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Bauhinia blakeana (Fabaceae) pollen is bicellular and contains only a vegetative and generative cell at anthesis. The pollen grain contents, including the generative cell, can be released in vitro following osmotic shock. In this study, when pollen grains were incubated in a 10% sucrose and 5%–15% polyethylene glycol 4500 (PEG 4500) medium, over 50% of the pollen grains germinated and formed a short pollen tube. However, the generative cell did not divide in in vitro pollen tubes. In vivo pollen tubes were induced to grow from the style using an in vivo—in vitro method. Sperm cells were subsequently isolated from broken pollen tubes.
Viable egg cells of Datura stramonium (Solanaceae) were isolated using enzymatic digestion and mechanical dissection. The three cells comprising the egg apparatus (the egg cell and two synergids) were removed from the female gametophyte by altering the micropylar position with a dissection needle. Generally, the egg apparatus cells were readily released from the cut end of the ovule. In order to isolate the egg cells, ovules were placed in an isolating solution containing 0.04% CaCl2, 1% BSA, and 12% mannitol, seven egg apparati were isolated from 40 ovules within one hour period. However, in some cases, it was difficult to separate the egg cells from the two synergids. Separation of the egg and synergid cells required incubating the ovules in an enzymatic solution containing 1% pectinase (Serva), 1% cellulase (Onozuka RS), and 12% mannitol for 30 min, and transferring them to the above-mentioned isolating solution. Following this protocol, eight egg cells were isolated from 40 ovules within two hours, and the egg cells were easily separated from the two synergids. Subsequently, isolated egg cells were used for in vitro fertilization to explore the mechanisms of egg development and fertilization.
The variability of Polypodium vulgare s. lato (Polypodiaceae) in the Nordic countries was studied. An unpublished herbarium record of P. interjectum from Sweden (province Scania) was confirmed. The respective specimen, originally classified as P. vulgare, was later re-identified as P. interjectum but that remained unnoticed in the literature. Here, the first find of the species in Sweden is reported. Another Swedish specimen with a similar identification history was found to be originally correctly identified. Field work and screening of herbarium material did not yield specimens of P. interjectum from Finland. Instead, the Finnish P. vulgare displayed unexpectedly much previously unknown variability, including four types of rhizome taste and the presence, even of two kinds, of sporangiasters in part of the material. Sensory observations also suggest that the rhizome of P. vulgare emits the volatile compound 2-nonenal. As some of the variability noted is often diagnostic at the species level in the P. vulgare aggregate elsewhere, the existence of cryptic species within the Nordic P. vulgare cannot be totally ruled out. No hybrid plants with heterogeneous spores were detected.
Many characteristic dry alvar grassland species disappear after cessation of livestock grazing as a result of encroachment by Juniperus communis. We studied the re-establishment of these species after scrub clearance with and without the removal of the layer of litter and mosses in long-term (14 years) permanent plots. Most of the species belonging to the community species pool of dry alvar grassland species before clearance were found in permanent plots between 2 and 14 years after the clearance. A large part originated from vegetative spread of already occurring species in the established vegetation in the surroundings. Only a small part of the long-term persistent soil seed bank resulted in the re-establishment of alvar species. There was no significant difference in the traits soil seed bank, seed weight and long-distance dispersal by wind, dung or fur of animals of established and non-established species. Removal of litter and mosses positively affected the re-establishment of alvar species.
Systematic affinities and taxonomical rank of Asteropyrum in the Ranunculaceae have been controversial. It has been placed in Coptidoideae, Thalictroideae, Ranunculoideae (incl. Helleboroideae), or sometimes in its own tribe or subtribe. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies, however, supported the inclusion of Asteropyrum in its own tribe Asteropyreae (Ranunuculoideae) but its affinities remain unclear. In order to help resolve such an uncertainty, we used scanning electron microscopy to study the floral development of A. peltatum ssp. cavaleriei. Our results indicated that the petal, carpel and ovule development in Asteropyrum markedly differs from that in Coptis (Coptidoideae) and Dichocarpum (Thalictroideae), whereas the inclusion of Asteropyrum in Ranunculoideae is supported by several floral morphological and developmental characters. Together with vegetative, anatomical, and cytological data from earlier comparative studies, our study indicates that the monotypic tribe Asteropyreae should be maintained.
