A new species of Camellia (Theaceae), C. cherryana Orel, endemic to the Sichuan-Yunnan border region, the People's Republic of China, is described and illustrated. It has variably sized, slightly coriaceous, elliptic to lanceolate leaves with a strongly acuminate apex and cuneate base; the adaxial leaf surface is glabrous and slightly pitted, mid-green and shiny, the abaxial leaf surface is sparsely pubescent, light green and shiny; the flowers are solitary, pedicellate, 5–7 cm in diam.; the corolla is two-whorled, white and the petals are soft, opaque to translucent, orbicular or almost orbicular, widely reflexed with undulate margins; the filaments are glabrous, up to 1.5 cm long, but mostly shorter; the styles are three, brown, densely pubescent, 1–1.2 cm long, basally joined but otherwise free; and the stigma is of the same colour, indistinct. The morphological evidence supports a placement in Camellia sect. Heterogena.
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