Abstract. The Asian species of Bironium are reviewed and three new species are described: B. lobatumsp. nov. and B. yunnanumsp. nov. from South China and B. sulcatumsp. nov. from Thailand. Bironium atripenne (Pic) and B. amicale Löbl are placed in synonymy with B. grouvellei (Achard) and B. elegans Löbl, respectively. Lectotypes are designated for B. atripenne (Pic), B. distinctum (Achard), B. grouvellei (Achard) and B. sumatranum (Achard). Redescriptions are provided for B. biplagatum (Achard), B. feai (Achard), B. grouvellei (Achard), B. minutum (Achard), B. nigrolineatum (Pic), B. rufonotatum (Pic), B. sumatranum (Achard), and B. tonkineum (Pic); otherwise, original descriptions are appended with new characters. New collecting records significantly expand the known distribution ranges of many species. A key to the Asian species is given. A cladistic analysis based 27 characters that included all but four species of Bironium (29 species) rooted with Baeocera and Birocera was poorly resolved but indicated that there were at least three dispersal events from mainland Asia east through Wallacea towards Papua New Guinea (PNG). One potential dispersal event is represented by a clade that includes an undescribed species from Sulawesi, and others that may have undergone subsequent vicariance. The PNG fauna is represented by two lineages, one dispersal that involves B. flavapex Löbl, the only known species from the Moluccas that is the sister taxon of B. maculatum Löbl from PNG and B. nepalense Löbl from Nepal; the other is a monophyletic lineage of PNG species placed within a paraphyletic group of mainly mainland Asian taxa.
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Vol. 70 • No. 4