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26 July 2019 Observation of Aneurobracon philippinensis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Immatures Shows How Koinobiont Offspring Flexibly Adjust Their Development to Host Growth
Haruka Aoyama, Issei Ohshima
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Abstract

Koinobionts are parasitoids that allow their hosts to grow after infection, and they finally kill their host individuals at parasitoid-specific host stages. Since fatal accidents of host organisms directly result in the deaths of parasitizing koinobionts, a longer parasitization period in vulnerable hosts is likely to increase the mortality of the koinobionts. However, for hosts inhabiting concealed environments in their later developmental stages, koinobionts should begin parasitization in early-stage hosts to make use of the grown hosts. A koinobiont parasitoid, Aneurobracon philippinensis (Muesebeck), mainly uses a leaf-mining moth, Acrocercops transecta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) as a host. Due to the three-dimensional structure of the mines constructed by later instars of A. transecta, females of A. philippinensis seldomly oviposit into later instar hosts, whereas feeding on final instar hosts is essential for A. philippinensis larvae.This implies that oviposition targets in the wild are shifted to early instars, though the final instar is the ideal target to shorten the parasitization period. The dissection of wild host larvae demonstrated that no eggs were observed in the final instar, supporting the above expectation. Laboratory parasitization experiments revealed that A. philippinensis eggs hatched approximately 80 h after oviposition, and hatched larvae stayed in the first instar until the host larvae completed making cocoons.These results suggest that the first-instar period of the parasitoid larvae functions as an adjusting period to synchronize the parasitoid and host developmental stages and that koinobiosis plays an important role in utilizing the final instar of A. transecta as a resource.

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Haruka Aoyama and Issei Ohshima "Observation of Aneurobracon philippinensis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Immatures Shows How Koinobiont Offspring Flexibly Adjust Their Development to Host Growth," Annals of the Entomological Society of America 112(5), 490-496, (26 July 2019). https://doi.org/10.1093/aesa/saz036
Received: 5 May 2019; Accepted: 27 June 2019; Published: 26 July 2019
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