A new species, Aspidistra chishuiensis S.Z. He & W.F. Xu (Ruscaceae), is described and illustrated from northern Guizhou, China. It is similar to A. flaviflora, but differs in its purple perianth, 3.5 mm long lobes, stamens that are adnate at the middle of the tube, stigma that is ca. 8 mm in diam., and the berry that is nearly smooth.