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1 May 2003 Taxonomy, Distribution, and Notes on the Termites (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae, Rhinotermitidae, Termitidae) of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands
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Termite surveys from Buck, Culebra, Mona, Puerto Rico, St. Croix, St. John, St. Thomas, and Vieques islands yielded 1,564 colony samples from 274 sites. Twenty-one species were recorded including: Cryptotermes brevis, Cryptotermes havilandi, Cryptotermes rotundiceps, Cryptotermes undulans, Glyptotermes liberatus, Glyptotermes pubescens, Incisitermes bequaerti, Incisitermes furvus, Incisitermes incisus, Neotermes intracaulis n. sp., Neotermes mona, and Procryptotermes corniceps (Kalotermitidae); Coptotermes havilandi, Heterotermes sp., and Prorhinotermes simplex (Rhinotermitidae); and Anoplotermes n. sp. undescribed, Caribitermes discolor, Nasutitermes acajutlae, Nasutitermes costalis, Parvitermes wolcotti, and Termes hispaniolae (Termitidae). Of these, twelve are West Indian endemics, six have endemic ranges that include the tropical American mainland, and three are nonendemic pests. Distribution maps and keys based on the soldier caste and the winged imago are provided. Neotermes intracaulis, a new species from St. Croix, is described from the imago and soldier. Additional descriptions or redescriptions are given for G. liberatus (imago), I. incisus (imago and soldier), Ca. discolor (imago and soldier), and Pa. wolcotti (imago). An understanding of West Indian termite biogeography relies on current faunal distributions and the few fossil termites available from Hispaniola. Over-water dispersal of termites on flotsam is the most plausible mechanism for contemporary distributions, however, vicariate speciation cannot be discounted for species that are poor dispersalists. Faunal composition of Puerto Rican and the Virgin Islands termites suggest a biogeographical origin that is derived from both western and southern mainland sources.

Rudolf H. Scheffrahn, Susan C. Jones, Jan Krecek, James A. Chase, John R. Mangold, and Nan-Yao Su "Taxonomy, Distribution, and Notes on the Termites (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae, Rhinotermitidae, Termitidae) of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands," Annals of the Entomological Society of America 96(3), 181-201, (1 May 2003).[0181:TDANOT]2.0.CO;2
Received: 4 October 2002; Accepted: 1 February 2003; Published: 1 May 2003

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