designated by Muesebeck and Walkley 1951.

  • Diagnosis: Female: macropterous, or micropterous; palpal formula 6/3; occipital carina complete; vertex of head frequently with two strong oblique keels connecting posterior ocelli to occipital carina; pronotum with distinct anterior collar and posterior disc; in macropterous females, forewing usually with distal part of stigmal vein longer than proximal part, less frequently as long as, or shorter than proximal part; enlarged claw with inner proximal prominence not bearing bristles, with 1–2 bristles or peg-like hairs located further distally than proximal prominence; tibial spurs 1/1/2. Male: always macropterous (even with female micropterous); palpal formula 6/3; vertex of head frequently with two strong oblique keels connecting posterior ocelli to occipital carina; antennal hairs usually much longer than breadth of segments, less frequently shorter than breadth of segments; fore wing usually with distal part of stigmal vein longer than proximal part, less frequently as long as, or shorter than proximal part; fore wing pterostigma commonly four or more times as long as broad; paramere without dorsal process, usually with one, more or less large, inner branch wrapping the penis, less frequently with one reduced inner branch; tibial spurs 1/1/2.

  • Distribution: Worldwide.

  • Hosts: Cicadellidae (Guglielmino et al. 2013).

  • World species: Presently with 155 known species (Olmi & Virla 2014), of which 23 are from the Afrotropical Region.

  • Remarks: Fossil species of Deinodryinus were described by Ponomarenko (1975), Olmi et al. (2010), and Guglielmino and Olmi (2011).

  • Key to the Afrotropical species of Deinodryinus
    Females (species with females unknown are absent)

    1 Micropterous (Figs 40, 41) 2

    — Macropterous 6

    2 Posterior surface of propodeum transversely striate richardsi (Olmi)

    — Posterior surface of propodeum reticulate rugose, not transversely striate 3

    3 Anterior surface of propodeum shiny, smooth, unsculptured casalei (Olmi)

    — Anterior surface of propodeum reticulate rugose or granulated 4

    4 Anterior surface of propodeum granulated capensis Olmi

    — Anterior surface of propodeum reticulate rugose 5

    5 Mesosoma completely yellow-testaceous; enlarged claw with one peg-like lamella (Fig. 21) paulyi (Olmi)

    — Mesosoma mostly black or almost completely black; enlarged claw with two bristles (Fig. 23) prinslooi (Olmi)

    6 Posterior surface of pronotum with sharp lateral margins (Figs 5, 6) 7

    — Posterior suface of pronotum with rounded lateral margins 10

    7 Pronotum with strong constriction between prothorax and mesothorax (Fig. 5); face sculptured by three median longitudinal keels (frontal line and two lateral keels running from posterior ocelli to antennal toruli) guineensis Olmi

    — Pronotum without strong constriction between prothorax and mesothorax (Fig. 9); face with only one complete or incomplete frontal line, without lateral keels 8

    8 Head strongly punctate, unsculptured among punctae, with anterior third of face rugose orangeanus Olmi

    — Head completely reticulate rugose, or at most with vertex not reticulate rugose 9

    9 Notauli reaching approximately 0.65 × length of scutum; head completely reticulate rugose insulanus (Benoit)

    — Notauli reaching approximately 0.90x length of scutum; head with face completely reticulate rugose except for vertex which is punctate and unsculptured among punctae pulcher Olmi

    10 Antennal segment 3 approximately twice as long as segment 2; segment 5 of protarsus bearing small lamellae, some of which longer than others (Fig. 16) madecassus (Benoit)

    — Antennal segment 3 about three or more times as long as segment 2 11

    11 Segment 5 of protarsus bearing lamellae of approximately same length (Fig. 1); species mostly black benoiti Olmi

    — Segment 5 of protarsus bearing small lamellae, some of which longer than others (Fig. 15); species mostly testaceous-reddish madagascariensis (Benoit)

    Males (species with males unknown are absent)

    1 Propodeum with transverse keel between dorsal and posterior surface (Figs 25, 31) 2

    — Propodeum without transverse keel between dorsal and posterior surface 6

    2 Paramere much shorter than penis (Fig. 19) namorokensis Olmi

    — Paramere about as long as penis (Figs 18, 26, 32, 38) 3

    3 Dorsal surface of propodeum much reduced; keel between dorsal and posterior surface of propodeum situated quite close to anterior margin of propodeum(Fig. 25); distal part of stigmal vein slightly longer than proximal part pulcher Olmi

    — Dorsal surface of propodeum distinct and large; keel between dorsal and posterior surface of propodeum situated far from anterior margin of propodeum (Fig. 31); distal part of stigmal vein much shorter than proximal part 4

    4 Posterior surface of propodeum without longitudinal keels sabaeus Olmi & Van Harten

    — Posterior surface of propodeum with two complete longitudinal keels 5

    5 Head granulated and reticulate rugose monticolus Olmi

    — Head punctate, misculptured among punctae umtamvunensis Olmi

    6 Paramere much shorter than penis (Fig. 19) namorokensis Olmi

    — Paramere about as long as penis (Figs 4, 8, 12, 17, 22, 28, 33, 34, 37) 7

    7 Paramere with inner proximal branch wrapping penis (Figs 4, 22); distal part of stigmal vein much shorter than proximal part 8

    — Paramere with 1–2 inner distal branches wrapping penis or not (Figs 8, 12, 17, 28, 33, 34, 37); distal part of stigmal vein longer than, or as long as proximal part 9

    8 Proximal inner branch of paramere narrow (Fig. 22) paulyi (Olmi)

    — Proximal inner branch of paramere broad (Fig. 4) danielssoni Olmi

    9 Paramere with small distal branch (Figs 1214) irreptus Olmi

    — Paramere with 1–2 large distal branches (Figs 8, 17, 28–30, 3337) 10

    10 Paramere with two distal branches wrapping penis (Figs 8, 33) and volsellae situated between these two branches 11

    — Paramere with one distal branch wrapping penis (Figs 17, 28–30, 3437) 12

    11 Posterior surface of propodeum dull, reticulate rugose; inner distal branch of paramere with distal apex small (Fig. 8) harinhalai Olmi

    — Posterior surface of propodeum rugose, with central shiny, smooth, unsculptured area; inner distal branch of paramere with distal apex notably large (Fig. 33) sofiensis Olmi, sp. n.

    12 Distal branch of paramere wrapping penis hatchet blade shaped (Fig. 17) madecassus (Benoit)

    — Distal branch of paramere wrapping penis not hatchet blade shaped (Figs 28–30, 3437) 13

    13 Head shiny, quite finely punctate; inner side of paraniere not sculptured by papillae (Fig. 37) suavis Olmi

    — Head strongly punctate, with punctae large, deep and similar to areolae; inner side of paramere broadly sculptured by papillae (Figs 28–30, 34) 14

    14 Distal branch of paramere wrapping penis, curved, markedly long and slender (Figs 28–30) rusticus Olmi

    — Distal branch of paramere wrapping penis not curved, short and broad (Figs 34–36) steineri Olmi

    Deinodryinus benoiti Olmi, 1984
    Fig. 1

  • Deinodryinus benoiti Olmi, 1984: 129; 1994: 10.

  • Redescription:

  • Female.

  • Macropterous; body length 6.6 mm. Colour. Head black, except mandible, clypeus and anterior region of face (mainly along orbits) testaceous; antenna testaceous, except segments 9–10 brown; mesosoma black, except margins of pronotum and distal apex of propodeum testaceous; tegula testaceous; petiole black; metasoma black, except segment 1 mostly testaceous; legs testaceous-reddish, except club distal region of fore- and hmdfemur brown. Antenna filiform; antennal segments in the following proportions : 18:7:30:19:16: 14:13:12:12:17. Head shiny, smooth, punctate, unsculptured among punctae; face anteriorly strongly punctate, without lateral keels; frontal line incomplete; occipital carina complete; POL=6; OL=5; OOL=12; OPL=13; TL=9. Pronotum shiny, smooth, finely punctate, with transverse keels, crossed by transverse impression separating anterior collar from posterior disc; lateral margin of posterior surface of pronotum rounded; pronotal tubercle reaching tegula. Scutum, scutellum and metanotum shiny, smooth, finely punctate, unsculptured among punctae. Notauli incomplete, reaching approximately 0.65× length of scutum. Propodeum with dorsal surface reticulate rugose, without transverse keel between dorsal and posterior surface. Forewing hyaline, with three dark transverse bands; distal part of stigmal vein longer than proximal part (18:13). Protarsal segments in the following proportions: 15:5:10:32:48. Enlarged claw (Fig. 1) with one bristle situated further distally than proximal prominence. Segment 5 of protarsus (Fig. 1) with two rows of approximately 90 lamellae (all roughly the same length); distal apex with about eight lamellae. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

  • Male. Unknown.

  • Holotype (examined): ♀ MADAGASCAR: Toamasina, Périnet, 19.xii.1955, in forest, E. McC. Callan (BMNH).

  • Distribution: Madagascar.

  • Hosts: Unknown.

  • Deinodryinus capensis Olmi, 2007
    Fig. 2

  • Deinodryinus capensis Olmi, 2007: 206.

  • Redescription:

  • Female.

  • Micropterous, with forewing much reduced, reaching transverse furrow behind metanotum, slightly longer than scutellum (6:5); length 3.2–4.2 mm. Holotype testaceous, with antennal segments 8–10, ocellar area, prosternum, lateral regions of pronotum, posterior half of metasoma darkened; scutum, metanotum, transverse furrow behind metanotum, posterior half of propodeum and petiole black; mesopleuron and metapleuron partly darkened; legs testaceous, except mid- and hindcoxae and club of hindfemur darkened. In two paratypes from Kogelberg Nature Reserve colour broadly darkened or black (head testaceous, except ocellar region darkened; mesosoma black, with propleuron, disc and posterior collar of pronotum, scutellum, part of mesopleuron testaceous; metasoma partly testaceous and partly darkened or brown). Antenna clavate; antennal segments in the following proportions: 7:5:15:11:10:8:7.5:7:6:9.5 (holotype), 7:3:12.5:9:7:7:6:6:5:6.5 (paratype). Head shiny, smooth, slightly granulated; occipital carina complete; frontal line absent; face with slender longitudinal furrow from anterior ocellus to clypeus; anterior region of face with tuft of long hair. Head of holotype with POL=2; OL=3; OOL=8.5; OPL=5; TL=10; greatest diameter of posterior ocelli as long as POL. Head of paratype with POL=2; OL=2; OOL=7; OPL=4.5; TL=9; greatest diameter of posterior ocelli slightly shorter than POL (1.5:2). Pronotum shiny, smooth, unsculptured, not crossed by transverse impressions, with short anterior collar; pronotal tubercle reaching tegula. Scutum much reduced, rugose. Notauli present, posteriorly joint. Scutellum and metanotum shiny, smooth, unsculptured. Propodeum dull, with strong anterior transverse and rugose furrow situated behind metanotum; anterior surface of propodeum granulated; posterior surface of propodeum reticulate rugose. Mesopleuron and metapleuron granulated, dull, with few transverse keels. Meso-metapleural suture distinct and complete. Mesopleuron with tuft of long hairs situated on sides of transverse furrow behind metanotum. Protarsal segments of holotype in following proportions: 10:2:5:13:22. Protarsal segments of paratype in following proportions: 9:2:4:10:17. Enlarged claw (Fig. 2) with two peg-like lamellae situated further distally than proximal prominence. Segment 5 of protarsus (Fig. 2) with two rows of about 23–32 lamellae; distal apex with about 4 lamellae, among which one is quite long. Tibial spurs 1/1/2. Male. Unknown.

