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Generative reproduction traits of the perennial Polygonatum multiflorum (Asparagaceae) were studied in seven populations in 2000–2010. The frequencies of typical hermaphrodite flowers and functionally male flowers with short or atrophied carpels were 76%, 17% and 7%, respectively. Most hermaphrodite flowers occurred in the lower and middle positions on the ramets. The final fruit/flower ratio per ramet amounted to 25% and its variation was higher among populations than among years. The initial fruit set was on an average twice as high as the final fruit set. The mean number of seeds per fruit was 3.2, and the distribution was skewed to the right. At the inter-population level, the seed number and mass of fruits were negatively correlated with each other. Seed size/number trade off was significant for shoots and for fruits. The seedling emergence was 65%–82% and it was positively correlated with the seed size as well as the survival of seedlings. In the garden conditions, a few individuals flowered in the seventh year of development.
Viable egg and synergid cells of Ceiba speciosa were isolated using enzymatic digestion and mechanical dissection. The ovules were digested by 1% (w/v) cellulase RS, 0.3%∼0.8% (w/v) pectolyse Y-23, and 0.8% (w/v) hemicellulase for 40–50 min and then transferred for dissection to an isolating solution containing 9% mannitol without enzymes. The two integuments of the ovules were peeled off and the nucellus was cut transversely through the middle. The three cells comprising the egg apparatus (the egg cell and two synergids) were released from the excised nucellus by pushing the micropylar end with a dissecting needle. Dissection of 50 ovules in the isolating solution yielded 19 groupings of egg apparatus cells within an hour. Following this protocol, egg and synergid cells of C. speciosa can be effectively isolated.
Maianthemum harae Tseng & Chao, a new species of Asparagaceae from Taiwan, is described and illustrated. This species resembles M. formosanum in the shape and size of flower, but is easily distinguished from the latter by its tuberous rhizome, 9–12 leaves, lanceolate leaves and longer styles.
In this study, three species of Lessingianthus saltensis complex are described and illustrated, including two new species. The new taxa L. membranifolius and L. coriarius are diploid (2n = 2x = 32), while L. saltensis is tetraploid (2n = 4x = 64). Lessingianthus membranifolius is distinguished from the other taxa in the complex by the membranaceus leaves, phyllaries with a rounded apex and leaf blades basally obtuse with serrate margins. Lessingianthus coriarius can be easily separated from the other taxa of the group by the combination of coriaceus leaves, phyllaries apically acute and leaf blades acute at the apex, with entire margins. A lectotype is designated for L. saltensis.
A new species of Camellia (Theaceae), C. cherryana Orel, endemic to the Sichuan-Yunnan border region, the People's Republic of China, is described and illustrated. It has variably sized, slightly coriaceous, elliptic to lanceolate leaves with a strongly acuminate apex and cuneate base; the adaxial leaf surface is glabrous and slightly pitted, mid-green and shiny, the abaxial leaf surface is sparsely pubescent, light green and shiny; the flowers are solitary, pedicellate, 5–7 cm in diam.; the corolla is two-whorled, white and the petals are soft, opaque to translucent, orbicular or almost orbicular, widely reflexed with undulate margins; the filaments are glabrous, up to 1.5 cm long, but mostly shorter; the styles are three, brown, densely pubescent, 1–1.2 cm long, basally joined but otherwise free; and the stigma is of the same colour, indistinct. The morphological evidence supports a placement in Camellia sect. Heterogena.
Rheum khorasanicum B. Baradaran & A. Jafari is described and illustrated as a new species from NR Iran. It is morphologically very close to R. ribes, both of them belonging to sect. Rheum. Some features that differentiate R. khorasanicum from R. ribes are the presence of bracts, different surface of inflorescence, the pedicle joint position and the epidermal cell shape.
Astragalus argentophyllus Taeb & Uzunh. (Fabaceae) is described and illustrated as a new species from south Anatolia, Turkey, it is placed in Astragalus sect. Malacothrix, and is similar to A. pseudotauricola, but differs by several characters in the leaves, flowers and legumes.
Eriobotrya fulvicoma W.Y. Chun ex W.B. Liao, F.F. Li & D.F. Cui, a new species endemic to Xinyi, Guangdong Province, China, is described and illustrated. It differs from the morphologically close E. deflexa by having papery leaves (vs. leathery in E. deflexa), leaf margin shallowly but sharply serrate and not revolute (vs. coarsely obtusely serrate and revolute), 1–2 cm long petioles (vs. 2–6 cm), 8–10.5 mm long petals (vs. 5 mm), and ca. 4.5–6 mm long styles (vs. 2–3 mm).
Celasirus yuloensis X.Y. Mu, a new species of Celastraceae from the seasonal rainforest of southern Yunnan Province, China, is described and illustrated. The new species is morphologically similar to C. hirsutus, but differs in the prominent spine-like bud scales, elliptic-oblong leaves pubescent only on the veins, axillary long panicle inflorescences, and upper half articulation on stalks.
We describe three new species of Pilosella (Asteraceae) from the Cantabrian Mountains (N Spain): P. adenogaliciana Mateo & Egido, P. orogaliciana Mateo & Egido and P. tardogaliciana Mateo &. Egido. All of them are intermediate species of P. galiciana, endemic to the NW Iberian Peninsula. For each species, we provide a detailed description, together with a discussion and a table with the diagnostic morphological characters used to separate these species from their morphologically closest species. We also provide images of type material.
Trigonella yasujensis Ranjbar, Hajmoradi & Karamian sp. nova (Fabaceae) of T. sect. Ellipticae is described and illustrated from a single locality between Lordegan and Yasuj in the Zagros Mountains, Iran. It is closely related to T. elliptica but differs from it in a few morphological and anatomical characters. The meiotic chromosome number and behaviour were studied for T. yasujensis. It is a diploid species and possesses 2n = 2x = 16 chromosome number, consistent with the proposed base number x = 8. The general meiotic behaviour of the species was regular with normal bivalent pairing and chromosome segregation at meiosis. However, some meiotic abnormalities were observed including various degrees of sticky chromosomes with laggards, asynchronous nuclei, bridges and cytomixis.