We describe Allophryne resplendens, a new species from two localities in the Amazon rainforest of Loreto, Peru, of the family Allophrynidae, which was monotypic until this discovery. The new species can be readily differentiated from Allophryne ruthveni on the basis of dorsal and ventral coloration both in life and in preservative, transverse processes of presacral II oriented anterolaterally (oriented laterally in A. ruthveni), 19 nucleotide autapomorphies for 761 base pairs (bp) of the mitochondrial gene 16S, and 16 for 923 bp of 12S. Maximum parsimony analysis of the mitochondrial gene 12S and a fragment of up to 1060 bp of 16S supports the new species as sister to A. ruthveni.
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