  • Holotype (examined): ♀ SOUTH AFRICA: Western Cape: Walker Bay Nature Reserve, 34°27.41'S 19°21.39′E, 29.xi-26.xii.1997, yellow pan trap, S. van Noort & B. Fisher (SAMC).

  • Paratypes (examined): SOUTH AFRICA: Western Cape: 1♀ Kogelberg Nature Reserve, 34°15′S 19°05′E, 16.xii.1999–16.i.2000, pitfall trap, S. van Noort(SAMC); 1♀ same locality, 16.iv.1999, S. van Noort (OLM).

  • Distribution: South Africa.

  • Hosts: Unknown.

  • Deinodryinus casalei (Olmi, 1984)
    Figs 3, 40, 41

  • Prioranteon casalei Olmi, 1984: 596; 2006: 40.

  • Deinodryinus casalei: Olmi 2007: 207.

  • Redescription:

  • Female.

  • Micropterous (Figs 40, 41), with fore wing much reduced, approximately as long as scutellum, reaching transverse furrow behind scutellum (Fig. 40); length 3.2–4.0 mm. Head black, except mandible testaceous and gena, clypeus and frontal longitudinal median area yellowish (occasionally only anterior margin of face near clypeus yellowish); antenna brown, except segments 1–2 partly testaceous; mesosoma black, except posterior collar and lateral margins of pronotum testaceous; tegula testaceous; metasoma brownreddish; legs brown, except trochanters, articulations and tarsi testaceous. Antenna clavate; antennal segments in the following proportions: 8:5:13:9:8:7:5:6:5:9. Head shiny, slightly punctate, unsculptured among punctae; mandible with four teeth progressing larger from anterior one to posterior; occipital carina complete; face usually with long longitudinal median furrow from anterior ocellus to clypeus (occasionally furrow reduced to small impression); POL=3.5; OOL=9; OPL=5; TL=8. Pronotum shiny, smooth, with sides finely punctate; anterior disc of pronotum overly long and humped; posterior transverse impression separating disc from posterior collar narrower than disc; posterior margin of collar almost straight, reaching tegulae, without posterior lobes directed towards tegulae. Scutum hollow, rugose, much reduced, approximately as long as posterior collar of pronotum. Scutellum shiny, smooth, humped, unsculptured, approximately as long and as broad as scutum. Metanotum not visible. Metathorax + propodeum humped, separated from scutellum by transverse hollow impression, transversely carinate; anterior surface of metathorax + propodeum shiny, smooth, unsculptured; posterior surface of metathorax + propodeum dull, reticulate rugose. Meso-metapleural suture distinct, strong, complete. Mesopleuron and metapleuron dull, granulated, with fine transverse keels. Protarsal segments in following proportions: 9:2:5:12:21. Segment 2 of protarsus produced into small hook. Enlarged claw (Fig. 3) with two bristles situated further distally than proximal prominence. Segment 5 of protarsus (Fig. 3) with one row of about 33 lamellae; distal apex with approximately three lamellae. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

  • Male. Unknown.

  • Holotype (examined): ♀ SOUTH AFRICA: Western Cape: near Cape Town, Milnerton, ii.1926, R.E. Turner (BMNH).

  • Paratypes (examined): 6♀ same data as holotype (BMNH); 1♀ same locality as holotype, i.1926 (BMNH); 4♀ same data as holotype (AMNH).

  • Other material examined, 1♀ SOUTH AFRICA: Eastern Cape: N. of Matatiele. 20 mi. from Quacha's Nek, (MZLU).

  • Distribution: South Africa.

  • Hosts: Unknown.

  • Figs 1–3.

    (1) Deinodryinus benoiti Olmi, holotype – chela; (2) D. capensis Olmi, holotype — chela; (3) D. casalei (Olmi), holotype — chela. Scale bar = (1) 0.28 mm; (2, 3) 0.14 mm.

    f01_229.jpg

    Deinodryinus danielssoni Olmi, 1998
    Fig. 4

  • Deinodryinus danielssoni Olmi, 1998: 37; 2006: 36.

  • Redescription:

  • Male.

  • Macropterous; length 1.9–3.1 mm. Head black, except clypeus brown and mandible partly brown and testaceous; head occasionally brown; antenna brown; mesosoma black, occasionally brown; metasoma brown; legs brown, except articulations, stalks of femora and part of tibiae and tarsi testaceous. Antenna filiform, hairy; antennal segments in the following proportions: 8:5:9:9:9:9:8:8:7:9. Head convex, shiny, finely punctate, unsculptured among punctae; frontal line absent; occipital carina complete; POL=7; OL=3; OOL=5.5; OPL=3; TL=5. Occasionally head punctate and slightly granulated. Scutum, scutellum and metanotum shiny, quite finely punctate, unsculptured among punctae. Occasionally scutum slightly rugose near posterior margin. Notauli incomplete, reaching approximately 0.6x length of scutum. Propodeum reticulate rugose, without longitudinal or transverse keels. Forewing hyaline, without dark transverse bands; distal part of stigmal vein shorter than proximal part (2:7 in holotype; 3.5:8 in paratype); pterostigma less than four times as long as broad; veins surrounding BC and SBC cells generally as pigmented as veins surrounding CC cell, occasionally less pigmented. Paramere (Fig. 4) about as long as penis, with inner broad proximal branch wrapping penis. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

  • Female. Unknown.

  • Holotype (examined): ♀ SOUTH AFRICA: Western Cape: Koopmanskloof, 10 km S Citrusdal, 32°40′S 19°01′E, 200–270 m, Malaise trap, 4-8.X.1994, loc. 6, R. Danielsson (MZLU).

  • Paratype (examined): 1♂ SOUTH AFRICA: Western Cape: Cape Peninsula, Hout Bay, Skoorsteenkop, xii.1950, n. 78, Swedish South Africa Expedition, 1950–1951, Brinck-Rudebeck, Insect trap (AMNH).

  • Other material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Western Cape: Kogelberg Nature Reserve, parasitized host collected 17.i.2003, dryinid larva pupated 30.i.2003, dryinid adult emergence 16.ii.2003, reared from an adult of Colistra parvulus (Linnavuori) feeding on Berzelia lanuginosa (Bruniaceae), M. Olmi reared, (OLM); 5♂ Walker Bay Nature Reserve, 34°27.41′S 19°21.39′E, 4.x-1.xi.1997, 29.xi-26.xii.1997, 8.iv-16.v.1998, yellow pan trap, S. van Noort & B. Fisher (SAMC); 21♂ same locality, 11.viii-6.ix.1997, S. van Noort, (20 SAMC, 1 OLM); 2♂ same locality, 17-31.v.1997, Malaise trap, S. van Noort (SAMC).

  • Distribution: South Africa.

  • Hosts: Cicadellidae (Guglielmino & Olmi 2006), South Africa (Kogelberg Nature Reserve): Colistra parvulus (Linnavuori) (M. Stiller det.).

  • Biology: In the only parasitized host collected in Kogelberg Nature Reserve (South Africa), the larval thylacium was situated in the dorsal side between the head and pronotum. This position is typical of Deinodryinus species.

  • Deinodryinus guineensis Olmi, 1998
    Figs 57

  • Deinodryinus guineensis Olmi, 1998: 39.

  • Redescription:

  • Female.

  • Macropterous; length 3.4 mm. Head black, except lateral margins, anterior surface of face, part of vertex, temple, mandible and anterior half of clypeus brown-reddish; antenna testaceous, except segments 5–7 darkened and segments 8–10 brown; mesosoma brown-reddish, with mesopleuron, metapleuron, metanotum and propodeum black; metasoma brown; legs brown-reddish. Antenna clavate; antennal segments in the following proportions: 12:5:8:6:3:5:6:6:5:9. Head shiny, with face sculptured by three median longitudinal keels (complete frontal line + two keels from posterior ocelli and to antennal toruli); surface among and on sides of frontal keels sculptured by strong transverse subparallel keels; vertex and temple punctate and unsculptured among punctae; occipital carina complete; area behind posterior ocelli sculptured by two oblique keels connecting posterior ocelli to occipital carina; POL=6; OL=4; OOL=8; OPL=6.5; TL= 8. Pronotum shiny, hairy, punctate, unsculptured among punctae, crossed by one strong transverse impression (Fig. 6); disc ovoidal, flat and surrounded by sharp margin (Figs 5, 6); pronotum with strong constriction between prothorax and mesothorax (Fig. 5); pronotal tubercle reaching tegula. Scutum and scutellum shiny, smooth, hairy, finely punctate, unsculptured among punctae. Notauli absent. Metanotum shiny, smooth, unsculptured. Propodeum with strong transverse keel between dorsal and posterior surface; dorsal surface reticulate rugose; posterior surface without longitudinal keels, reticulate rugose, except median smooth and unsculptured area; median area with few irregular keels near anterior margin. Forewing with two dark transverse bands; distal part of stigmal vein much shorter than proximal part (3:7). Protarsal segments in following proportions: 6:2:6:11:24. Protarsal segment 2 produced into hook. Enlarged claw (Fig. 7) with one long bristle situated further distally than proximal prominence. Segment 5 of protarsus (Fig. 7) with two rows of 3 + 28 lamellae; distal apex with about 4 lamellae. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

  • Male. Unknown.

  • Holotype (examined): ♀ GUINEA: Mt. Nimba, Gouan River, 07°42′N 08°23′W, 514 m, 7-15.1991, FIT rainforest, L. Leblanc (CNC).

  • Distribution: Guinea.

  • Hosts: Unknown.

  • Figs 4–6.

    (4) Deinodryinus danielssoni Olmi — male genitalia from South Africa, Skoorsteenkop; (5, 6) D. guineensis Olmi, holotype — (5) dorsal and (6) lateral views of pronotum. Scale bar = (4) 0.12mm; (5, 6) 0.63 mm.

    f04_229.jpg

    Deinodryinus harinhalai Olmi, 2010
    Fig. 8

  • Deinodryinus harinhalai Olmi, 2010: 57.

  • Redescription:

  • Male.

