Liposcelis tricolor Badonnel (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) is worldwide and commonly found in various processed and unprocessed dry foods in households, granaries, and warehouses. The development, survival, and reproduction of L. tricolor were evaluated at eight constant temperatures (20, 22.5, 25, 27.5, 30, 32.5, 35, and 37.5°C). The population reared at 37.5°C failed to develop or reproduce. Between 20 and 35°C, developmental period from egg to adult varied from 56.37 d at 20°C to 30.74 d at 32.5°C. Based on a nonlinear model, the lower temperature developmental thresholds from egg, first through fourth stadia, and combined immature stages were estimated at 9.57, 9.02, 10.04, 13.69, 14.38, and 11.30°C; the upper temperature thresholds were 39.28, 37.55, 37.85, 38.26, 37.37, and 38.98°C, respectively. The survival rate from egg to adult was 67.26% at 27.5°C, 43.62 and 24.22% at 20 and 35°C, respectively. After emergence, the adult had a preoviposition period that ranged from 65.74 d at 20°C to 3.52 d at 30°C. L. tricolor produced the most eggs (53.91) at 27.5°C and the fewest (17.58) at 35°C. The population reared at 30°C had the highest intrinsic rate of increase (0.0367), net reproductive rate (13.55), the shortest populations doubling time (18.89 d), and shorter mean generation time (71.05 d) compared with the populations reared at six other constant temperatures. The populations reared at 30°C had type I survivorship pattern, whereas populations reared at other temperatures had type III survivorship curve as determined by a Weibull frequency distribution. The optimal range of temperature for L. tricolor population growth was 25–30°C.
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Vol. 100 • No. 2