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1 October 2009 Nest Predation and Nest Defence in European and North American Woodpeckers: A Review
Martin Paclík, Jan Misík, Karel Weidinger
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Abstract

Birds that excavate their own cavities for breeding are traditionally considered to suffer little from nest predation. We reviewed the literature for nest predation rates, nest success, nest predator species and nest defence in European and North American woodpeckers. Prédation rate varied from zero to 0.35 (median = 0.13, n = 33 populations), while nest success varied from 0.42 to 1.00 (median = 0.80, n = 84). Daily nest predation rate increased, while daily nest survival rate did not change with species body weight. This suggests a role of cavity entrance size in passive nest defence and differential causes of nest failure between small and large species. Twenty three predator species preyed upon woodpecker nests. Woodpeckers defended their nests by attacking the predators, blocking the cavity entrance, and by the selection of safe habitat/cavity and timing of breeding. We conclude by discussing gaps in the literature regarding woodpecker nest predation.

© Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing Board 2009
Martin Paclík, Jan Misík, and Karel Weidinger "Nest Predation and Nest Defence in European and North American Woodpeckers: A Review," Annales Zoologici Fennici 46(5), 361-379, (1 October 2009). https://doi.org/10.5735/086.046.0503
Received: 3 September 2008; Accepted: 1 January 2009; Published: 1 October 2009
JOURNAL ARTICLE
19 PAGES


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