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Camellia sonthaiensis Luu, Luong, Q.D. Nguyen & T.Q.T. Nguyen (Theaceae) is described and illustrated as a new yellow-flowered species from southern Vietnam. It is morphologically compared with close species in Camellia sections Archaecamellia, Bidoupia, Capitata, Chrysantha, Dalatia, Oboidea and Piquetia. Morphological data provisionally supports its placement in Camellia sect. Piquetia.
A new species of Orchidaceae, Platanthera nanlingensis X.H. Jin & W.T. Jin from Guangdong in southern China is described and illustrated. It is very similar to P. minor, P. whangshanensis, and P. kwangsiensis, but differs by having short and densely flowered inflorescences; white flowers; spreading petals that do not form a hood with the dorsal sepal; a robust, 7.5 mm long spur that is shorter than or subequal to the ovary; a 1.5 mm long column; a narrow anther connective that is much shorter than anther thecae; rather large viscidia with slightly involute margins; and a rostellum with two separate bursicles.
Artemisia rutifolia var. ruoqiangensis Y.R. Ling, described in 1992, was not validly published because four gatherings were cited but a holotype was not indicated. The gathering S.G. Wu et al. 2755 kept in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau Museum of Biology (QTPMB) is here designated as the holotype.
Salix lapponum is one of the rarest and most endangered glacial relics in western and central Europe. Our research was performed in the Knyszyńska Forest, one of the few locations of S. lapponum that have survived in northeast Poland. The main objective was to evaluate how the population structure of S. lapponum changes due to the expansion of competing species of trees and shrubs, and how the removal of a competitor, Betula pubescens, affects the population of S. lapponum. We found that S. lapponum cannot withstand competition from other woody species. When sunlight is limited, its shoots become elongated and fewer in number. This plant can compensate for the effect of light deficiency of approximately 50%. Further increase of shadiness caused decline in the plant height and number of shoots. Elimination of neighboring trees caused changes in S. lapponum shoot morphology and the average height of the shoots was significantly lower than before the habitat management. Clearing increased the ability of S. lapponum to undergo vegetative reproduction. Removing birch trees is crucial for the protection of S. lapponum but it should be applied gradually during two or three successive seasons and accompanied by physical control of competing fast-growing Salix spp.
Tulipa luanica (Liliaceae) is illustrated and described as a new species. It was discovered on limestone substrate on Mt. Pashtriku (in the district of Prizren) in southern Kosovo near the border with Albania. It is compared with Tulipa australis, T. gesneriana,T. kosovarica, T. serbica (prevalent in Kosovo), and T. albanica (widespread in Albania). The chromosome formula is 2n = 2x = 24 (2 metacentric, 2 submetacentric and 8 subtelocentric).
Centaurea sennikoviana Negaresh & Kaya sp. nova (Asteraceae) is described and illustrated from Niğde Province, central Turkey. The characters that distinguish it from the morphologically closest species are elaborated upon.
A new species from Solomon Islands, Habenaria drepanodes Renz ex Kolan., S. Nowak & Szlach. is described and illustrated. The name was proposed by Jany Renz, but it was was never published by him. The taxonomic affinities of the new taxon are discussed.
Diospyros leei Yan Liu, S. Shi & Y.S. Huang, a new species of Ebenaceae from limestone areas in Guangxi, China is described and illustrated. It is similar to D. rostrata and D. chunii, but differs by its 3.5–12 cm long and 1–1 cm wide leaf blade with a cuneate or obtuse base; 4-lobed calyx; and fruit which is elliptic, ca. 3.3 cm in diam. in the middle, glabrous or sometimes sparsely brown strigose, its apex being prominently rostrate, with a beak longer than 1 cm.
Vinca ispartensis Koyuncu & Ekşi sp. nova (Apocynaceae) is described and illustrated. It grows in calcareous, stony locations in Isparta Province (southwest Anatolia, Turkey). Vinca ispartensis is morphologically close to V. herbacea and V. soneri; the diagnostic morphological characters of the three taxa are discussed. An identification key of the genus Vinca in Turkey is provided.