  • Macropterous; length 2.4 mm. Head black, except mandible testaceous; antenna testaceous; mesosoma and metasoma black; legs testaceous, except metacoxa partly brown. Antenna filiform, with hairs shorter than breadth of segments; antennal segments in the following proportions: 9:4:8:6:5.5:5.5:5.5:5.5:5.5:8. Head shiny, strongly punctate, unsculptured among punctae; frontal line absent; occipital carina complete; POL=7; OL=4; OOL=4.5; OPL=2.5; TL=4; greatest breadth of posterior ocelli shorter than OL (3:4). Scutum shiny, as sculptured as head. Notauli incomplete, reaching approximately 0.6x length of scutum. Scutellum shiny, punctate, unsculpured among punctae. Metanotum shiny, smooth, unsculptured. Propodeum dull, reticulate rugose, without transverse keel between dorsal and posterior surface; posterior surface completely reticulate rugose, without longitudinal or transverse keels. Forewing hyaline, without dark transverse bands; distal part of stigmal vein slightly longer than proximal part (12:8). Paramere (Fig. 8) about as long as penis, with two large and long distal inner branches, one of them with few papillae situated mainly on inner margin; second branch with mosaic sculpture; volsellae situated between above two branches; inner apical branch of paramere with distal apex small. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

  • Female. Unknown.

  • Holoty pe (examined): ♂ MADAGASCAR: Fianarantsoa, Ranomafana National Park, Vohiparara, 21°13.57'S 47°22.19′E, at broken bridge, 1110 m, 22-28.xi.2001, Malaise trap in high altitude rainforest, R. Harin'Hala (CAS).

  • Distribution: Madagascar.

  • Hosts: Unknown.

  • Deinodryinus insulanus (Benoit, 1954)
    Figs 9–11

  • Prenanteon insulanum Benoit, 1954: 419.

  • Deinodryinus insulanus: Olmi 1984: 124; 1994: 9; 1998: 40, 42.

  • Redescription:

  • Female.

  • Macropterous; length 5.0–5.6 mm. Testaceous-reddish, except ocellar triangle black, petiole black, metasoma partly brown and antennal segments 8–10 darkened. Antenna clavate; antennal segments in the following proportions: 18:5:18:10:8:8:9:9:9:11. Head shiny, strongly reticulate rugose; frontal line present; ocellar triangle convex, with keels among ocelli; occipital carina complete; POL=5; OL=3; OOL=10; OPL=10; TL=8. Pronotum (Figs 9, 10) shiny, strongly punctate, with transverse keels, crossed by transverse impression separating anterior collar from posterior disc; lateral margins of posterior surface of pronotum sharp; pronotal tubercle reaching tegula. Scutum shiny, smooth, strongly punctate, unsculptured among punctae. Notauli incomplete, reaching approximately 0.65× length of scutum. Scutellum shiny, smooth, finely punctate, unsculptured among punctae. Metanotum shiny, smooth, unsculptured, with anterior margin strongly convex and raised into carina. Mesopleuron and metapleuron rugose, with fine keels; occasionally mesopleuron and metapleuron shiny, punctate, unsculptured among punctae; occasionally anterior half of mesopleuron quite hairy. Propodeum with dorsal surface reticulate rugose, without transverse keel between dorsal and posterior surface; posterior surface without longitudinal keels, reticulate rugose, except for central smooth area. Forewing entirely darkened, or with two dark transverse bands; distal part of stigmal vein longer than proximal part (11:7). Protarsal segments in following proportions: 10:4:6:11:26. Segment 2 of protarsus produced into hook. Enlarged claw (Fig. 11) with one bristle situated further distally than proximal prominence. Segment 5 of protarsus (Fig. 11) with 2–3 rows of approximately 27 lamellae (all about same length); distal apex with about six lamellae, among which one much longer than others. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

  • Male. Unknown.

  • Holotype (examined): ♀ MADAGASCAR: Toamasina, Ivondro, v.1940, A. Seyrig (MNHN).

  • Paratype (examined): ♀ MADAGASCAR: Antananarivo, La Mandraka, iv.1944, A. Seyrig (MRAC).

  • Other material examined: MADAGASCAR: 1♀ Toamasina, Perinet, (AMNH); 2♀ Toamasina, Botanic garden near entrance to Andasibe National Park, 18°55.58′S 48°24.47′E, 1025 m, 1-7.xi.2001, Malaise trap, tropical forest, R. Harin'Hala (1 CAS, 1 OLM).

  • Distribution: Madagascar.

  • Hosts: Unknown.

  • Figs 7–12.

    (7) Deinodryinus guineensis Olmi, holotype — chela; (8) D. harinhalai, holotype — male genitalia; (9–11) D. insulanus (Benoit): (9–10) female from Madagascar, Permet — (9) dorsal and (10) lateral views of pronotum, (11) holotype — chela; (12) D. irreptus Olmi, holotype — male genitalia. Scale bar = (7) 0.13 mm; (8) 0.17 mm; (9, 10) 1.3 mm; (11) 0.21 mm; (12) 0.11 mm.

    f07_229.jpg

    Deinodryinus irreptus Olmi, 1994
    Figs 1214

  • Deinodryinus irreptus Olmi, 1994: 6.

  • Redescription:

  • Male.

  • Macropterous; length 1.9–3.1 mm. Head black, except mandible testaceous; antenna brown; mesosoma black; metasoma brown; legs testaceous, except metacoxa partly brown, club of metafemur and metatibia partly darkened. Antenna filiform, with hairs shorter than breadth of segments; antennal segments in the following proportions: 6:4:5:5:4:4:4:4:4:7. Head shiny, quite strongly punctate, unsculptured among punctae (punctae mostly strong and close on face, similar to areolae); frontal line absent; occipital carina complete; POL=5; OL=3; OOL=4; OPL=3; TL=3. Scutum shiny, punctate, unsculptured among punctae (punctae well developed and dense near anterior margin of scutum). Notauli incomplete, reaching approximately 0.6x length of scutum. Scutellum and metanotum shiny, punctate, unsculptured among punctae. Propodeum reticulate rugose, without longitudinal or transverse keels. In specimen from Madagascar, 20°02.42′S 44°39.44′E, propodeum with two tracks of longitudinal keels on posterior surface (area between them rugose). Forewing hyaline, without dark transverse bands; distal part of stigmal vein slightly longer than proximal part (8:7). Paramere (Figs 1214) about as long as penis, with distal region broadened and with small inner distal branch not wrapping penis. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

  • Female. Unknown.

  • Holotype (examined): ♂ MADAGASCAR: Toliary, Bereboka, 60 km NE Morondava, Bereboka, 18-23.v.1983, J.S. Noyes & M.C. Day. B.M. 1983-201(BMNH).

  • Other material examined: MADAGASCAR: 4♂ Mahajanga: Tsingy de Bemaraha Nat. Park, 10.6 km ESE 123° Antsalova, 19°42.34′S 44°43.5′E, 150 m, 16-20.xi.2001, Malaise trap, tropical dry forest on Tsingy, Fisher, Griswold et al. (3 CAS, 1 OLM); 1♂ Toliary, Kirindy Forest, 15.5 km 64° ENE Marofandilla, 20°02.42′S 44°39.44′E. 100 m, 28.xi-3.xii.2001, Malaise trap in tropical dry forest, Fisher, Griswold et al. (CAS).

  • Distribution: Madagascar.

  • Hosts: Unknown.

  • Deinodryinus madagascariensis (Benoit, 1954)
    Fig. 15

  • Hirtanteon madagascariensis Benoit, 1954: 423.

  • Deinodryinus madagascariensis: Olmi 1984: 128; 1994: 10.

  • Redescription:

  • Female.

  • Macropterous; length 2.7–5.0 mm. Testaceous-reddish; antenna testaceous, except segments 3–10, or 5–10, or 6–10 brown; petiole black; metasoma totally testaceous, or partly brown. In small specimen (2.7 mm) from Madagascar, Ankarana, colour totally testaceous, except petiole black, metanotum brown and last antennae segment darkened. Antenna clavate; antennal segments in the following proportions : 12:7:25:10:8:8:8:8:8:11. Head shiny, with face quite strongly punctate and almost reticulate rugose; vertex and temple strongly punctate, not reticulate rugose; frontal line complete or incomplete (then present only on anterior half of face); occipital carina complete; ocellar triangle convex; POL=5; OL=4; OOL=13; OPL=12; TL=8. Pronotum shiny, smooth, strongly punctate, unsculptured among punctae, crossed by transverse impression separating anterior collar from posterior disc; lateral margins of posterior surface of pronotum rounded; pronotal tubercle reaching tegula. Scutum shiny, smooth, strongly punctate, unsculptured among punctae. Notauli incomplete, reaching approximately 0.4–0.5x length of scutum. Scutellum and metanotum shiny, smooth, unsculptured. Anterior margin of metanotum strongly convex and raised into carina. Mesopleuron strongly punctate, with tuft of hairs on anterior third. Metapleuron strongly punctate, not reticulate rugose. Propodeum with dorsal surface reticulate rugose, without transverse keel between dorsal and posterior surface; posterior surface without longitudinal keels, reticulate rugose, except central smooth area. In specimen from Madagascar, 24°39.13′S 43°59.48′E, posterior surface of propodeum with few transverse keels near posterior extremity; in small specimen (2.75 mm) from Madagascar, Ankarana, posterior surface of propodeum completely reticulate rugose. Forewing hyaline, with two dark transverse bands; distal part of stigmal vein longer than proximal part (12:9 in specimen from Madagascar, 24°39.13′S 43°59.48′E). Protarsal segments in following proportions: 11:4:7:16:30. Protarsus without segments produced into hook. Enlarged claw (Fig. 15) with one bristle situated further distally than proximal prominence. Segment 5 of protarsus (Fig. 15) with 2–3 rows of lamellae (about 30–40 small and 7–9 longer); distal apex with about 9–15 lamellae, among which one much longer than others and pointed. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

  • Male. Unknown.

  • Holotype (examined): ♀ MADAGASCAR: Antananarivo (=Tananarive), Ch. Lamberton (MRAC).

  • Other material examined: MADAGASCAR: 1♀ Diego-Suarez, Ankarana, ix. 1986, Malaise trap, Jane Wilson (BMNH); 1♀ Mahajanga: Tsimembo Forest, 8.7 km 336° NNW of Soatana, 19°01.17′S 44°26.26′E, 20 m, Malaise trap in tropical dry forest, 21-25.xi.2001, Fisher, Griswold et al. (CAS); 1♀ Toliary, Mahafaly Plateau, 6.2 km 74° ENE of Itampolo, 24°39.13′S 43°59.48′E, 80 m, Malaise trap, spiny forest thicket, 21-25.ii.2002, Fisher, Griswold et al. (OLM).

  • Distribution: Madagascar.

  • Hosts: Unknown.

  • Deinodryinus madecassus (Benoit, 1954)
    Figs 16, 17

  • Hirtanteon madecassum Benoit, 1954: 422.

