The third-instar larva and breeding behavior of Pedaridium almeidai Pereira and P. brasiliensis Ferreira & Galileo are described using material collected at São Paulo, Brazil, and, the third-instar larva of P. adisi (Ratcliffe) is redescribed. The most important morphological characteristics for larval stages are found in the epipharynx, the setation of the venter of the last abdominal segment, the endoskeletal lines of the anal lobes, the mandibles, and the respiratory plate of the thoracic spiracle. A key to the known larvae of the genus Pedaridium is also provided. Results show that P. almeidai is more similar to P. adisi than P. brasiliensis. The presence/absence of stridulatory areas on the mandibles, the form of the frontal suture, the form of the sensorial area of the antennae, the form of the molar and scissorial areas of the mandibles, and the different size and form of the lacinia suggest a possible polyphyly of the genus Pedaridium. Results confirm the endocoprid breeding behavior of Pedaridium, which together with Trichillum, represents the most primitive breeding pattern of Scarabaeinae. In the species studied, there is neither food relocation nor brood ball construction. This primitive breeding behavior implies exploitation without modification or relocation of the resource. Possible kleptoparasitism was observed in P. brasiliensis.
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Vol. 94 • No. 4