The glochidia of Diplodon (Diplodon) suavidicus (Lea, 1856), D. (D.) obsolescens F. Baker, 1914, Diplodon (Rhipidodonta) hylaeus (d'Orbigny, 1835), Prisodon obliquus Schumacher, 1817, Paxyodon syrmatophorus (Meuschen, 1781), Triplodon corrugatus (Lamarck, 1819, and Castalia ambigua Lamarck, 1819 were redescribed based on comparisons of external morphology and morphometric measurements of larval shells. The outline of the glochidial valves was classified into three types. The morphological comparison was based on light and scanning electron microscopy. Details of the shell, hooks and external sculpture allowed a redescription of the larvae, transferring D. suavidicus and D. obsolescens to the subgenus Diplodon and, within the Prisodontini, the genus Triplodon Spix, 1827 was separated from Prisodon Schumacher, 1817 and Paxyodon Schumacher, 1817. The glochidium of Prisodon obliquus is described for the first time. The larvae of the latter species and those of Paxyodon syrmatophorus present projections on the external sculpture in the form of spikes that have not yet been seen in the larvae of other South American Hyriidae. This unique ornamentation indicates closer proximity of Prisodon obliquus to Paxyodon syrmatophorus, a result also supported by multivariate analysis that allowed separation of the glochidia of the different species, using morphometric measurements such as length, height, length of the dorsal line and angle of obliquity formed between the position of the base edge in relation to the center of the dorsal line. Considering the angle of obliquity, the glochidium of Castalia Lamarck, 1819 was observed to diverge greatly in relation to those of other genera. The sampling dates of adults containing glochidia in the marsupium and an illustrated glossary are provided.
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