The Baetic ranges in the Iberian Peninsula are extremely rich and outstanding in biological terms. Based on the existing literature, herbarium sheets and our own field research, we provide a checklist of the endemic flora growing in the Baetic chorological province. The checklist includes 418 taxa belonging to 43 families, with the species pool concentrated within large families. The highest number of endemic species is recorded in the altitudinal range of 1300–1500 m a.s.l. Hemicryptophytes represent the most frequent life form (45.5%). Conservation priorities should concentrate on non-woody life forms (particularly on hemicryptophytes), and on high mountain areas. Most of the taxa can be ascribed to serial shrublands (36.87%), or rock- or scree-dwelling formations (26.25%), with climactic forest formations playing a minor role (3.24%). This successional position has important implications for conservation programmes. Therefore, a clear distinction should be made between serial or plagioclimactic formations (e.g. dolomite thyme-scrub communities) and degraded communities of little interest for the preservation of biodiversity (e.g. synanthropic vegetation). Astragalus nevadensis subsp. andresmolinae (Díez-Garretas & Asensi) Mota & F.J. Pérez-García is proposed as a new combination.
Female gametophyte development of Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Berberidaceae) was studied on materials from different altitudes. The plant displays diversity in the megagametogenesis, and two categories of four female-gametophyte development models are observed, including the monosporous Polygonum-type, a new Sinopodophyllum type (and its two variants), which is intermediate between the monosporic and bisporic types. The results suggest that the Polygonum type is more primitive than the other types, and that the Sinopodophyllum type is intermediate between the Polygonum type and the Allium type. The diversity in the female gametophyte development in S. hexandrum reveals megagametogenesis may be influenced by altitude and be of great significance to its adaptability and evolution. In the Podophyllum group, Sinopodophyllum is more advanced than Diphylleia and Dysosma, where the female gametophyte development conforms to the Polygonum type. In addition, the results of this study directly provide evidence that the disporous Allium-type is derived from the monosporous Polygonum-type.
Liriope zhejiangensis G.H. Xia & G.Y. Li (Asparagaceae), from Zhejiang Province, eastern China, is described and illustrated as a new species. It is similar to L. muscari, but differs by the yellow, fleshy and odorous rhizome; soft and narrow leaves with an acuminate apex and lower surface pale green when dry; articulate pedicel apex; and by the purple filaments, stigma and ovary.
Polystichum perpusillum L.B. Zhang & H. He, a new fern species of Polystichum sect. Haplopolystichum (Dryopteridaceae), is described and illustrated from the entrance to a karst cave in southern Guizhou, China. A phylogenetic analysis based on the chloroplast trnL-F sequences shows that it is phylogenetically isolated in the section with no close relatives. Morphologically, it is similar to P. minutissimum, but P. perpusillum has an acute lamina apex, up to 12 pairs of pinnae per lamina, and deltoid-ovate or ovate-lanceolate rachis scales, while P. minutissimum has a round lamina apex, 5–8 pairs of pinnae per lamina, and subulate or linear rachis scales. Polystichum perpusillum has a granulate sculpture with Verrucae on its perispore, a sculpture rare in the genus. The species is considered to be critically endangered.
Impatiens yangshanensis A.Q. Dong & F.W. Xing sp. nova (Balsaminaceae) from Guangdong, China, is described and illustrated. It is morphologically similar to I. macrovexilla, but differs mainly by its bifid spur, 2-bracted pedicel and lateral united petals with triangular basal lobes, acuminate apex, and dolabriform distal lobes. It also resembles I. pterosepala, but that species differs mainly in its 1-flowered inflorescence, 1-bracted pedicel and oblong basal lobes of lateral united petals.
Briggsia damingshanensis L. Wu & B. Pan is described and illustrated as a new species of Gesneriaceae from Guangxi, China. It is similar to B. dongxingensis, but differs in its densely glandular-pubescent ovary, inconspicuous or absent bracts, pendulous and very slender peduncle, and sparsely pubescent stem and petiole.
Encyclia navarroi Vale & Rojas (Orchidaceae) is described from western Cuba. This orchid thrives in coastal vegetation on the karstic terrains in the Pinar del Río and Artemisa provinces. It co-occurs locally with congeneric species. Encyclia navarroi can be easily recognized by its erose leaf margin, the not connivent and triangular lateral lobes of the labellum, and by the round central lobe with a basal papillose area.
Centaurea cassia Boiss. subsp. dumanii M. Dinç, A. Duran & B. Bilgili has been previously described as a new taxon based on the type photograph and description of C. cassia subsp. cassia. A detailed comparison of the plants from wild populations of the two subspecies revealed that subsp. dumanii was sufficiently distinct from subsp. cassia to be recognised as a separate species. We thus recognise it as Centaurea dumanii (M. Dinç, A. Duran & B. Bilgili) M. Dinç & S. Doğu, comb. & stat. nov. It is close to C. cassia from which it differs, in addition to the previously known diagnostic characters, by having an ovate to oblong and cuneate-based involucre, nearly flat append-ages, and achenes with a spreading and longer pappus.
