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Field observations, floral dissections, floral nectar, and pollen load analyses of captured insects of 53 species of Babiana Ker Gawl. show that flowers of this geophytic genus of some 90 species of Iridaceae subfamily Crocoideae, predominantly of the southern African winter-rainfall zone, are cross pollinated by a wide range of animals. These include passerine birds and insects of four different orders, Hymenoptera (mainly Apidae), Diptera (mainly Nemestrinidae), Coleoptera (Scarabaeidae), and Lepidoptera (mainly Noctuidae). Apid pollination involves two discrete systems—passive pollination by anthophorines and native Apis mellifera foraging for nectar and active pollen gathering by A. mellifera and other Apoidea foraging for pollen. From what is known about relationships within Babiana and Crocoideae, it seems likely that passive pollination by anthophorines and honeybees, with nectar secreted in zygomorphic, bilabiate flowers as a reward, is the ancestral condition; it is also the most common, demonstrated for 18 and inferred for 35 more species from all three taxonomic sections of the genus. Active pollination by honeybees and female Apoidea foraging for pollen was demonstrated in one species and is inferred for four more, all of which have radially symmetric flowers and prominent anthers. Pollination by long-proboscid nemestrinids, mostly species of Prosoeca, is recorded for 13 species and inferred for five more, while moth pollination is recorded for one species and inferred for another two. Pollination exclusively by hopliine scarab beetles, known for six species, is associated with development of radial symmetry of the flower. Passerine bird pollination, associated with the classic syndrome of a wide floral tube, red floral pigmentation, and rigid, well-exserted stamens, occurs in two species, and is inferred for one more. Species with a bimodal system in which bees and beetles both visit and accomplish pollen transfer is known for three species. Comparing pollination systems with what is known about species relationships in Babiana, we infer that long-proboscid fly pollination evolved at least four times and moth pollination three times. Active pollination by pollen-collecting bees and hopliine beetle pollination also probably evolved three times each and bird pollination twice. Pollination systems are labile, and we postulate that there has been a minimum of 14 shifts in pollination system, approximately one shift for every six species. Lastly, Babiana species show the same correlation of morphology and floral presentation with particular sets of pollinators, described for several other genera of Iridaceae, e.g., Gladiolus L., Hesperantha Ker Gawl., and Lapeirousia Pourr., as well as Geraniaceae and Orchidaceae. This increases our confidence in predicting pollinators on the basis of floral presentation in other species and genera in which pollinators have not been established.
A review of South American herbarium specimens of Bourreria P. Browne (Boraginales, Ehretiaceae) indicates that five species are readily distinguished. Bourreria bolivarensis Gottschling & J. S. Mill. is described as new; B. baccata Raf., B. exsucca Jacq., and B. mollis Standl. have their nomenclature clarified; B. exsucca is epitypified; and a neotype has been designated for Rhamnus cumanensis Loefl. (= B. exsucca). Bourreria bolivarensis and B. exsucca are common species in the northern South American flora. Bourreria costaricensis (Standl.) A. H. Gentry and B. mollis are Central American species that have not been previously reported for South America. Bourreria baccata is a Caribbean species with the southern end of its distribution on Tobago, but it also occurs in a small, isolated population in the Netherlands Antilles and on the adjacent Venezuelan coast, perhaps resulting from a single long-distance dispersal event. Bourreria exsucca and the new species B. bolivarensis have their distribution restricted to South America and exhibit schizocarpous fruits. The other three species have drupaceous fruits. All five species have extent of occurrence above the threshold (> 2000 km2) to be considered vulnerable based on the IUCN Red List categories, and none of the five species that occur in South America appear to be threatened when evaluated solely on their distributions.
