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1 January 2014 Life History, Diagnosis, and Parasitoids of Zale phaeograpta (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)
Yadira-Maibeth Vázquez, Ana-Mabel Martínez, Jorge-Manuel Valdez, José-Isaac Figueroa, Ángel Rebollar, Juan Manuel Chavarrieta, José-Antonio Sánchez, Elisa Viñuela, Samuel Pineda
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Abstract

Lepidopteran erebid Zale phaeograpta (Hampson) has recently been found feeding on blackberry leaves (Rubus sp., cultivar “Tupi”) in two sites of Michoacan, Mexico. The life cycle and several life parameters of this insect, including parasitism, were examined in the laboratory. The egg, larva (seven instars), prepupa, pupa, and adult stages lasted 4.1, 35.9, 3.1, 14.5, and 29.1 d, respectively. Eggs are turquoise blue. The prolegs of first-instar larvae have an enlarged dark area that runs laterally. From second instar onwards, a whitish longitudinal dorsal band is observed along the entire body. Third-instar larvae wear a pair of dorsal protuberances in abdominal segment VIII. The fourth- and fifth-instar larvae are cream-colored, whereas sixth instars are entirely creamy. Pupa is covered with a waxy bloom. The apical margin of the forewings in males has two silvery bands, whereas in females, a dark band is present. Female and male pupae had the same weight (0.5 g) and measured 2.21 and 2.25 cm, respectively. The adult sex ratio of females to males was 1.1:1. The cumulative number of eggs laid by female during her lifetime was 281, with preoviposition and oviposition periods of 9.9 and 7.3 d, respectively. Maximum oviposition occurred 3.9 d after the start of oviposition (87.7 eggs per female). Larvae of Z. phaeograpta were parasitized by Microplitis sp. (Braconidae) (33%) and a currently unidentified Ichneumonidae species (9%), and pupae were parasitized by Brachymeria comitator (Walker) and another unidentified Brachymeria sp. (Chalcididae).

© 2014 Entomological Society of America
Yadira-Maibeth Vázquez, Ana-Mabel Martínez, Jorge-Manuel Valdez, José-Isaac Figueroa, Ángel Rebollar, Juan Manuel Chavarrieta, José-Antonio Sánchez, Elisa Viñuela, and Samuel Pineda "Life History, Diagnosis, and Parasitoids of Zale phaeograpta (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)," Annals of the Entomological Society of America 107(1), 170-177, (1 January 2014). https://doi.org/10.1603/AN13093
Received: 9 June 2013; Accepted: 1 November 2013; Published: 1 January 2014
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