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8 July 2019 Pest Injury Guilds, Lepidoptera, and Placing Fruit-Piercing Moths in Context: A Review
Crystal C. Klem, Jennifer Zaspel
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The pest status of insects in agricultural settings is human-defined based on behaviors that may negatively impact the yield of susceptible crops. As such, both the insect behavior and the affected crop play a part in determining pest status. One helpful means of understanding pest status involves using pest injury guilds, which distinguish different pest groups based on similar kinds of injury to comparable plant tissues. Pest injury guilds defined in the literature are reviewed and then applied to agriculturally significant Lepidoptera. More specialized Lepidoptera behaviors which are economically relevant, such as leaf-rolling or stem-boring, are examined within their respective injury guilds. In this review, fruit-piercing moths are discussed within the context of pest Lepidoptera behaviors and are highlighted due to their unique means of causing economic damage. Unlike other Lepidoptera in agricultural settings, fruit-piercing moths are harmful as adults rather than larvae, and directly injure fruits using a specially adapted proboscis.The ecology and systematics of fruitpiercing moths, as well as current control options, are also discussed.

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:
Crystal C. Klem and Jennifer Zaspel "Pest Injury Guilds, Lepidoptera, and Placing Fruit-Piercing Moths in Context: A Review," Annals of the Entomological Society of America 112(5), 421-432, (8 July 2019).
Received: 12 March 2019; Accepted: 13 June 2019; Published: 8 July 2019

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