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Aethionema erzincanum sp. nova (Brassicaceae) is described from Erzincan Province in Turkey. It is morphologically close to A. speciosum, but its leaves are succulent, flowers white with a pink mid-vein, and pedicels are erect at fruiting stage. We provide information on the pollen and seed structure and habitat, and a species distribution map.
Gomphogyne hainanensis X.L. Zheng sp. nova (Cucurbitaceae) from Hainan Island, China, is described and illustrated. It differs from its closest morphological match G. cirromitrata by the leaves being pedately 3–5-foliolate; male flowers with a pedicel 4–8 mm long, perianth 7–8 mm in diam., petals 2.5–3 mm long; female flowers with petals ca. 8 mm long, sepals and petals distinctly longer and narrower than in male flowers; and fruit being 8–10-striate and containing six seeds 8–12 mm long.
Echinocodon draco (Campanulaceae) is an endemic and critically endangered species distributed in central China. In this study, 12 microsatellite markers were developed from the next generation sequencing database and tested using 12 individuals of the single existing natural population. A total of 27 alleles were detected with the allele number ranging from 2 to 4 per locus, and the expected heterozygosity varying from 0.500 to 0.660. Significant linkage disequilibrium and deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium found in E. draco population might be attributed either to sampling bias or to the special breeding system. The novel markers developed here offer an effective tool for population genetic studies of this plant.
Plant abundance and distribution patterns have mostly been explained in terms of air temperatures, yet a great deal of vascular plant biomass is located below ground. Winter soil temperatures, which are related to both air temperature and snow cover, may therefore be important determinants of species composition in alpine areas. Epigeic lichens, however, have no underground biomass, and they often dominate at sites that are inhospitable to vascular plants, such as those that experience sustained periods of sub-freezing temperatures. In this study, effects of several warm- and cold-season soil-temperature variables on individual plant and lichen species common to oligotrophic alpine heaths was investigated using linear regression and ordination. The differences in growing season length as measured by soil temperatures were compared. Warm season variables were found to have less influence than cold season variables on individual species abundances in these areas. Changes in winter snow cover depth and duration, such as those that are predicted in Norway, can result in changes to soil temperature patterns, to the possible benefit of some species and detriment of others.
Arisaema peerumedense J. Mathew (Araceae), a new plant species from Kerala part of the South Western Ghats, India, is described. In addition to taxonomic description, differences from morphologically allied A. nilamburense and A. leschenaultii plus colour photographs are provided to facilitate easy identification.
Drymocallis damghanensis Naderi & Faghir (Rosaceae) is described as a new species. The specimens were collected during a floristic study of an unexplored area on the rocky slopes of the Eastern Alborz Mountains (Damghan, Iran). Drymocallis damghanensis can be distinguished by its hairy carpels and rounded-obtuse teeth in leaflets. Here it is compared with the morphologically most closest taxa D. poteriifolia and D. schiraziana.
Hormotilopsis gelatinosa (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta) is a very rare alga that has so far been found only in seven places around the world. Recently, it was discovered in two water-filled basins in Bulgaria. Based on observations made on the abundant material collected in situ, a detailed description of the species is presented.
Lysimachia sinopilosa C.M. Hu & G. Hao sp. nova (Primulaceae) is described from Yunnan, China, and illustrated. In general morphology it resembles the species in Lysimachia subgen. Idiophyton, which are characterized by a yellow corolla, and an anther longer than filament, basifixed and opening by an apical pore. Lysimachia sinopilosa is most similar to L. pilosa, but can be distinguished by its purple indumentum on stems, petioles, peduncles and adaxial surface of leaves, by its leaf blades with a sub-rounded or obtuse base, and by its smaller flowers.
Stipa zhadaensis L.Q. Zhao & K. Guo sp. nova and S. turkestanica Hack. var. diyaensis L.Q. Zhao & K. Guo var. nov. (Poaceae) from Tibet, China, are described and illustrated. Stipa zhadaensis appears to be most closely related to S. roborowskyi of Stipa sect. Barbatae. It can be distinguished by the lax panicle with inclined branches exserted from uppermost leaf sheath at maturity, 20–28 mm long glumes with a scarious apex that is acuminate into a fragile filiform extension, and a 6.0–9.0 cm long awn. The differences between S. turkestanica var. diyaensis and S. turkestanica var. turkestanica are that the former has a somewhat longer anthecium (11.0)12.0–13.0 mm vs. (9.5)10.8–12.1(13.5) mm), longer awn (17.0–20.0 cm vs. (8.8)11.8–15.8(18.4) cm), and a column that is to first bend hairy and to second bend plumose vs. glabrous or scabrous).
