Age-specific life table parameters and survivorship, adult longevity, reproduction periods, fertility, and sex ratio of the codling moth were studied at eight constant temperatures (10, 14, 20, 25, 27, 30, 33, and 35 ±0.5°C). Among the examined temperatures, the highest values of net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, and finite rate of increase were 18.28 (females/female), 0.08 (females/female/d), and 1.08 at 27°C, respectively. Similarly, the highest value of sex ratio was 0.56 [females/ (females males)] at 27°C. The highest mean generation time and doubling time were 72.26 and 23.09 d, respectively, at 20°C. To present a suitable model for intrinsic rate of increase at different temperatures, a nonlinear Lactin model was fitted to our observations. The longest preoviposition period was 2.77 and 2.55 d at 20 and 30°C, respectively. Also, the longest oviposition period was 8.46 d at 20°C. Postoviposition period was not statistically different at examined temperatures. The Weibull frequency distribution was used to describe the age-specific survival of the female adults. Based on the Weibull distribution parameters, the survival curves were type I at all examined temperatures, which indicates that mortality mostly occurred in old individuals. These findings confirmed that temperature is a critical environmental factor affecting codling moth population growth.
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Vol. 102 • No. 2