Polypodium gyroflexum has been a forgotten name since 1940. It is, in fact, an earlier name to a fern recently known as Pleopeltis repanda. Here, I provide the new combination, lectotypification, a detailed characterization, and illustrations for Pleopeltis gyroflexa, comb. nov., plus the synonymization of Pleopeltis repanda. Pleopeltis gyroflexa is known from two populations located ca. 2500–3000 km from each other, and they show some slight morphological differences. The gap between them comprises Amazon forest, the Amazon River, croplands, disturbed areas, and semi-desert vegetation (Caatinga). A vegetation map with their distribution data is also provided.
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Vol. 104 • No. 1