Stachys harkerae sp. nova from western Mexico is characterized by its indumentum on stems, leaves and inflorescences composed of tiny glandular-capitate hairs, hirsute stems, and calyces relatively long-toothed surrounding corolla tube, which is rose to pale rose-orangish, exannulate inside and with the tube 6.7–8.2 mm long. Stachys harkerae is most similar to S. bigelovii but differs in having profusely hirsute stems, slightly larger leaves, shorter corolla tubes and a shorter lower corolla lip. It also differs in distribution and habitat; Stachys harkerae is adapted to wetter and warmer conditions below 1450 m a.s.l., whereas S. bigelovii occupies xeric environments, usually above 2200 m a.s.l. An identification key to Stachys in western Mexico is provided.
Lasianthus yaharae V.S. Dang, Tagane & H. Tran (Rubiaceae) is described and illustrated here based on material discovered in the Hon Ba Nature Reserve, southern Vietnam. It is most similar to L. dalatensis but differs in having fewer secondary veins in the leaves, a larger calyx and larger flowers (corolla tube and corolla lobes), and a different flower color at anthesis.
We propose a new natural hybrid between Cohniella cebolleta and C. nuda (Orchidaceae, Oncidiinae) from Santa Marta Colombia: Cohniella × carbonoi Yepes-Rapelo & Cetzal is described and illustrated herein. It is vegetatively similar to C. nuda in the the semi-pendulous plant habit and the length of the leaves, but the flowers have intermediate characters between the putative parents. A table of diagnostic characters for the new hybrid and its putative parents, a comparative figure, and a map showing the geographical distributions are provided.
Billolivia kyi Luu & G. Tran (Gesneriaceae) is described as a new species from the Bidoup-Nui Ba National Park, Vietnam. It is distinct from its closest morphological match B. poilanei in having long petioles, coarsely dentate leaf margins, sparsely pubescent pedicels, ovate calyx lobes not persistent on fruits, and large fruits with persistent connate part of the calyx. Billolivia kyi differs from all other known Billolivia species in having dark red to purple flowers with a yellow patch on the corolla throat, and adaxially sparsely but abaxially densely pubescent laminas.
Habenaria pseudorostellifera Kolan., Szlach. & Kras, a new orchid species from China is described and illustrated. It is distinguishable from the fairly similar H. rostellifera by details of gynostemium, shape of petals, different lateral sepals, and by presence of a dentate appendage at the petal base.
A new species of Gesneriaceae, Oreocharis striata Fang Wen & C.Z. Yang from Youxi County, Fujian province, China, is described and illustrated. Its morphological distinctiveness from the somewhat similar O. lungshengensis, O. maximowiczii and O. burttii is discussed. The conservation status of O. striata is assessed as Critically Endangered (CR) according to IUCN Red List Category and Criteria.
Primula anthemifolia G. Hao, C.M. Hu & Yuan Xu sp. nova (Primulaceae) from Sichuan, China, is described and illustrated. It is highly distinctive, with rounded pinnatisect inner leaves accompanied by subcapitate umbels, which is unique in the genus. In key morphological features it is similar to sect. Aleuritia subsect. Glabra, which is characterized by a dwarf stature, compact head-like umbels, and a calyx that equals the corolla-tube and has oblong lobes.
Hieracium hypochoeroides subsp. peracutisquamum Di Grist., Gottschl. & Raimondo, a new taxon endemic to Basilicata (southern Italy), is described and illustrated. It is confined to the carbonate rocks of Monte della Madonna di Viggiano (Lucanian Apennine, SW Basilicata). Information on its habitat ecology and taxonomic relationships is provided.
Unispecific Septogarcinia from Indonesia is clearly related to Garcinia, but it was considered sufficiently distinct to warrant generic status. Septogarcinia sumbawaensis Kosterm. was sampled in a recent phylogenetic study of Clusiaceae and became nested within Garcinia, with which it shares several morphological features. Therefore, a new combination, Garcinia sumbawaensis (Kosterm.) Medellín-Zabala & L. Marinho, is proposed here.