  • Deinodryinus madecassus: Olmi 1984: 125; 1994: 10.

  • Redescriptions:

  • Female.

  • Macropterous; length 3.0–5.0 mm. Reddish-darkened; mandible testaceous, with teeth brown; antenna testaceous, except segments 7–10 brown; propodeum black; metasoma brown. Antenna clavate; antennal segments in the following proportions: 11:5: 11:6:6:6:6:6:5:7. Head shiny, strongly punctate, especially anterior region, unsculptured among punctae; occipital carina complete; POL=7; OL=5; OOL=9; OPL=7; TL=7. Pronotum shiny, smooth, strongly punctate, unsculptured among punctae, crossed by transverse impression separating anterior collar from posterior disc; lateral margins of posterior surface rounded; pronotal tubercle reaching tegula. Scutum shiny, smooth, finely punctate, unsculptured among punctae. Notauli incomplete, reaching approximately 0.65x length of scutum. Scutellum and metanotum shiny, smooth, finely punctate, unsculptured among punctae; anterior margin of metanotum shiny, smooth, unsculptured, with anterior margin strongly convex and raised into carina. Mesopleuron shiny, strongly punctate, with tuft of hairs on anterior third. Metapleuron partly smooth and unsculptured. Propodeum with dorsal surface reticulate rugose, without transverse keel between dorsal and posterior surface; posterior surface without longitudinal keels, reticulate rugose, except central smooth area. Forewing hyaline, with two dark transverse bands; distal part of stigmal vein longer than proximal part (14:8). Protarsal segments in following proportions: 8:3:4:8:19. Protarsus without segments produced into hook. Enlarged claw (Fig. 16) with one bristle situated further distally than proximal prominence. Segment 5 of protarsus (Fig. 16) with two rows of lamellae (about eight longer and 21 shorter); distal apex with about seven lamellae, among which one much longer than others. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

  • Male. (tentatively associated, not reared).

  • Macropterous; length 2.4 mm. Head black; mandible testaceous, with teeth brown; antenna brown, except segments 1–2 or only 1 testaceous; mesosoma black; tegula testaceous; metasoma brown; legs brown, except tarsi and meso- and metatibia testaceous; occasionally legs totally brown. Antenna filiform, with hairs at most as long as breadth of segments; antennal segments in the following proportions : 8:4:7:5:5:5:5:5:5:8. Head shiny, strongly punctate, unsculptured among punctae; frontal line incomplete, not present in front of anterior ocellus; occipital carina complete; POL=8; OL=4; OOL = 6; OPL = 5; TL=4. Scutum shiny, finely punctate, unsculptured among punctae. Notauli incomplete, reaching approximately 0.5–0.6x length of scutum. Scutellum shiny, punctate, unsculpured among punctae. Metanotum shiny, smooth, finely punctate, unsculptured among punctae. Propodeum dull, reticulate rugose, without transverse keel between dorsal and posterior surface; posterior surface completely reticulate rugose, or with more or less large central smooth area, occasionally situated near distal extremity. Forewing hyaline, without dark transverse bands; distal part of stigmal vein slightly longer than proximal part (10:9). Par amere (Fig. 17) about as long as penis, with large hatchet blade distal branch wrapping penis, without dorsal proximal membranous process. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

  • Holotype (examined): ♀ MADAGASCAR: Toliary, Bekily, x.1940, A. Seyrig (MNHN).

  • Allotype (examined): ♀ same locality as holotype, ix.1938, A. Seyrig (MRAC).

  • Paratypes (examined): all with the same locality as holotype: 1♀, vi.1936 (MNHN); 1♀, x.1936 (MNHN); 1♀, X.1938 (MNHN); ♀, iv.1938 (MRAC).

  • Other material examined: MADAGASCAR: 2♂ Fianarantsoa, Ranomafana National Park, Belle Vue at Talatakely, 21°15.99′S 47°25.21′E, 1020 m, 15-22.xi.2001, Malaise trap, secondary tropical forest, R. Harin'Hala (CAS); 1♂ Fianarantsoa, Ranomafana National Park, Vohiparara, 21°13.57′S 47°22.19′E, at broken bridge, 1110 m, 22-28.xi.2001, Malaise trap in high altitude rainforest, R. Harin'Hala (CAS); 1♂ Toliary, Andohahela National Park, 1.7 km 61° ENE of Tsimelahy, 36.1 km 308° NW of Tolagnaro, 24°55.48′S 46°38.44′E, 300 m, 16-20.i.2002, Malaise trap, in tropical dry forest, Fisher, Griswold et al. (CAS).

  • Distribution: Madagascar.

  • Hosts: Unknown.

  • Deinodryinus monticolus Olmi, 1984
    Fig. 18

  • Deinodryinus monticolus Olmi, 1984: 130.

  • Redescription:

  • Male.

  • Macropterous; length 2.4 mm. Head black; mandible testaceous; antenna brown; mesosoma and metasoma black; legs testaceous, except metacoxa and metafemur partly brown. Antenna filiform, with hairs at most as long as breadth of segments; antennal segments in the following proportions: 9:5:6:6:6:6:5.5:5:6:8. Head dull, granulated and reticulate rugose; frontal line present; occipital carina complete; POL=7; OL=3; OOL=5; OPL = 2; TL=3. Scutum shiny, hairy, finely punctate, unsculptured among punctae. Notauli incomplete, reaching approximately 0.5x length of scutum. Scutellum and metanotum shiny, smooth, finely punctate, unsculptured among punctae. Propodeum with strong transverse keel between dorsal and posterior surface; dorsal surface large, reticulate rugose; posterior surface with two longitudinal keels and with median and lateral areas reticulate rugose. Forewing hyaline, without dark transverse bands; distal part of stigmal vein much shorter than proximal part (3.5:8.5). Paramere (Fig. 18) with large distal branch wrapping penis, without dorsal proximal membranous process. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

  • Female. Unknown.

  • Holotype (examined): ♂ RWANDA: Kisenyi (=Gisenyi), Kayove, 2000 m, 14.ii.1953, P. Basilewsky (MRAC).

  • Distribution: Rwanda.

  • Hosts: Unknown.

  • Figs 13–18.

    (13, 14) Deinodryinus irreptus Olmi, distal apex of paramere of Madagascan male from (13) 19°42.34′S 44°43.5′E, (14) 20°02.42′S 44°39.44′E; (15) D. madagascariensis (Benoit), holotype - chela; (16, 17) D. madecassus (Benoit): (16) holotype — chela, (17) allotype — male genitalia; (18) D. monticolus Olmi, holotype — male genitalia. Scale bar = (13) 0.10 mm; (14) 0.11 mm; (15) 0.23 mm; (16, 18) 0.17 mm; (17) 0.13 mm.

    f13_229.jpg

    Deinodryinus namorokensis Olmi, 2010
    Fig. 19

  • Deinodryinus namorokensis Olmi, 2010: 59.

  • Redescription:

  • Male.

  • Macropterous; length 2.2–2.6 mm. Head black, except mandible testaceous; antenna testaceous; mesosoma black; metasoma brown; legs brown, except articulations, tarsi, tibiae and trochanters testaceous. Antenna filiform; antennal segments in the following proportions: 9:4:8:6:5:6:5:5:5:8; antennal segment 6 about twice as long as broad (6:3); antennal segment 8 less than three times as long as broad (5:2.5). Head convex, dull, reticulate rugose; frontal line absent; occipital carina complete; POL=7; OL=4; OOL=5; OPL=7.5; TL=4; greatest breadth of posterior ocelli about as long as OL. Scutum shiny, strongly punctate, unsculptured among punctae. Notauli incomplete, reaching approximately 0.6x length of scutum. Scutellum shiny, punctate, unsculptured among punctae. Metanotum shiny, unsculptured. Mesopleuron shiny, punctate, unsculptured among punctae. Metapleuron shiny, unsculptured. Propodeum apparently without strong transverse keel between dorsal and posterior surface; under good light transverse keel hardly visible; dorsal surface quite short, dull, reticulate rugose; posterior surface of propodeum dull, with two complete irregular longitudinal keels, with median and lateral areas completely reticulate rugose. Forewing hyaline, without dark transverse bands; distal part of stigmal vein slightly shorter than proximal part (12:13). Paramere much shorter than penis, with long and narrow inner branch (Fig. 19). Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

  • Female. Unknown.

  • Holotype (examined): ♂ MADAGASCAR: Mahajanga. Namoroka National Park, 9.8 km 300° WNW Vilanandro. 16°28.00′S 45°21.00′E, 140 m, 4-8.xi.2002, Malaise trap in tropical dry forest, Fisher, Griswold et al. (CAS).

  • Paratype (examined): ♂ same data holotype (CAS).

  • Distribution: Madagascar.

  • Hosts: Unknown.

  • Deinodryinus orangeanus Olmi, 2004
    Fig. 20

  • Deinodryinus orangeanus Olmi, 2004: 87.

  • Redescription:

  • Female.

  • Macropterous; length 3.9 mm. Completely testaceous-reddish, except petiole black, antennal segments 7–10 brown and small black spots on ocellar triangle. Antenna clavate; antennal segments in the following proportions: 9:6:15:7:7:7:7:7:7:8. Head flat, shiny, strongly punctate, unsculptured among punctae; anterior third of face quite strongly punctate, almost reticulate rugose; frontal line incomplete, only present in anterior half of face; face without lateral keels; vertex behind ocellar triangle without two oblique keels connecting posterior ocelli to occipital carina; occipital carina complete; POL=4; OL=2; OOL=10; OPL=10; TL=7.5. Pronotum anteriorly crossed by strong transverse impression, shiny, smooth, finely punctate, unsculptured among punctae; posterior surface of pronotum approximately as long as broad, shorter than scutum (10:23), with lateral margins sharp; pronotal tubercle reaching tegula Scutum and scutellum shiny, punctate, unsculptured among punctae. Notauli incomplete, reaching approximately 0.65x length of scutum. Metanotum shiny, smooth, unsculptured. Propodeum reticulate rugose, without transverse keel between dorsal and posterior surface; posterior surface almost completely dull and reticulate rugose, except for markedly small central smooth and unsculptured area. Forewing with two dark transverse bands; distal part of stigmal vein longer than proximal part (16:11). Protarsal segments in following proportions: 10:3:6:11:24. Enlarged claw (Fig. 20) with one bristle situated further distally than proximal prominence. Segment 5 of protarsus (Fig. 20) with three rows of approximately 44 lamellae (many lamellae much longer than others); distal apex with about 15 lamellae, among which one much longer than others. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

  • Male. Unknown.

  • Holotype (examined): ♀ MADAGASCAR: Diego-Suarez, Orangea Forest, 3.6 km 128° SE of Ramena, 12°15.32′S 49°22.29′E. 90 m. 22-28.ii.2001, beating low vegetation, in littoral rainforest, Fisher, Griswold et al. (CAS).

  • Distribution: Madagascar.

