Species of the hemispheric ovary clade of the Velloziaceae are presented. The Vellozia hemisphaerica group is endemic to the Espinhaço Range in Bahia, Brazil, and is composed of the five species Vellozia canelinha Mello-Silva, V. caudata Mello-Silva, V. hemisphaerica Seub., V. jolyi L. B. Sm., and V. religiosa Mello-Silva & D. Sasaki. The group is a monophyletic assemblage supported by an ovary outline that is broader than long and other plastid and nuclear molecular characters, as well as non-molecular characters. Identification keys for the species group, their morphological and anatomical descriptions, as well as comments on the affinities of the species and character evolution based on previous cladistic analysis, geographical distribution, and conservation status are presented. A new species, V. religiosa, is described, and V. burlemarxii L. B. Sm. & Ayensu and V. campanuloides Mello-Silva are synonymized with V. hemisphaerica and V. caudata, respectively. Lectotypification of the name V. hemisphaerica is also provided.
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