Nothrotherium maquinense, Ahytherium aureum and Australonyx aquae are ground sloths endemic of the late Pleistocene of the Brazilian Intertropical Region for which, as opposed to other xenarthrans such as megatheriid sloths and glyptodonts, no information regarding pathological conditions is available. Herein, we describe, based on an anatomopathological examination, four types of lesions for N. maquinense (spondyloarthropathy, Schmorl's node, vertebral trauma and unspecific infection) and one lesion for A. aureum (osteochondritis dissecans). No lesions were observed in A. aquae. Although several different diseases have been diagnosed, considering the significant number of specimens (2,232) and individuals (41) analyzed, low prevalence marks them all.
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Vol. 54 • No. 3