A taxonomic treatment of Eragrostis Wolf for Peru is given. Twenty-three species and three subspecies of Eragrostis are recognized in the study area. Fifteen species of Eragrostis are native to Peru, and eight are adventive or introduced. Eragrostis attenuata Hitchc., E. pilgeri Fedde, and E. magna Hitchc. are endemic to Peru. Eragrostis lurida subsp. contracta (Pilg.) P. M. Peterson & Sánchez Vega, native to Ecuador and Peru, and E. pilgeri subsp. ancashensis (P. M. Peterson, Refulio & Tovar) P. M. Peterson & Sánchez Vega, native to Peru, are new combinations. Keys for determining the species, descriptions, distributions, specimens studied, illustrations, synonymies, and a brief discussion of caryopsis morphology for all native and adventive species of Eragrostis in Peru are provided. The names E. andicola R. E. Fr., E. contracta Pilg., E. tristis Jedwabn., and Poa mexicana Hornem. are lectotypified.
Distictis Mart. ex Meisn. is a genus of 11 species in the tribe Bignonieae. All the species are lianas and can be recognized by their ribbed hexangular branchlets without interpetiolar glandular fields; bifoliolate leaves with a trifid (or occasionally additionally branched) terminal tendril; terminal inflorescence; usually glandular, campanulate, more or less truncate calyces; more or less straight, tubular-infundibular or tubular-campanulate corollas that are white, purple, orange, or red; usually elliptic, non-echinate capsules with both ends pointed, and often with both valves convex; and usually bialate seeds, with the body brown and ridged and often papillose or pubescent, and the wings usually well demarcated from the seed body and membranous-hyaline. Relationships with similar genera are discussed, and a key to the species of Distictis, species descriptions, and species distribution maps are provided. The relationships of the species are also discussed, and a new combination, D. frutescens (DC.) A. Pool, is proposed. A neotype is designated for D. granulosa Bureau & K. Schum., and lectotypes are designated for Bignonia rigescens Jacq., Pithecoctenium buccinatorium DC., P. buccinatorium var. subinclusum DC., P. buccinatorium var. exsertum DC., P. cinereum DC., and P. uleanum Kraenzl. Pithecoctenium stipulare Mart. ex DC. and D. stipularis Mart. ex Glaz. are presented as new synonyms of D. frutescens, P. cinereum var. parviflorum Hochr. is presented as a new synonym of D. laxiflora (DC.) Greenm., and P. scabriusculum var. macranthum Bureau & K. Schum. is presented as a new synonym of D. scabriuscula (Mart. ex DC.) A. H. Gentry.
Poa subg. Andinae Nicora (Poaceae, tribe Poeae) is raised to the rank of genus, here renamed as Nicoraepoa Soreng & L. J. Gillespie. Six specific and one infraspecific combinations are made: N. andina (Trin.) Soreng & L. J. Gillespie, N. chonotica (Phil.) Soreng & L. J. Gillespie, N. erinacea (Speg.) Soreng & L. J. Gillespie, N. pugionifolia (Speg.) Soreng & L. J. Gillespie, N. robusta (Steud.) Soreng & L. J. Gillespie, N. subenervis (Hack.) Soreng & L. J. Gillespie, and N. subenervis subsp. spegazziniana (Nicora) Soreng & L. J. Gillespie. Lectotypes are designated for N. pugionifolia and N. subenervis. Taxonomy and nomenclature of similar Southern Hemisphere island species of Poa L. and other related genera are discussed. Poa sect. Parodiochloa (C. E. Hubb.) Soreng is emended to include, in addition to P. flabellata (Lam.) Raspail, P. cookii (Hook. f.) Hook. f., P. foliosa (Hook. f.) Hook. f., P. hamiltoni Kirk, P. ramosissima Hook. f., and P. tennantiana Petrie. The one species of Tzvelevia E. B. Alexeev is reunited with Poa, and the genus is transferred to Poa sect. Tzvelevia (E. B. Alexeev) Soreng & L. J. Gillespie. Morphological and anatomical characteristics of Nicoraepoa, Poa sect. Parodiochloa, and similar genera in Poinae are compared. Leaf blade morphology and anatomy were found to be particularly useful in characterizing Nicoraepoa and related taxa. A key is provided to distinguish Nicoraepoa, Poa sect. Parodiochloa, and morphologically similar perennial genera of Poinae.