Hondurodendron C. Ulloa, Nickrent, Whitef. & D. Kelly, a new monotypic genus endemic to Honduras, is here described and illustrated. The new species, H. urceolatum C. Ulloa, Nickrent, Whitef. & D. Kelly, is a dioecious tree, distinguished by its minute flowers borne on densely tomentose inflorescences, unique anthers opening by three valves, and a characteristic fruit totally enveloped by the accrescent calyx, which projects beyond the fruit. A molecular analysis based on four genes (nuclear small subunit [SSU] ribosomal DNA [rDNA], chloroplast rbcL, matK, and accD) placed this genus in a clade with Aptandra Miers, Harmandia Pierre ex Baill., Chaunochiton Benth., and Ongokea Pierre in the family Aptandraceae Miers.
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