  • Hosts: Unknown.

  • Deinodryinus paulyi (Olmi, 1987)
    Figs 21, 22, 39

  • Prioranteon paulyi Olmi, 1987a : 409.

  • Deinodryinus nigerensis Olmi, 1991: 131 (synonymized by Olmi 2007); type locality: Tarna goulbin (Niger).

  • Deinodryinus paulyi: Olmi 2007: 206; Guglielmino & Olmi 2007: 125–126.

  • Redescriptions:

  • Female.

  • Micropterous, with forewing much reduced, reaching transverse furrow behind scutellum. Length 2.5–2.9 mm. Completely yellow-testaceous, except antennal segments 6–10 or 7–10, petiole and distal half of metasoma brown-dark. Antenna clavate; antennal segments in the following proportions: 7:4:18:8:8:8:7:7:6:8. Head shiny, smooth, punctate, unsculptured among punctae; occipital carina complete; frontal line absent; POL=3; OL=2; OOL=8; OPL=5; TL=9. Pronotum shiny, smooth, finely punctate, unsculptured among punctae, not crossed by transverse impressions, with short anterior collar; pronotal tubercle reaching tegula. Scutum much reduced, unsculptured. Notauli present, posteriorly joint. Scutellum and metanotum shiny, smooth, unsculptured. Metathorax + propodeum dull, reticulate rugose. Enlarged claw (Fig. 21) with one peglike lamella situated further distally than proximal prominence. Segment 5 of protarsus (Fig. 21) with two rows of about 18–28 lamellae; distal apex with about 3–5 lamellae, among which one markedly long. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

  • Male.

  • Macropterous; length 1.9–2.2 mm. Head black; mandible testaceous; antenna brown; mesosoma and metasoma black; legs brown, except tarsi and protibia testaceous. Antenna filiform, with hairs shorter than breadth of segments; antennal segments in the following proportions: 6:4:7:7:7:7:6:6:6:7. Head shiny, smooth, punctate, unsculptured among punctae; frontal line absent; face with longitudinal median furrow; occipital carina complete. Head of holotype with POL=4; OL=2.5; OOL=6; OPL=5; TL=5.5; in specimen from Senegal, 15 km S Guignol, POL=OPL; in specimen from Namibia, 23°34′S 15°03′E, POL=5; OL=2.5; OOL=5. Scutum shiny, smooth, punctate, unsculptured among punctae. Notauli incomplete, reaching approximately 0.3–0.5x length of scutum. Scutellum and metanotum shiny, smooth, finely punctate, unsculptured among punctae. Propodeum completely reticulate rugose, without longitudinal or transverse keels, with posterior surface sculptured by areolae smaller than those of dorsal surface. Forewing hyaline, without dark transverse bands; distal part of stigmal vein much shorter than proximal part (3:7). Paramere (Fig. 22) about as long as penis, with inner narrow proximal branch wrapping penis. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

  • Holotype of P. paulyi (examined): ♀ SENEGAL: Tattaguine (FAG); holotype of D. nigerensis (examined): ♂ NIGER: Maradi, Tarna goulbin, G.J. Steck, 2-6.ix.1985 (USNM).

  • Paratype of P. paulyi (examined): 1♀ CAPE VERDE ISLANDS: Saõ Tiago Island, Moia-Moia (AMNH). Paratypes of D. nigerensis (examined): 2♂ NIGER: same locality as holotype. 10-13.ix.1985 (AMNH, DETAM).

  • Other material examined: NAMIBIA: 1♀ 40 km W Keetmanshoop, along Rd B 4, parasitized host collected 10.iii.2006, dryinid larva pupated 16.iii.2006, dryinid adult emerged 7.iv.2006, reared from an adult of Exitianus nanus (Distant), M. Olmi (OLM); 1♀ same collecting information, dryinid larva pupated 14.iii.2006, dryinid adult emerged 7.iv.2006, reared from an adult of Aconurella compta (Naudé) (NNIC); 1♂ same collecting information and host, dryinid larva pupated 10.iii.2006, dryinid adult emerged 3.iv.2006 (OLM); 1♂ same collecting information and host, dryinid larva pupated 11.iii.2006, dryinid adult emerged 4.iv.2006 (OLM); 1♂ same collecting information and host, dryinid larva pupated 12.iii.2006, dryinid adult emerged 5.iv.2006 (SAMC); 1♂ same collecting information and host, dryinid larva pupated 18.iii.2006, dryinid adult emerged 6.iv.2006 (OLM); 2♂ same collecting information and host, dryinid larva pupated 18.iii.2006, dryinid adult emerged 7.iv.2006 (1 SAMC, 1 OLM); 1♂ same collecting information, dryinid larva pupated 13.iii.2006, dryinid adult emerged 5.iv.2006, reared from an adult of Exitianus okahandia Ross (OLM); 1♂ Namib-Naukluft Park, Kuiseb River near Gobabeb, 23°34′S 15°03′E, 18.ii-20.iii. 1983 (SANC); 1♂ Namib-Naukluft Park, Namib Desert Research Station, Kuiseb River, 23°33.45′S 15°02.38′E, 420 m, 17-24.ii.1998, Malaise trap in riparian vegetation, Kapofi & Irwin (DETAM); 1♂ Windhoek, Hoffnung Farm, 7.ii.1972, lark side vegetation, Southern African Expedition, B.M. 1972-1 (BMNH). NIGER: ♂ Maradi, Tarna goulbin, G.J. Steck, 5.viii.1985 (DETAM). SENEGAL: ♂ 15 km S of Guignol, 6.x.1978 (USNM).

  • Distribution: Cape Verde Islands, Namibia, Niger, Senegal.

  • Hosts: Cicadellidae (Guglielmino & Olmi 2007), Namibia: Aconurella compta (Naudé); Exitianus okahandia Ross; Exitianus nanus (Distant). All identified by M. Stiller.

  • Deinodryinus prinslooi (Olmi, 1987)
    Fig. 23

  • Prioranteon prinslooi Olmi, 1987b : 44; 2006: 40.

  • Deinodryinus prinslooi: Olmi 2007: 207.

  • Redescription:

  • Female.

  • Micropterous, with forewing much reduced, approximately as long as scutellum, reaching transverse furrow behind scutellum. Hindwing absent. Length 4.4 mm. Head black, except mandible, clypeus and anterior margin of face testaceous; antenna black, except segments 1–2 and partly 3 testaceous; mesosoma black, except posterior collar of pronotum testaceous; metasoma black; legs brown, except tarsi and meso- and metatibia testaceous. Antenna clavate; antennal segments in the following proportions: 8:5:17:11:11:9:8:7:7:9. Head dull, flat, strongly punctate, unsculptured among punctae, or only slightly granulated; frontal line absent; face without median furrow; occipital carina complete; POL=5; OL=3; OOL=10; OPL=5; TL=8. Pronotum shiny, only slightly granulated, with conspicuously humped and long anterior disc, and posterior transverse impression; posterior collar short; posterior margin of collar almost straight, reaching tegulae, without posterior lobe directed towards tegula. Scutum hollow, rugose, much reduced, longer than posterior collar of pronotum. Scutellum shiny, smooth, humped, unsculptured, approximately as long and as broad as scutum. Metanotum not visible. Metathorax + propodeum humped, separated from scutellum by transverse hollow impression transversely carinate; anterior and posterior surfaces of metathorax + propodeum reticulate rugose. Meso-metapleural suture distinct, strong, complete. Mesopleuron and metapleuron reticulate rugose. Protarsal segments in following proportions: 11:1.5:8:13:25. Segment 2 of protarsus produced into small hook. Enlarged claw (Fig. 23) with two bristles situated further distally than proximal prominence. Segment 5 of protarsus (Fig. 23) with one row of about 44 lamellae; distal apex with about three lamellae. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

  • Male. Unknown.

  • Holotype (examined): ♀ SOUTH AFRICA: Eastern Cape: Alexandria, 33°39′S 26°25′E (SANC).

  • Distribution: South Africa.

  • Hosts: Unknown.

  • Deinodryinus pulcher Olmi, 2010
    Figs 2426

  • Deinodryinus pulcher Olmi, 2010: 55.

  • Redescriptions:

  • Female.

  • Macropterous; length 4.1 mm. Testaceous-reddish, except head brown-reddish, median region of metasoma brown and petiole black; antenna testaceous-reddish, except segment 10 brown. Antenna clavate; antennal segments in the following proportions: 13:7:17:9:7:8:8:8:7.5:11. Head convex, shiny, with face completely reticulate rugose and vertex and temple strongly punctate, unsculptured among punctae; frontal line complete; face without lateral keels; vertex behind ocellar triangle with tracks of two incomplete oblique keels connecting posterior ocelli to occipital carina; occipital carina complete; POL=4; OL=3; OOL=7; OPL=9; TL=5; greatest breadth of posterior ocelli longer than OL (4.5:3). Pronotum anteriorly crossed by strong transverse impression, shiny, smooth, finely punctate, unsculptured among punctae; posterior surface of pronotum broader than long, shorter than scutum (11:24), with lateral margins sharp; pronotal tubercle reaching tegula. Scutum and scutellum shiny, punctate, unsculptured among punctae. Notauli incomplete, reaching approximately 0.9x length of scutum. Metanotum shiny, smooth, unsculptured. Propodeum reticulate rugose, without transverse keel between dorsal and posterior surface; posterior surface almost completely dull and reticulate rugose, except for quite small central smooth area punctate and unsculptured among punctae. Forewing with two dark transverse bands; distal part of stigmal vein longer than proximal part (20:14). Fore tarsal segments in following proportions: 11:3.5:6:9:22. Enlarged claw (Fig. 24) with one bristle situated further distally than proximal prominence. Segment 5 of protarsus (Fig. 24) with three rows of approximately 31 lamellae (many lamellae much longer than others); distal apex with about eight lamellae, among which one much longer than others. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

  • Male.

  • Macropterous; length 2.1 mm. Head black, except mandible testaceous; antenna browntestaceous; mesosoma and metasoma black; legs testaceous, except metacoxa partly brown. Antenna filiform, with hairs shorter than breadth of segments; antennal segments in the following proportions: 6:3.5:6.5:5:5:5:5:5:4:8. Head shiny, finely punctate, unsculptured among punctae; vertex without two oblique keels from posterior ocelli to occipital carina; frontal line absent; occipital carina complete; POL=5; OL=3; OOL=5; OPL=2; TL=3; greatest breadth of posterior ocelli shorter than OL (2.5:3). Scutum shiny, as sculptured as head. Notauli incomplete, reaching approximately 0.5× length of scutum. Scutellum and metanotum shiny, punctate, unsculpured among punctae. Propodeum dull, reticulate rugose, with transverse keel between dorsal and posterior surface (keel situated quite near anterior margin of propodeum); dorsal surface much reduced (Fig. 25); posterior surface completely reticulate rugose, without longitudinal or transverse keels. Forewing hyaline, without dark transverse bands; distal part of stigmal vein slightly longer than proximal part (9:8). Paramere (Fig. 26) about as long as penis, with markedly large distal inner branch, showing many small papillae on margins. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

  • Holotype (examined): ♀ MADAGASCAR: Fianarantsoa, Ranomafana National Park, Vohiparara, 21°13.57′S 47°22.19′E, at broken bridge, 1110 m, 21-28.i.2002, Malaise trap in high altitude rainforest, R. Harin'Hala coll. (CAS).

