Ctenanthe kummeriana (E. Morren) Eichler (Marantaceae) is a cosmopolitan ornamental plant with esthetically appealing color and leaf shape. Pseudautomeris brasiliensis Walker (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) and a nondescribed species of Stenoma (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) defoliated this plant in the campus of the Federal University of Viçosa (UFV), Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, inspiring the study of the association that prevails among these organisms. This could be a rare event, as the association of Lepidoptera with Marantaceae is scarce, with only two previous reports. The aim of this study was to monitor the caterpillars on the two crops of C. kummeriana, one in the “Horto Botânico” (HB) and another in the “Recanto da Cigarra” (RC) for a period of 1 yr, with particular attention to the shelters and damage caused; to assess the gregarious nature and the emergence of parasitoid and lepidopterans; and to provide an accurate morphologic diagnosis of a parasitoid. P. brasiliensis and Stenoma sp. were recorded after the rainy season, exhibiting similar distribution between HB and RC. Enicospilus tenuigena Kriechbaumer, 1901 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) emerged from 76.25% of the P. brasiliensis pupae. P. brasiliensis and Stenoma sp. defoliated the C. kummeriana plants between March and June in the UFV campus, whereas the parasitoid E. tenuigena reduced the populations of the ﬁrst species.
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