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1 January 2015 Activity Patterns, Associated Environmental Conditions, and Mortality of the Larvae of Tetracha (=Megacephala) carolina (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae)
Orrey P. Young
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Larvae of the tiger beetle Tetracha (=Megacephala) carolina L. (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) were observed weekly in a residential yard in Greenville, Washington Co., MS, from 21 September to the following 30 June. Cleared areas around building foundations during this period contained 194 burrows of first-, second-, and third-instar larvae, as represented by three different diameter holes. Larvae were at the top of their burrow and visible during periods both day and night. Larvae retreated down into their burrow for longer periods when the site was in the shade relative to when it was in the sun. Burrows were closed with a soil plug during rain, when larvae were molting, and during harsh environmental conditions. Larvae whose burrows had a southern exposure were active a month longer in the fall and a month earlier in the spring compared with northern exposure larvae, though emerged adults appeared in both areas in late May. The density of burrows at three sites averaged 1 per 36.5 cm2. Mortality of the third and last larval stage at the largest site was 34.4%, with higher mortality of the earlier stages.

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Orrey P. Young "Activity Patterns, Associated Environmental Conditions, and Mortality of the Larvae of Tetracha (=Megacephala) carolina (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae)," Annals of the Entomological Society of America 108(2), 130-136, (1 January 2015).
Received: 10 August 2014; Accepted: 27 November 2014; Published: 1 January 2015

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day and night
sun and shade
Tetracha carolina
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