Linum bicolor is a problematic North African taxon associated with L. setaceum. A consensus on the taxonomic status of a putative form (L. setaceum var. bicolor f. robusta) has not been achieved yet. We conducted a morphological study based on herbarium and field collections, combined with nuclear (ITS) and plastid (ndhF5–8 and trnL-F) phylogenies to clarify its status. The phylogenetic analysis did not reveal molecular divergence, but a comparative morphological study revealed substantial differences in traits previously used to distinguish the two taxa (stems, leaves, corolla and calyx size). In addition, we found that the indumentum of sepals, petal colour, and the arrangement of anthers and stigmas differed so clearly between the form robusta and L. setaceum s. stricto, that recognizing the former taxon as an independent species was justified. We provide an identification key to the yellow- and white-flowered Linum species in NW Africa. We also revised the unplaced name L. bicolor Schoubs. ex DC. and lectotypified it to avoid nomenclatural problems.
Aristolochia gongchengensis Y.S. Huang, Y.D. Peng & C.R. Lin, a new species of Aristolochiaceae is described and illustrated from the limestone areas in Guangxi, China. It is similar to A. kwangsiensis, A. mulunensis and A. scytophylla, but differs from the three by its conspicuously concave adaxial leaf veins; ca. 1.5 mm long, triangular-ovate bracteoles; ca. 1.5 cm long basal portion of perianth tube; deeply 3-lobed calyx limb; lobes being triangular-oblong, ca. 2 cm long, ca. 1.5 cm wide, adaxially densely dark purple and with verrucose protuberances; throat which is obscured by connate bases of lobes; ca. 0.6 cm long ovary; and 3-lobed gynostemium with round lobe apices and glabrous margins.
Survival strategies of plants to adapt to environmental stress include avoidance and tolerance. These strategies were investigated in the wetland sedge Carex brevicuspis (Cyperaceae) to determine the plasticity of its response to flood and drought. Individual plants were grown in PVC tubes and subjected to five water levels relative to soil surface: -40 cm, -20 cm, 0 cm, 20 cm, and 40 cm. After 60 days, plants were harvested and their biomass accumulation, number of leaves (a measure of growth), root and shoot elongation, aerenchyma formation (avoidance strategy), amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), amount of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity, amount of proline (tolerance strategy), and membrane permeability (a measure of degree of injury) were assessed. Relatively high amounts of MDA and proline and a high level of ADH activity, combined with relatively low aerenchyma area, short leaves, and low amount of WSC in the 20 cm and 40 cm treatments indicated that C. brevicuspis responded to floods with tolerance. A significant root elongation and WSC accumulation in the -20 cm treatment indicated that the species responded with high levels of avoidance to mild drought. High amounts of MDA and proline combined with relatively short roots and a low amount of WSC in the -40 cm treatment indicated a high tolerance strategy under severe drought. Overall, C. brevicuspis responded with tolerance to flood and adopted avoidance to mild drought, and it went back to tolerance under severe drought.
We report occurrences of Orobanche grenieri (Orobanchaceae) in the Lesser Caucasus in southern Georgia (western Asia), and in Badakhshan in Tajikistan (central Asia). These localities are more than 3000 and 5000 km apart from its previously known distribution areas in Spain and France, respectively. We used morphological evidence as well as nuclear ribosomal ITS and plastid rbcL sequences to test the taxonomic assignment of the Georgian plants to O. grenieri and to determine their phylogenetic position. We list the features that differentiate O. grenieri from morphologically similar species, provide illustrations, a distribution map, and we propose an IUCN conservation status for the Georgian populations.
We revisited 44 remnants of historically species-rich meadows in two regions in Estonia in order to evaluate their importance in harbouring meadow species. We used Ellenberg's indicator values (EIV), diversity and evenness indices and species functional traits (CSR strategy, height, clonal mobility, ramet life span) to analyse changes in vegetation and habitat conditions. Habitat loss resulted in similar amount of loss of both meadow specialists and generalists. Only meadow specialists were negatively affected by cessation of management in meadows unmown for more than 10 years in South Estonia. The largest change was an increase in Ellenberg's indicator value (EIV) of nutrients. We found a significant decline in typical meadow species (e.g. Briza media, Primula farinosa) and an increase in strong competitors. Species in the remnant meadows tended to have increased clonal mobility and shortened ramet life span, indicating fertile habitats. The ecological conditions became unfavourable for meadow species which prefer high illumination and unfertile conditions. The remnant meadows have largely lost the floristic diversity of the original nutrient-poor or moist species-rich meadows.