Taraxacum penyalarense A. Galán, E. Linares & Vicente Orell. is described and illustrated as a new species. It was found in the Iberian Central Mountains, on the Peñalara mountain, Madrid, Spain. It resembles some species of sect. Naevosa, but differs in its rough leaves, horned exterior phyllaries with a scarious border, and pale green achenes.
Echinops antalyensis C. Vural and Echinops borae C. Vural (both in sect. Ritropsis) are described as new species from South Anatolia, Turkey. A revised diagnostic key of the species of Echinops sect. Ritropsis in Turkey is given. The morphological differences from the closely related species are discussed. An IUCN threat category for the two new species is proposed and observations on the ecology of the populations are provided. The geographical distributions of the new species are preseted.
Crocus jablanicensis N. Randj. & V. Randj. sp. nova (Iridaceaeis described from the Balkan Peninsula. It is found on Mt. Jablanica in the western part of Macedonia, where it grows in alpine grasslands around snowmelts. It is compared with the morphologically similar C. cvijicii and C. veluchensis. In contrast to these species, C. jablanicensis has white styles and stigmas and a glabrous, white perianth throat.
Primulina fengshanensis Fang Wen & Yue Wang, a new species of Gesneriaceae from Guangxi, is described and illustrated. The new species is compared with the similar P. linearifolia and P. longgangensis.
Primulina gongchengensis Y.S. Huang & Yan Liu (Gesneriaceae) is described and illustrated as a new species from Guangxi, China. It is similar to P. macrodonta, but its leaves are densely glandular-pubescent on both surfaces, with a cuneate or broadly cuneate base and a repand or crenate margin; densely glandular-pubescent petiole and peduncle; purple corolla, with the tube ca. 1.5 cm long, 6–8 mm in diam. at the mouth; ca. 2 mm long, glabrous anthers; 3 staminodes, the lateral ones 1 mm long and the middle one 0.5 mm long; 1.5–1.8 cm long pistil; ca. 4 mm long ovary; and ca. 1 mm long stigma.
Draba cemileae Karaer sp. nova (Brassicaceae) is described and illustrated. It is confined to NE Anatolia in Turkey. The diagnostic morphological characters from closely similar species in the sect. Chrysodraba are discussed. Notes are also presented on its ecology and biogeography. The ultrastructure of the seed coat surface of D. cemileae and the similar species was examined by SEM.
Astragalus khosrowabadensis Ranjbar & Karamian sp. nova and A. margonensis Ranjbar, Rahiminejad & Raufi sp. nova (Fabaceae) are described from the Zagros mountain in western Iran. They belong to Astragalus sect. Caprini, which contains species that are often stemless and with white, basifixed hairs and yellow flowers. The former resembles A. fabaceus and the latter is compared with A. managettae and A. pseudopellitus.
Angelica dabashanensis C.Y. Liao & X.J. He, a new species of Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae from the Daba (Ta-pa) Mountains in the Shaanxi Province of southwest China, is described and illustrated. The most important diagnostic character of the new species is the short-rectangular mericarp with thick lateral wings. The distinguishing characters of the new species, with a comparison to two morphologically similar species, A. polymorpha and A. tianmuensis, are presented. The sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer indicate that the new species is most closely related to A. tianmuensis.
Zeuxine hainanensis Han Xu, H.J. Yang & Y.D. Li (Orchidaceae) is described and illustrated as a new species endemic to Hainan Island, China. It differs from the morphologically similar Z. membranacea mainly by having pubescent petals (vs. glabrous) and a Y-shaped and 10–12 mm (vs. cymbiform, 4–5 mm) long lip.
Cohniella lacera (Lindl.) Cetzal comb. nova is proposed here and Cohniella stipitata (Lindl.) Christenson is treated as its taxonomic synonym due to priority. Oncidium stipitatum Lindl. was incorrectly cited by various authors as validly published either in 1843 or 1844, when the correct date was 1846. In the meantime, Oncidium lacerum Lindl., previously considered one of its taxonomic synonyms, was described in 1844 and therefore has nomenclatural priority. I discuss the status and geographical distribution of Cohniella lacera comparing it with the morphologically similar species Cohniella nuda (Bateman ex Lindl.) Christenson. In addition, I include for each species a discussion of diagnostic characters, range of morphological variation, specimen citation, an illustration, and a distribution map. A key to distinguish the two species is also provided.