A wide range of phenotypic variability in the orchid Epipactis purpurata s. stricto was found based on analysis of herbarium material and field research. Twenty-three biometric features were analysed. New diagnostically important features of gynostemium as well as of petal and sepal sizes and colours were established. Thus E. purpurata s. stricto is redescribed, clarifying the taxonomic importance of several morphological features.
Juncus castaneus and J. triglumis are umbrella species of moist calcareous tundra and arctic-alpine initial fens (the Caricion atrofusco-saxatilis alliance), considered to be glacial relicts in the central-European Mts. Here we report new findings from the Western Carpathians (Slovakia). We analysed species composition of plant communities with the target Juncus species in a wide geographical context, using 20 available vegetation-plot records from the Carpathians, 711 records from other European regions, and formal definitions of fen alliances taken from a pan-European vegetation synthesis. The first gradient of non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) differentiated alpine and arctic samples. The second principal gradient between Caricion atrofusco- saxatilis and other vegetation types was of similar importance. Records from the Western Carpathians assumed a marginal position in the gradient space, while records from the Eastern Carpathians (Romania) appeared to be similar to those from the Alps. Generally, Carpathian records did not match the formal definition of the Caricion atrofusco- saxatilis alliance. Although the arctic-alpine rush species persist occasionally in spring, fen and tundra microrefugia in the Carpathians, they do not belong in similar plant communities as in the Alps or in the Arctic.
Acantholimon gemicianum Kaptaner İğci, Körüklü & Aytaç sp. nova (Plumbaginaceae) is described and illustrated as a new species from Turkey. It grows on marl and marlgypsum steppes. It most resembles A. strigillosum and A. turcicum, and the diagnostic morphological characters useful in distinguishing A. gemicianum are discussed. Notes on its habitat ecology and pollen morphology are provided, along with the distribution map and a key to species.
Trichosalpinx ollgaardiana Rykaczewski, Kolan. & Szlach. (Orchidaceae) is described and illustrated as a new species from Ecuador and placed in the subgenus Trichosalpinx. It is similar to T. crucilabia and T. quitensis, from which it differs by long-connate lateral sepals, ligulate-spathulate petals with irregular apical margins, a prominent lip claw, and a ventral anther. An identification key to Ecuadorian representatives of Trichosalpinx subgenus Trichosalpinx is provided.
Primulina dichroantha F. Wen, Y.G. Wei & S.B. Zhou (Gesneriaceae), a new species growing in karst caves in a limestone hill in Guangxi, China, is described and illustrated. It is morphologically similar to P. renifolia and P. mollifolia, but can be distinguished by a 10–30 mm long pedicel, 1.2–1.6 cm long corolla with a white adaxial lip and bluish-purple abaxial lip, three glabrous staminodes, sparsely glandular-puberulent style, and spherical stigma.
The type of the generic name Ipheion Rafinesque is Milla uniflora Graham but the same specific epithet had been used in Triteleia by Lindley a few years earlier for the same species with a different type. Confusion ensued concerning the correct author citation for the species under Ipheion. A taxonomic history of the name Ipheion uniflorum (Graham) Raf., a new synonym for this species, and a lectotype for Milla uniflora are presented herein.
Rubus yingjiangensis Huan C. Wang, a new species in Rosaceae from Yunnan, southwest China, is described and illustrated. It resembles R. chaetophorus, but clearly differs from it by lacking glandular hairs, 12–18 cm long leaves cordate-auriculate at the base and abaxially tomentose, with the apex acuminate to long acuminate, hypanthium which is 0.5–0.7 cm in diameter, 0.8–1 cm long sepals, and 0.6–0.8 cm long petals. The names R. mallotifolius and R. sapaensis are treated as taxonomic synonyms of R. nigricaulis, which has almost been overlooked in modern taxonomic literature.
Rhaphidophora sonlaensis V.D. Nguyen & P.C. Boyce, a new species of Araceae, is described and illustrated from the material collected in Muong La District, Son La Province, Vietnam, and compared with the two species it most closely resembles, R. laichauensis and R. crassicaulis.
Phelipanche hajastanica Piwow., Ó. Sánchez & Moreno Mor., sp. nova (Orobanchaceae) is described from the Lesser Caucasus in the southeastern part of Armenia. The species grows in two small gorges in the Vayk mountain range, and parasitises Nepeta trautvetteri, a Transcaucasian endemic. A detailed description and illustrations are provided. We compare P. hajastanica with the morphologically most similar species P. pulchella, P. bungeana, and P. caesia, of which the first two are lectotypified here.
