The spores of the following genera of Polypodiaceae growing in northwest Argentina were analyzed: Campyloneurum, Microgramma, Pecluma, Phlebodium, Pleopeltis and Polypodium. The study involved analyses of herbarium material using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The spores are monolete, 40–90 μm in major equatorial diameter, eliptic to oblong in polar view and plane to concave-convex in equatorial view. The exospore ranges from 2–5 μm thick, is apparently double-layered, with a verrucate or tuberculate surface that is usually perforated. The perispore ranges from 0.3–1 μm thick, is apparently single-layered, attached to the exospore, perforated, and generally smooth or in some cases micro-ornamented. Most of the taxa analyzed have globules on the surface. These are single or associated in masses and irregularly distributed. Characteristics such as size, shape and exospore and perispore sculpture allow us to differentiate among some of the genera as well as recognize species groups. Microgramma, Campyloneurum, Pecluma, Pleopeltis and Polypodium have verrucate spores whereas those of Phlebodium are tuberculate.