Curalium cronini, new genus and new species is described on the basis of 16 male specimens from the southeastern United States. The relationships of Curalium are discussed within the context of a phylogenetic analysis for the Heteroptera: Cimicomorpha. Curalium is placed within the Cimicomorpha, primarily on the basis of pretarsal structure, with the ventral arolium being absent and the dorsal arolium existing in the form of a peg-like dorsomedian sensillum. It is further placed in a clade with Joppeicidae and Velocipedidae as the sistergroup of the remaining members of the Cimiciformes, a lineage containing all predatory family-group taxa in the Cimicomorpha other than the Reduvioidea. Curalium uniquely possesses several autapomorphic features, including a collar-like pronotum, novel male genitalia, and enlarged proctiger; other characters which—in combination—contribute to its diagnosis include hemispherical eyes, reduced forewing venation, fusiform antennal segments III and IV, and two-segmented tarsi. Because its placement in any existing family would render the diagnosis of that family meaningless, this novel taxon is placed in the Curaliidae, new family. Color images of whole specimens and extensive line drawings and scanning electron micrographs of morphological details are provided.
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