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1 December 2007 Family Pseudolividae (Caenogastropoda, Muricoidea): A polyphyletic taxon
Luiz Ricardo L. Simone
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A detailed morphological study was performed on the following taxa normally considered to belong to the family Pseudolividae: (1) Zemira australis (Sowerby, 1833) from Australia; (2) Fulmentum ancilla (Hanley, 1859) from South Africa; and (3) Melapium lineatum (Lamarck, 1822) from South Africa. Two additional species of pseudolivids, Benthobia atafona Simone, 2003 and B. complexirhyna Simone, 2003, from Brazil and New Zealand respectively, are considered. Two other muricoideans are included in this study: (1) Nassodonta dorri (Watteblet, 1886) [Nassariidae] from Vietnam (morphological study also included) and (2) Siratus senegalensis (Gmelin, 1791) (Muricidae) from Brazil (published elsewhere). Both species are outgroups, but operationally included as part of the ingroup in order to test the monophyly of the Pseudolividae. In particular, N. dorri has a shell very similar to a pseudolivid. A complete taxonomical and morphological treatment of each species is included, as a scenario of a formal phylogenetic analysis. Additional outgroups considered include a pool of Tonnoidea (the root) and Conoidea. The cladogram is: (Tonnoidea (Conoidea ((Benthobia atafonaB. complexirhyna) (Nassodonta dorri (Zemira australis (Fulmentum ancilla (Siratus senegalensisMelapium lineatum))))))). Analyses of each important character and of the cladogram were performed. Some of the conclusions include that the family Pseudolividae, as presently understood, is polyphyletic, as it would include a nassariid (N. dorri) and a muricid (S. senegalensis).

Luiz Ricardo L. Simone "Family Pseudolividae (Caenogastropoda, Muricoidea): A polyphyletic taxon," American Malacological Bulletin 23(1), 43-78, (1 December 2007).
Accepted: 1 March 2007; Published: 1 December 2007

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