The Neotropical bat genus Vampyrodes (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: Stenodermatinae) is widely distributed from southern Mexico to southeastern Brazil. Long thought to be monotypic, V. caraccioli Thomas, 1889, was recognized by previous authors as including two subspecies with the nominate form inhabiting South America south and east of the Andes, and another subspecies, V. c. major Allen, 1908, occurring west and north of the Andes. Reexamination of these forms using molecular and morphological methods supports recognition of these lineages as distinct at the species level. We here provide amended descriptions and diagnoses for these taxa. We also report for the first time an example of perikymata (incremental growth lines that appear on the surface of dental enamel as a series of grooves) in Chiroptera. Presence of distinct perikymata is a synapomorphy of the genus Vampyrodes.
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