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The Philippine taxa of Mussaenda Burm. ex L. (Rubiaceae, Ixoroideae, Mussaendeae) are revised here, based on field observations and study of herbarium specimens. Twenty-four species and four varieties are recognized, with three new species and one new variety. In the Philippines, M. grandibracteata Alejandro is described from the province of Occidental Mindoro, M. liedeae Alejandro from Palawan, and M. milleri Elmer ex Alejandro from Nueva Ecija; M. philippica A. Rich var. pubescens Alejandro is described from Davao Oriental. A lectotype is newly designated for M. benguetensis Elmer, and the invalid name M. milleri is validated herein. Mussaenda macrophylla Wall. var. grandisepala (Jayaw.) Alejandro has new status for its rank as variety rather than form, and the epithet grandisepala is lectotypified. Subsequent lectotypifications are designated for M. scandens Elmer and M. vidalii Elmer. The morphology of Philippine Mussaenda is compared with Asian and African Mussaenda and is distinguished from other genera of Mussaendeae by its reduplicate-valvate corolla aestivation. The forms of trichomes and morphology of the calyx and corolla are valuable characters for species recognition. Variation of trichomes inside the corolla exists between the short- and long-styled flower morphs and is an important character in recognizing some Philippine Mussaenda.
The Arcto-Tertiary Geoflora concept of Ralph Chaney, that the Mixed Mesophytic Forest of eastern Asia and eastern North America are relicts of a Northern Hemisphere high-latitude circumglobal deciduous forest of the Late Cretaceous–Early Tertiary that migrated south to the temperate zone as an intact unit, was shown by Wolfe and others to be invalid. To explain the origin and development of these disjunct forests, Wolfe and Tiffney developed the boreotropical hypothesis. Accordingly, a paratropical (near-tropical) rainforest flora containing a mixture of tropical, paratropical, and temperate genera developed at several places in the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere in the Eocene and spread around the globe via the Bering and North Atlantic land bridges and shores of the Tethys Seaway. Further, the Mixed Mesophytic Forest of eastern Asia and eastern North America developed independently after disruption of the boreotropical flora by subsequent changes in climate and geography, thus accounting for differences in the flora and physiognomy of the present-day Mixed Mesophytic Forest in the two areas. The fruit and seed flora of the Middle Eocene Clarno Nut Beds of Oregon are representative of the boreotropical forest. In response to climatic cooling during the Eocene–Oligocene transition, this broad-leaved evergreen rainforest was replaced by a temperate broad-leaved deciduous (Mixed Mesophytic) forest, which remained present in the Pacific Northwest through most of the Miocene. The Early Oligocene Bridge Creek flora of Oregon, the Middle Miocene Succor Creek flora of eastern Oregon and adjacent Idaho, and the Middle Miocene Clarkia and Musselshell Creek floras of northern Idaho are good examples of the Mixed Mesophytic Forest. These Oligocene–Miocene fossil floras include important genera in the present-day Mixed Mesophytic Forest of eastern Asia and eastern North America, as well as those that today occur only in eastern Asia or only in eastern North America. Using Graham as the primary source of, and guide to, information on microfossil and megafossil plant paleoassemblages and paleoclimates in eastern North America, we chart the Late Cretaceous–Tertiary sequence of vegetation and climate for Kentucky. Further, we briefly review the palynofloral provinces in which Kentucky was situated during the Middle and Early Cretaceous. In contrast to the Mixed Mesophytic Forest flora (a component of the boreotropical forest) of the Middle Eocene Clarno Nut Beds, the Middle Eocene Claiborne flora of Tennessee and Kentucky represents a semideciduous tropical dry forest dominated by Leguminosae taxa that have strong phylogenetic and biogeographical relationships with the Old World and tropical South America. Apparently, this dry forest developed from a Paleocene–Early Eocene tropical rainforest following a decrease in amount and an increase in seasonality of rainfall. The Mixed Mesophytic Forest developed from this seasonally dry forest following the Eocene as a result of an increase in the amount of rainfall and a decrease in its seasonality. The hypothesis that closely related disjunct taxa between eastern Asia and eastern and western North America represent relicts of a circumglobal Mixed Mesophytic Forest in the Miocene is supported by fossil and molecular phylogenetic data.
Species of the hemispheric ovary clade of the Velloziaceae are presented. The Vellozia hemisphaerica group is endemic to the Espinhaço Range in Bahia, Brazil, and is composed of the five species Vellozia canelinha Mello-Silva, V. caudata Mello-Silva, V. hemisphaerica Seub., V. jolyi L. B. Sm., and V. religiosa Mello-Silva & D. Sasaki. The group is a monophyletic assemblage supported by an ovary outline that is broader than long and other plastid and nuclear molecular characters, as well as non-molecular characters. Identification keys for the species group, their morphological and anatomical descriptions, as well as comments on the affinities of the species and character evolution based on previous cladistic analysis, geographical distribution, and conservation status are presented. A new species, V. religiosa, is described, and V. burlemarxii L. B. Sm. & Ayensu and V. campanuloides Mello-Silva are synonymized with V. hemisphaerica and V. caudata, respectively. Lectotypification of the name V. hemisphaerica is also provided.
Aloysia Paláu is the third largest genus of tribe Lantaneae, after Lippia L. and Lantana L., in the Verbenaceae. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies have circumscribed genus Aloysia as 31 species, with the transfer of most species of Acantholippia Griseb. and the inclusion of the monotypic Xeroaloysia Tronc., as well as the exclusion of several North American Aloysia species that nest within a Lippia–Lantana clade. Newly circumscribed Aloysia are found mostly in South America, where the genus is represented by 28 species and six varieties. Only four Aloysia species are found in North America, A. coalcomana Siedo, A. macrostachya (Torr.) Moldenke, A. wrightii A. Heller, and A. gratissima (Gillies & Hook.) Tronc. var. gratissima, this last being the only taxon found in both North and South America. A taxonomic revision of the genus Aloysia for South America is provided with detailed morphological descriptions, as well as keys for taxonomic identification, illustrations or indication of iconography, and distribution and herbarium specimen lists. The genus Xeroaloysia Tronc. is here considered a synonym of Aloysia, and nine new taxonomic synonyms are here established. Lectotypification is designated for Verbena L. sect. Aloysioides Walp., and neotypification is designated for V. salviifolia Hook. & Arn.
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