We present a taxonomic treatment of the genus Oleandra in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Five endemic species and one putative hybrid are recognized: O. australis, sp. nov. (endemic to the state of Paraná), O. baetae (endemic to state of Minas Gerais), O. brasiliana, sp. nov. (widespread along the Brazilian Atlantic Forest), O. hirta (endemic to the state of Rio de Janeiro), O. quartziticola, sp. nov. (endemic to the state of Espírito Santo), and O. baetae × O. brasiliana (from places of sympatry). The widely used name “Oleandra articulata” does not apply to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest species. All species are described, illustrated, and mapped.
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Vol. 106 • No. 3