  • Paratype (examined): ♂ same data as holotype (CAS).

  • Distribution: Madagascar.

  • Hosts: Unknown.

  • Figs 19–24.

    (19) Deinodryinus namorokensis Olmi, holotype — male genitalia; (20) D. orangeanus Olmi, holotype — chela; (21,22) D. paulyi (Olmi): (21) holotype — chela, (22) genitalia of male from Niger, Tarna goulbin; (23) D. prinslooi (Olmi), holotype, chela; (24) D. pulcher Olmi, holotype, chela. Scale bar = (19) 0.16 mm; (20) 0.21 mm; (21) 0.14 mm; (22) 0.12 mm; (23, 24) 0.42 mm.

    f19_229.jpg

    Deinodryinus richardsi (Olmi, 1984)
    Fig. 27

  • Prioranteon richardsi Olmi, 1984: 594; 2006: 40.

  • Deinodryinus richardsi: Olmi 2007: 207; 2009: 456.

  • Redescription:

  • Female.

  • Micropterous, with forewing much reduced, approximately as long as scutellum, not reaching transverse furrow behind scutellum. Length 4.7 mm. Head black; mandible testaceous with teeth brown; clypeus testaceous; antenna brown, except segments 1–2 and proximal half of 3 testaceous; mesosoma black, except posterior collar and anterior margin of pronotum testaceous; tegula testaceous; metasoma black; legs brown, except distal part of coxae, trochanters, stalks of femora, tibiae and tarsi testaceous. Antenna clavate; antennal segments in the following proportions: 8:5:17:12:10:10:8:7:7:9. Head shiny, smooth, strongly punctate, unsculptured among punctae; mandible with four teeth progressing larger from anterior one to posterior; occipital carina complete; vertex flat; POL=4; OL=3; OOL=12; OPL=6; TL=11. Pronotum shiny, smooth, slightly punctate, unsculptured among punctae, with lateral regions granulated; pronotum with conspicuously humped and long anterior disc; posterior transverse impression separating disc from posterior collar narrower than disc; posterior margin of collar almost straight, reaching tegulae, without posterior lobe directed towards tegula. Scutum hollow, rugose, much reduced, approximately as long as posterior collar of pronotum. Scutellum shiny, smooth, humped, unsculptured, approximately as long and as broad as scutum. Metanotum not visible. Metathorax + propodeum humped, separated from scutellum by transverse hollow impression transversely carinate; anterior surface of metathorax + propodeum dull, slightly granulated; posterior surface of metathorax + propodeum strongly transversely striate. Meso-metapleural suture distinct, strong, complete. Mesopleuron and metapleuron strongly transversely striate. Protarsal segments in following proportions: 11:3:7:12:24. Segment 2 of protarsus produced into small hook. Enlarged claw (Fig. 27) with two bristles situated further distally than proximal prominence. Segment 5 of protarsus (Fig. 27) with one row of about 43 lamellae; distal apex with about four lamellae. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

  • Male. Unknown.

  • Holotype (examined): ♀ SOUTH AFRICA: KwaZulu-Natal: Drakensberg, Van Reenen, xi.1926, R.E. Turner (BMNH).

  • Distribution: South Africa.

  • Hosts: Unknown.

  • Deinodryinus rusticus Olmi, 2004
    Figs 28–30

  • Deinodryinus rusticus Olmi, 2004: 88.

  • Redescription:

  • Male.

  • Macropterous; length 2.9–4.6 mm (holotype 2.9 mm; paratypes from Madagascar, 18°28.24′S 47°57.36′E, longer than holotype (3.8–4.6 mm)). Colour of holotype: head black, except mandible testaceous; antenna testaceous; mesosoma and metasoma black; legs testaceous, except coxae, clubs of femora and part of metatibia brown. Paratypes from Madagascar, 18°28.24′S 47°57.36′E, with legs completely testaceous, except brown basal spot on metacoxa. Antenna filiform, with hairs shorter than breadth of segments; antennal segments in the following proportions: 11:4:11:7:8:7:6.5:6.5:7:9. Head shiny, strongly punctate, unsculptured among punctae (punctae strong; face apparently rugose); vertex without two oblique keels from posterior ocelli to occipital carina; frontal line usually almost complete, missing only in front of anterior ocellus; frontal line occasionally only visible in anterior half of face; occipital carina complete; POL=8; OL=4; OOL=6.5; OPL=9; TL=5; in some specimens OPL shorter than OOL, or approximately as long as OOL. Scutum shiny, as sculptured as the head. Notauli incomplete, usually reaching approximately 0.5–0.6x length of scutum; notauli rarely reaching 0.8x length of scutum (eg. specimen from Madagascar, 21°15.05′S 47°24.43′E). Scutellum shiny, punctate, unsculpured among punctae. Metanotum shiny, smooth, unsculptured. Propodeum dull, reticulate rugose, without transverse keel between dorsal and posterior surface; posterior surface almost completely reticulate rugose, with small central smooth and shiny area, without longitudinal or transverse keels; occasionally posterior surface with two tracks of longitudinal keels and median area completely dull and reticulate rugose. Forewing hyaline, without dark transverse bands; distal part of stigmal vein slightly longer than proximal part (13:12), or as long as proximal part. Paramere of holotype and specimen from Madagascar, 12°17.17′S 49°22.00′E, with quite large and long distal inner branch showing mosaic sculpture (Fig. 28). In few paratypes (from 18°28.24′S 47°57.36′E and 24°39.13′S 43°59.48′E) mosaic sculpture on inner branch absent (Figs 29, 30). In all specimens inner side of paramere with large area sculptured by numerous papillae (Figs 28–30). Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

  • Female. Unknown.

  • Holotype (examined): ♂ MADAGASCAR: Mahajanga: Ankoririka Reserve, 10.6 km 13° NE of Tsaramandroso, 16°16.2′S 46°2.55′E, 210 m, 9-14.iv.2001, Malaise trap, Tropical dry forest, Fisher, Griswold et al. (CAS).

  • Paratypes (examined): 6♂ MADAGASCAR: Antananarivo, 11.5 km 47° SSE of Anjozorobe, 3 km 41° NE of Andranomay, 18°28.24′S 47°57.36′E, 1300 m, 5-13.xii.2000, Malaise trap, montane rainforest, Fisher, Griswold et al. (4 CAS, 2 OLM).

  • Other material examined: MADAGASCAR: 1♂ Diego-Suarez. 3 km W of Sakalava Beach, white dunes, 12°17.17′S 49°22.00′E, 40 m, 27-30.i.2001, Malaise trap, M.E. Irwin, E.I. Schlinger & R. Harin'Hala(CAS); 3♂ Fianarantsoa, Ranomafana National Park, radio tower at forest edge, 21°15.05′S 47°24.43′E, 1130 m, 16.x-8.xi.2001, Malaise trap, mixed tropical forest, R. Harin'Hala (2 CAS, 1 OLM); 6♂ Mahajanga: Namoroka National Park, 16.9 km 317° NW Vilanandro, 16°24.24′S 45°18.36′E, 100 m, 12-16.xi.2002, Malaise trap in tropical dry forest, Fisher, Griswold et al. (CAS); 1♂ Mahajanga: Sofia District, 45 km S Antsohihy, 5 km W of Anjiamangirana, elev 97 m, 5-8.V.2011, 15°09.42′S 47°47.05′E, M.Irwin & R.Harin'Hala, Malaise, Analagnambe dry degraded forest (CAS); 1♂ Toamasina, Andasibe National Park, 18°55.58′S 48°24.47′E, botanic garden near entrance to park, 1025 m, 16-23.xi.2001, Malaise trap, tropical forest, R. Harin'Hala (CAS); 2♂ Toliary, Mahafaly Plateau, 6.2 km 74° ENE of Itampolo, 24°39.13′S 43°59.48′E, 80 m, Malaise trap, spiny forest thicket, 21-25.ii.2002, Fisher, Griswold et al. (1 CAS, 1 OLM); 15♂ Toliary, Andohahela Nat. Park, Manantalinjo Forest, 33.6 km 63° ENE Amboasary, 7.6 km 99° E Hazofotsy, 24°49.1′S 46°36.36′E, 150 m, 12-16.i.2002, Malaise trap in spiny forest thicket, Fisher, Griswold et al. (13 CAS, 2 OLM).

  • Distribution: Madagascar.

  • Hosts: Unknown.

  • Figs 25–30.

    (25, 26) Deinodryinus pulcher Olmi, paratype male: (25) propodeum dorsal view, (26) male genitalia; (27) D. richardsi (Olmi), holotype — chela; (28–30) D. rusticus Olmi: (28) holotype — male genitalia, (29, 30) distal apex of paramere of Madagascan male — (29) 18°28.24′S 47°57.36′E and (30) 24°39.13′S 43°59.48′E. Scale bar=(25) 0.41 mm; (26) 0.15 mm; (27) 0.25 mm; (28) 0.20 mm; (29, 30) 0.12 mm.

    f25_229.jpg

    Deinodryinus sabaeus Olmi & Van Harten, 2006
    Figs 31, 32

  • Deinodryinus sabaeus Olmi & Van Harten, 2006: 314.

  • Redescription:

  • Male.

  • Macropterous; length 1.5–1.8 mm. Head black, except mandible testaceous; antenna brown, except segment 1 testaceous; mesosoma and metasoma black; legs brown, except tarsi, protibia and stalk of profemur testaceous. Antenna filiform, with hairs longer than breadth of segments; antennal segments in the following proportions: 7:4.5:4.5:4.5:4.5:4.5:4:4.5:4.5:6.5. Head shiny, slightly granulated and slightly rugose (in specimen from Madagascar, 12°13.97′S 49°21, 99′E, head strongly granulated and rugose); vertex without two oblique keels from posterior ocelli to occipital carina; frontal line complete; occipital carina complete; POL=7; OL=3.5; OOL=5; OPL=2; TL=2. Scutum shiny, somewhat slightly granulated and partly punctate and unsculptured among punctae. Notauli thin, incomplete, reaching approximately 0.25x length of scutum. Scutellum and metanotum shiny, smooth, unsculptured. Propodeum (Fig. 31) dull, reticulate rugose, with transverse keel between dorsal and posterior surface situated far from anterior margin of propodeum (Fig. 31); dorsal surface distinct and large (Fig. 31); posterior surface completely reticulate rugose, without longitudinal or transversal keels. Forewing hyaline, without dark transverse bands; distal part of stigmal vein much shorter than proximal part (1.5:7). Paramere (Fig. 32) about as long as penis, with overly large and long inner branch not showing mosaic drawing. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

  • Female. Unknown.