Verbascum adrianopolitanum and V. banaticum occur in the Balkans and are welldefined from the taxonomical point of view, but their typification was unclear and lectotypes are here designated for nomenclatural stability. This is particularly important for V. banaticum because of the large number of authentic specimens appearing in botanical collections all over the world. Verbascum × stribrnyi Murbeck ex Sutorý is a new name for a hybrid between V. adrianopolitanum and V. densiflorum.
I report the discovery of Euphrasia corcontica (Orobanchaceae) — a plant endemic to Karkonosze — in the Karkonosze National Park (Polish part of the Sudetes). It was first described as a product of Pleistocene hybridization between E. minima and E. micrantha, reported to occur only in the Czech Republic and believed to have gone extinct. Based on the examination of the holotype, differences between E. corcontica and two other high-mountain taxa, E minima and E. micrantha, are elaborated. The new locality for E. corcontica is in ruins of the Prince Henry Shelter, which burned down in 1945, on the main tourist route in the Karkonosze Mts.
Cerasus laoshanensis D.K. Zang, sp. nova (Rosaceae) is described from Mt. Laoshan (Shandong Province, China). It resembles C. serrulata, but differs from it by its distinct leaves that are obovate or wide elliptic with a truncate or emarginate apex, sparsely serrate sepals, elliptic petals, and red drupes. Cerasus laoshanensis was found in a roadside ditch and at forest margins.
A new natural hybrid Epipactis × subtilis Jakubska-Busse, Żołubak & Łobas, hybr. nat. nov. (Epipactis albensis × Epipactis purpurata) is described and documented from the province of Lower Silesia (SW Poland). The hybrid's morphological characteristics are compared with those of the parental species.
Monoon vietnamensis N.S. Lý, a new species of Annonaceae, is described and illustrated from Mount Dầu, Quảng Ngãi Province, central Vietnam. It is morphologically similar to M. bornensis and M. anomalum, but differs by much larger and oblongelliptic to obovate-elliptic leaves, with 12–14(16) pairs of nerves and a cuneate leaf base; much longer and narrowly ovate to linear ovate petals, with sparsely scattered short hairs outside; inner petals slightly longer than the outer petals; and much longer fruiting pedicels. A key to the species of Monoon in Vietnam is provided.
A new monotypic polypore genus, Caudicicola Miettinen, Kotir. & Kulju, is described for the new species C. gracilis Kotir., Kulju & Miettinen. The species was collected in central Finland from Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris stumps, where it grew on undersides of stumps and roots. Caudicicola gracilis is characterized by very fragile basidiocarps, monomitic hyphal structure with clamps, short and wide tramal cells, smooth ellipsoid spores, basidia with long sterigmata and conidiogenous areas in the margins of the basidiocarp producing verrucose, slightly thick-walled conidia. The genus belongs to the residual polyporoid clade of the Polyporales in the vicinity of Steccherinaceae, but has no known close relatives.
Fragmentation rates in 21 populations of three foliose lichens Xanthoparmelia conspersa, Melanelixia fuliginosa ssp. fuliginosa and Parmelia saxatilis and the crustose lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum were estimated in north Wales, UK from the size frequency distribution of thalli with fragmenting centres. The Kaplan-Meier estimator suggested significant differences in fragmentation rates among populations of three of the four species. In M. fuliginosa ssp. fuliginosa, Cox regression analysis also suggested higher rates of fragmentation on rock surfaces with a greater percent lichen cover and increased diversity (Shannon-Weaver diversity index). Slope angle, aspect, texture, and location of population relative to the sea also influenced fragmentation rates. The data suggest considerable variation in fragmentation rates among populations within the same area which may be determined primarily by the intensity of competition on a rock surface.
We analysed and interpreted ecologically a part of classic peatland vegetation material of prof. Rauno Ruuhijärvi dating from 1960. Sample plots formed a compositional gradient along NMDS 1 across three traditionally recognized peatland subzones of Finnish Lapland, and Cajanderian site types showed a poor—rich gradient along NMDS 2. Analysis-based major vegetation groups were related to the regional and the mire-expanse-to-margin gradient. Southerly-focused Eriophorum gracile—Potentilla palustris—Straminergon stramineum major group was interpreted as an indication of a more voluminous spring flood in a more oceanic climate, while northerly-focused Carex rotundata—Trichophorum cespitosum m. g. was interpreted as a reflection of a minor spring flood in a more continental climate. Regional communities were compatible with Cajanderian site types and showed new regional and vegetation-ecological features for site types. They were related to three European fen alliances, which represented boreal (Stygio-Caricion limosae), arcto-boreal-alpine (Drepanocladion exannulati) and widespread (Scheuchzerion palustris) vegetation.