One hundred thirty-four morphological characters were scored and analysed for larvae of twenty-four species of Camiarinae and fourteen species of other subfamilies of Leiodidae to test the monophyly of Camiarinae and determine phylogenetic relationships within tribes and genera. Two main clades were obtained. Some members of Agyrtodini (Dasypelates gracilis, Eupelates transversestrigosus and both species of Dictydiella) form a clade together with Cholevinae, while the remaining representatives of Agyrtodini, Neopelatopini and Camiarini were recovered as branches within a clade that also includes taxa from Catopocerinae, Leiodinae and Platypsyllinae. Within the latter clade, some of the Agyrtodes species, Zearagytodes and Ragytodina are grouped together, whereas Agyrtodes atropos and Cholevomorpha were placed as a sister group of all members of Paragyrtodes, Neopelatopini, Camiarini, Leiodinae, Platypsyhinae, and Catopocerinae. Camiarini and Neopelatopini except Myrmicholeva were recovered in one clade together with Agathidiini, whereas Myrmicholeva is sister to Platypsyllinae (Catopocerinae Pseudoliodini) and this clade is the sister to Paragyrtodes. The analysis strongly supports the view that Camiarinae and its tribes are paraphyletic, grouping possibly ancient and relict taxa that are or have evolved from ancestors of the other subfamilies. However, the obtained clades have low support values, and the results cannot be used to propose a robust, phylogeny-based classification of Leiodidae. The results support previously postulated informal groups, and provide a new insight into relationships within the subfamily Camiarinae as well as the family.
A species checklist of described larvae is provided for world Leiodidae, and the habitus and the most interesting or previously unknown larval characters of Camiarinae are illustrated and discussed.