  • Holotype (examined): ♂ YEMEN: Ar Rujum, 15°26′N 43°40′E, 9.iv-5.vi.2001, Malaise trap, A. van Harten (OLM).

  • Paratypes (examined): 13♂ same locality as holotype (OLM).

  • Other material examined: MADAGASCAR: 1♂ Antsiranana, Diana Region, O rangea dry forest, Ramena, Baie de dune, 900m E of Camp Minier, 23.ii-2.iii.2011, 12°13.97′S 49°21.99′E, M. Irwin & R.Harin'Hala, Malaise trap, dry forest, elev. 152 m (CAS); 1♂ Fianarantsoa, Ranomafana National Park, Vohiparara, 21°13.57′S 47°22.19′E, at broken bridge, 1110 m, 21-28.i.2002, Malaise trap in high altitude rainforest, R. Harin'Hala (CAS); 1♂ Mahajanga: Sofia District, 45 km S Antsohihy, 5 km W of Anjiamangirana, elev 97 m, 27.i-2.ii.2011, 15°09.42′S 47°47.05′E, M.Irwin & R.Harin'Hala, Malaise, Analagnambe dry degraded forest (OLM).

  • Distribution: Madagascar, Yemen.

  • Hosts: Unknown.

  •  Deinodryinus sofiensis sp. n.
    Fig. 33

  • Etymology: Named after the type locality, Sofia district (now a region) in Madagascar.

  • Description:

  • Male.

  • Macropterous; length 1.6–1.9 mm. Head black, except mandible testaceous; antenna testaceous-brown, except segments 1–2 testaceous; mesosoma black; metasoma brown; fore- and midleg yellow; hindleg testaceous-brown, except coxa brown. Antenna filiform, with hairs about as long as breadth of segments; antennal segments in the following proportions: 5:3.5:6:5:5:4:5:5:4.5:7. Head shiny, quite strongly punctate, unsculptured among punctae; areolae of face and vertex notably deep, so that the head seems to be rugose; frontal line absent; occipital carina complete; POL=5; OL=3; OOL=5; OPL=2.5; TL=2; greatest breadth of posterior ocellus as long as OPL. Scutum and scutellum shiny, punctate, unsculptured among punctae. Notauli incomplete, reaching approximately 0.6x length of scutum. Metanotum shiny, smooth, unsculptured. Propodeum dull, reticulate rugose, without transverse keel between dorsal and posterior surface; posterior surface reticulate rugose, without longitudinal or transverse keels, with median area partly smooth, shiny and unsculptured Forewing hyaline, without dark transverse bands; distal part of stigmal vein longer than proximal part (9:7). Paramere (Fig. 33) with 2 large and long apical inner branches; one of these branches shows a few papillae situated mainly on the inner margin; the second branch shows a mosaic sculpture; the volsellae are situated between the two above branches; inner apical branch of paramere with distal apex considerably large. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

  • Female. Unknown.

  • Holotype (examined): ♂ MADAGASCAR: Mahajanga. Sofia District, 45 km S Antsohihy, 5 km W of Anjiamangirana, elev 97 m, 5-8.V.2011, 15°09.42′S 47°47.05′E, M. Irwin & R.Harin′Hala, Malaise trap, Analagnambe dry degraded forest (CAS).

  • Paratypes (examined): 2♂ same data as holotype (1 CAS, 1 OLM).

  • Distribution: Madagascar.

  • Hosts: Unknown.

  • Deinodryinus steineri Olmi, 1994
    Figs 34–36

  • Deinodryinus steineri Olmi, 1994: 7.

  • Redescription:

  • Male.

  • Macropterous; length 2.9–3.2 mm. Head black, except mandible testaceous; antenna testaceous; mesosoma black; metasoma brown; legs testaceous, except pro- and metacoxa partly black; occasionally legs testaceous, except only metacoxa partly black. Antenna filiform, with hairs at most as long as breadth of segments; antennal segments in the following proportions: 11:6:11:8:8:7:7:7:7:12. Head shiny, strongly punctate, with punctae large and deep, similar to areolae (some regions of head appear to be reticulate rugose); in specimen from Madagascar, 21°15.99′S 47°25.21′E, face completely reticulate rugose; frontal line complete; occipital carina complete; POL=8.5; OL=4; OOL=7; OPL=6; TL=3. Scutum shiny, punctate, unsculptured among punctae. Notauli incomplete, reaching approximately 0.7–0.8x length of scutum. Scutellum and metanotum shiny, punctate, unsculptured among punctae. Mesopleuron punctate, unsculptured among punctae. Metapleuron shiny, smooth, unsculptured. Propodeum reticulate rugose, without strong transverse keel between dorsal and posterior surface; posterior surface without longitudinal keels, with central shiny area unsculptured. Forewing with one dark distal transverse band; distal part of stigmal vein longer than proximal part (17:13). Paramere (Figs 34–36) about as long as penis, with large, short and broad distal band wrapping penis; inner side of paramere broadly sculptured by papillae. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

  • Female. Unknown.

  • Holotype (examined): ♂ MADAGASCAR: Fianarantsoa, 7 km W Ranomafana, 900 m, 1-7.iii.1990, Malaise trap in small clearing, montane rain forest, W.E. Steiner (USNM).

  • Other material examined: MADAGASCAR: 1♂ Diego-Suarez, Montagne d'Ambre National Park, 12°30.52′S 49°10.53′E, 960 m. 21-26.i.2001, Malaise trap, M.E. Irwin, E.I. Schlinger & R. Harin'Hala (CAS); 1♂ Fianarantsoa, Ranomafana National Park, Belle Vue at Talatakely, 21°15.99′S 47°25.21′E, 1020 m, 15–22. xi.2001, Malaise trap, secondary tropical forest, R. Harin'Hala (CAS); 1♂ Fianarantsoa, Ranomafana National Park, radio tower at forest edge, 21°15.05′S 47°24.43′E, 1130 m, 16.x-8.xi.2001, Malaise trap, mixed tropical forest, R. Harin'Hala (OLM); 2♂ Toamasina, Andasibe National Park, 18°55.58′S 48°24.47′E, botanic garden near entrance to park, 1025 m, 1-5.ix.2001, Malaise trap, tropical forest, R. Harin'Hala (CAS).

  • Distribution: Madagascar.

  • Hosts: Unknown.

  • Figs 31–36.

    (31, 32) Deinodryinus sabaeus Olmi & Van Harten, paratype male: (31) propodeum dorsal view, (32) holotype — male genitalia; (33) D. sofiensis sp. n., holotype — male genitalia; (34–36) D. steineri Olmi: (34) holotype — male genitalia, (35, 36) paramere of Madagascan male — (35) 12°30.52′S 49°10.53′E and (36) 21°15.99′S 47°25.21′E. Scale bar = (31) 0.28 mm; (32, 33) 0.13 mm; (34) 0.21 mm; (35) 0.24 mm; (36) 0.25 mm.

    f31_229.jpg

    Deinodryinus suavis Olmi, 2004
    Fig. 37

  • Deinodryinus suavis Olmi, 2004: 89.

  • Redescription:

  • Male.

  • Macropterous; length 2.7–2.9 mm. Head black, except mandible testaceous; antenna testaceous; mesosoma and metasoma black; legs testaceous, except metacoxa partly brown. Antenna filiform, with hairs shorter than breadth of segments; antennal segments in the following proportions : 9:6:8:6:6:7:7:7:7:11. Head shiny, finely punctate, unsculptured among punctae; vertex without two oblique keels from posterior ocelli to occipital carina; frontal line markedly thin, almost complete, missing only in front of anterior ocellus; occipital carina complete; POL=7.5; OL=3; OOL=6; OPL=4; TL=2. Scutum shiny, as sculptured as head. Notauli incomplete, reaching approximately 0.6x length of scutum. Scutellum shiny, punctate, unsculpured among punctae. Metanotum shiny, smooth, unsculptured. Propodeum dull, reticulate rugose, without transverse keel between dorsal and posterior surface; posterior surface almost completely reticulate rugose, with small central smooth and shiny area, without longitudinal or transverse keels. Forewing hyaline, with one slight small dark spot just beneath stigmal vein; distal part of stigmal vein slightly longer than proximal part (13:12). Paramere (Fig. 37) about as long as penis, with quite large apical inner branch. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

  • Female. Unknown.

  • Holotype (examined): ♂ MADAGASCAR: Antananarivo, 11.5 km 147° SSE of Anjozorobe, 3 km 41°NE of Andranomay, 18°28.24′S 47°57.36′E, 1300 m, 5-13.xii.2000, Malaise trap in montane rainforest, Fisher, Griswold et al. (CAS).

  • Other material examined: 1♂ MADAGASCAR: Fianarantsoa, Ranomafana National Park, Vohiparara, at broken bridge, 21°13.57′S 47°22.19′E, 1110 m, 4-12.ii.2002, Malaise trap in high altitude rainforest, R. Harin'Hala (CAS).

  • Distribution: Madagascar.

  • Hosts: Unknown.

  • Deinodryinus umtamvunensis Olmi, 2007
    Fig. 38

  • Deinodryinus umtamvunensis Olmi, 2007: 207; 2009: 457.

  • Redescription:

  • Male.

  • Macropterous; length 1.6–1.8 mm. Head black; mandible testaceous; antenna brown, except segment 1 testaceous; mesosoma and metasoma black; legs testaceous. Antenna filiform, with hairs at most as long as breadth of segments; antennal segments in the following proportions: 7:5:6:6:6:6:5:5:5:7. Head shiny, punctate, unsculptured among punctae; frontal line absent; occipital carina complete; POL=5; OL=3; OOL=4; OPL=2.5; TL=4; greatest breadth of posterior ocelli shorter than OL (2:3). Scutum shiny, finely punctate, unsculptured among punctae. Notauli incomplete, reaching approximately 0.6x length of scutum. Scutellum and metanotum shiny, smooth, unsculptured. Propodeum with strong transverse keel between dorsal and posterior surface; dorsal surface large, reticulate rugose; posterior surface with two longitudinal keels and median and lateral areas reticulate rugose. Forewing hyaline, without dark transverse bands; distal part of stigmal vein much shorter than proximal part (3.5:8). Paramere (Fig. 38) about as long as penis, with large apical branch wrapping penis and large dorsal proximal membranous process. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

  • Female. Unknown.

  • Holotype (examined): ♂ SOUTH AFRICA: KwaZulu-Natal: Umtamvuna Nature Reserve, 31°03.509′S 30°10.484′E, 160 m, 11-12.xi.2000, Malaise trap, Coastal forest/Pondoland Coastal Plateau, sour Grassland margin, S. van Noort (SAMC).

