Urera Gaudich. is unique among Mesoamerican Urticaceae in having bright, fleshy fruits. Within Mesoamerica, there is significant confusion over the application of many names, especially U. corallina (Liebm.) Wedd., U. elata (Sw.) Griseb., and U. eggersii Hieron. Three new species, U. fenestrata A. K. Monro & Al. Rodr. (Costa Rica and Panama), U. guanacastensis A. K. Monro & Al. Rodr. (Costa Rica), and U. lianoides A. K. Monro & Al. Rodr. (Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Peru, and Bolivia), are described and illustrated on the basis of staminate flowers, staminate inflorescences, stem, leaf morphology, and habit. The affinities of the new species are discussed. The first record of ant associations for the genus is documented in relation to U. fenestrata. In addition, a key is presented to the 10 species of Urera recognized for Mesoamerica; nomenclatural review is given in which U. mitis (Vell.) Miq. is lectotypified; U. baccifera (L.) Gaudich. ex Wedd., U. caracasana (Jacq.) Griseb., U. mitis, and Urtica nitida Vell. are epitypified; and Urera denticulata Miq., U. eggersii, U. subpeltata Miq., and U. subpeltata var. morifolia Miq. are neotypified; and a list is provided of more than 900 exsiccatae from 13 herbaria.
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Vol. 96 • No. 2