  • Paratype (examined): 1♂ same data as holotype (SAMC).

  • Distribution: South Africa.

  • Hosts: Unknown.

  • Figs 37, 38.

    (37) Deinodryinus suavis Olmi, holotype — male genitalia; (38) D. umtamvunensis Olmi, holotype — male genitalia. Scale bar = (37) 0.19 mm; (38) 0.11 mm.

    f37_229.jpg

    Fig. 39.

    Adult of Aconurella compta (Naudé), (length 3.4 mm) with larval exuviae of Deinodryinus paulyi (Olmi); collected from Namibia, 40 km W Keetmanshoop.

    f39_229.jpg

    Figs 40, 41.

    Deinodryinus casalei (Olmi), holotype female: (40) dorsal view; (41) lateral view; (from Olmi, 1984). Length: 3.7 mm.

    f40_229.jpg

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    Many thanks go to all the curators of institutions that provided specimens used in this study.

    We are also immensely grateful to Dr Simon van Noort for his help during the 2003 and 2006 trips of M. Olmi to the Western Cape (South Africa). Many thanks to Dr Eugene Marais for his help during a 2006 trip to Namibia. Many thanks are also due to Dr Michael Stiller (PPRI-NCI) for his identifications of dryinid hosts.

    Collections in South Africa by M. Olmi were supported via grants of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the South African National Research Foundation's project on “Preparation of an inventory of natural parasitoids (Hymenoptera) in South Africa for their use in biological control programmes against agricultural insect pests” (South African partner Dr Simon van Noort).

    Cape Nature provided collecting permit No. AAA004-00015-0035. Ministry of Environment and Tourism of Namibia provided collecting permit No. 987/2005.

    REFERENCES

    1.

    P.L.G. Benoit 1954. Monographie des Dryinides Malgaches (Hym.-Acul.). Mémoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar. Sér E, 4: 383–430. Google Scholar

    2.

    A. Guglielmino & C. Bückle 2003. Description of larval instars of Neodryinus typhlocybae (Ashmead, 1893) (Hymenoptera Dryinidae), with remarks on its biology. Mitteilungen aus dem Museum fuer Naturkunde in BerlinDeutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 50(1): 143–150. Google Scholar

    3.

    A. Guglielmino & C. Bückle 2010. Description of larval instars of Mystrophorus formicaeformis Ruthe (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae). Zootaxa 2602: 57–66. Google Scholar

    4.

    A. Guglielmino , C. Bückle & G. Moya-Raygoza 2006. Description of the larval instars of Gonatopus bartletti Olmi, 1984 (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae). Zootaxa 1226: 51–60. Google Scholar

    5.

    A. Guglielmino & M. Olmi 1997. A host-parasite catalog of world Dryinidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea). Contributions on Entomology, International 2 (2): 165–298. Google Scholar

    6.

    A. Guglielmino & M. Olmi 2006. A host-parasite catalog of world Dryinidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea): first supplement. Zootaxa 1139: 35–62. Google Scholar

    7.

    A. Guglielmino & M. Olmi 2007. A host-parasite catalog of world Dryinidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea): second supplement. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Ser. II) 39 (2): 121–129. Google Scholar

    8.

    A. Guglielmino & M. Olmi 2011. Revision of fossil species of Deinodryinus, with description of a new species (Hymenoptera, Dryinidae). ZooKeys 130: 495–504. Google Scholar

    9.

    A. Guglielmino , M. Olmi & C. Bückle 2013. An updated host-parasite catalogue of world Dryinidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea). Zootaxa 3740: 1–113. Google Scholar

    10.

    A. Guglielmino & E.G. Virla 1998. Postembryonic development of Gonatopus lunatus Klug (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae: Gonatopodinae), with remarks on its biology. Annales de la Société entomologique de France (Nouvelle Série) 34 (3): 321–333. Google Scholar

    11.

    A.H. Haliday 1833. An essay on the classification of the Parasitic Hymenoptera of Britain, which correspond with the Ichneumones minuti of Linnaeus. The Entomological Magazine 1: 259–276. Google Scholar

    12.

    J. He & Z Xu 2002. Fauna Sinica: Insecta, Volume 29: Hymenoptera: Dryinidae. Beijing, Science Press [In Chinese]. Google Scholar

    13.

    J.-J. Kieffer 1911. Nouveaux Bethylides et Dryinides exotiques du British Museum de Londres. Annales de la Société scientifique de Bruxelles 35: 200–233. Google Scholar

    14.

    J.-J. Kieffer 1913. Division des Anteoninae (Hym.). Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France : 300–301. Google Scholar

    15.

    J.-J. Kieffer 1914. Bethylidae. In : Das Tierreich 41. Berlin, R. Friedländer und Sohn, pp. 1–595. Google Scholar

    16.

    S. Mangione & E.G. Virla 2004. Morfologia de los estados preimaginales de Gonatopus bonaerensis, y consideraciones sobre la morfología interna de sus larvas inmaduras (Hymenoptera, Dryinidae). Acta Zoológica Lilloana 48 (1–2): 91–102. Google Scholar

    17.

    G. Moya-Raygoza & M. Olmi 2010 [2008]. A catalogue of Dryinidae of Mexico, with descriptions of the opposite sexes of some species (Hymenoptera Chrysidoidea). Frustula entomologica, N. Ser. 31: 77–112. Google Scholar

    18.

    C.F.W. Muesebeck & L.M. Walkley 1951. Family Dryinidae. In : C.F.W. Muesebeck , K.V. Krombein & H.K. Townes , eds, Hymenoptera of America North of Mexico. Synoptic catalogue. Agriculture Monograph 2. Washington: U.S. Department of Agriculture, pp. 1034–1043. Google Scholar

    19.

    M. Olmi 1984. A revision of the Dryinidae (Hymenoptera). Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 37: 1–1913. Google Scholar

    20.

    M. Olmi 1987a. New species of Dryinidae (Hymenoptera, Chrysidoidea). Fragmenta Entomologica 19: 371–456. Google Scholar

    21.

    M. Olmi 1987b. Descrizione di nuove specie di Dryinidae (Hymenoptera Chrysidoidea). Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Ser. II) 19: 31–70. Google Scholar

    22.

    M. Olmi 1991 [1989]. Supplement to the revision of the world Dryinidae (Hymenoptera Chrysidoidea). Frustula entomologica N. Ser. 12: 109–395. Google Scholar

    23.

    M. Olmi 1994. New species of Dryinidae from Madagascar (Hymenoptera Chrysidoidea). Frustula entomologica N. Ser. 17: 1–12. Google Scholar

    24.

    M. Olmi 1998 [1997]. New Embolemidae and Dryinidae (Hymenoptera Chrysidoidea). Frustula entomologica N. Ser. 20: 30–118. Google Scholar

    25.

    M. Olmi 1999. Hymenoptera Dryinidae-Embolemidae. Fauna d'Italia 37: 1–425. Google Scholar

    26.

    M. Olmi 2004 [2002]. New species of Dryinidae and Embolemidae from Madagascar (Hymenoptera Chrysidoidea). Frustula entomological. Ser. 25: 86–109. Google Scholar

    27.

    M. Olmi 2006 [2005]. A catalogue of Dryinidae and Embolemidae of South Africa, with descriptions of new species (Hymenoptera Chrysidoidea). Frustula entomologica N. Ser. 28–29: 1–57. Google Scholar

    28.

    M. Olmi 2007. New species of Afro tropical Dryinidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea), with description of a new genus and a new subfamily. African Invertebrates 48 (2): 199–232. Google Scholar

    29.

    M. Olmi 2009. New species of South African Dryinidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea). African Invertebrates 50 (2): 447–460. Google Scholar

    30.

    M. Olmi 2010 [2008]. Descriptions of new species of Dryinidae and Embolemidae from Madagascar (Hymenoptera Chrysidoidea). Frustula entomologica N. Ser. 31 (44): 53–76. Google Scholar

    31.

    M. Olmi & A. Guglielmino 2010. Description of Erwiniinae, new subfamily of Dryinidae from Ecuador (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea). Zootaxa 2605: 56–62. Google Scholar

    32.

    M. Olmi , A.P. Rasnitsyn & A. Guglielmino 2010. Revision of rock fossils of Dryinidae and Embolemidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea). Zootaxa 2499: 21–38. Google Scholar

    33.

    M. Olmi & A. Van Harten 2006. Dryinidae, Sclerogibbidae and Embolemidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea) of Yemen, with revised keys to the species of the Arabian peninsula. Fauna of Arabia 21: 307–337. Google Scholar

    34.

    M. Olmi & E.G. Virla 2014. Dryinidae of the Neotropical Region (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea). Zootaxa 3792(1): 1–534. Google Scholar

    35.

    R.C.L. Perkins 1907. Parasites of leaf-hoppers. Report of Work of the Experiment Station of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Division of Entomology, Bulletin 4: 5–59. Google Scholar

    36.

    R.C.L. Perkins 1912. Parasites of the Family Dryinidae. Report of Work of the Experiment Station of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Division of Entomology, Bulletin 11: 5–20. Google Scholar

    37.

    N.G. Ponomarenko 1975. New hymenopteran species from Baltic amber. Paleontological Journal 9(1): 124–126). Google Scholar

    38.

    E.G. Virla & S. Mangione 2000. Morfología de los estados preimaginales de Gonatopus chilensis y consideraciones sobre las estructuras relacionadas a la nutrición de sus larvas inmaduras (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Dryinidae). Neotrópica 46: 37–49. Google Scholar

    39.

    E.G. Virla & M. Olmi 2008. Dryinidae. In : L.E. Claps , G. Debandi & S. Roig-Juñent , eds, Biodiversidad de Artrópodos Argentinos. Vol. 2. Mendoza: Sociedad Entomológica Argentina, pp. 357–372. Google Scholar

    40.

    Z. Xu , M. Olmi , A. Guglielmino & H. Chen 2011. A new species of Dryinidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea) from China. Florida Entomologist 94 (4): 848–852. DOI:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1653/024.094.0418  Google Scholar

    41.

    Z. Xu , M. Olmi , A. Guglielmino & H. Chen 2012. Checklist of Dryinidae (Hymenoptera) from Shaanxi province, China, with descriptions of two new species Zootaxa 3164: 1–16. Google Scholar

    42.

    Z. Xu , M. Olmi & J. He 2013. Dryinidae of the Oriental region (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea). Zootaxa 3614(1): 1–460. Google Scholar
    Adalgisa Guglielmino and Massimo Olmi "Revision of the Afrotropical Species of Deinodryinus Perkins, 1907 (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae), with Description of a New Species from Madagascar," African Invertebrates 56(1), 229-259, (30 June 2015). https://doi.org/10.5733/afin.056.0116
    Published: 30 June 2015
    JOURNAL ARTICLE
    31 PAGES


    SHARE
    ARTICLE IMPACT
    Back to Top