Taxonomic revision of Gouania Jacq. (Rhamnaceae) is presented for the full extent of its range in North America, from Florida and Mexico through Central America to and including Panama, and the islands of the Caribbean region, including the Bahamas. Fifteen species are recognized, five of which are described and published as new: G. croatii A. Pool (Panama and Colombia), G. ferruginea A. Pool (Guatemala and Honduras), G. guiengolensis A. Pool (Oaxaca, Mexico), G. obamana A. Pool (Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, and Honduras), and G. pubidisca A. Pool (Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Nicaragua). Lectotypes are designated for Banisteria lupuloides L. [≡ G. lupuloides (L.) Urb.] (and the synonymous G. domingensis L.), G. colombiana Suess., G. glabriuscula Stokes, G. lupuloides var. aptera Urb., G. mexicana Sessé & Moc., G. mexicana Rose [≡ G. rosei Wiggins], G. paniculata Spreng., G. pubescens Poir. var. martinicensis Poir., G. pubescens var. pubescens, G. virgata Reissek var. virgata [≡ G. virgata var. guianensis Reissek], G. virgata var. brasiliensis Reissek, and Rhamnus polygama Jacq. [≡ G. polygama (Jacq.) Urb.] (and the synonymous G. tomentosa Jacq.). Epitypes are designated for B. lupuloides L. [≡ G. lupuloides] (and the synonymous G. domingensis L.), G. stipularis DC., and R. polygama Jacq. [≡ G. polygama] (and the synonymous G. tomentosa). A neotype is selected for R. domingensis Jacq. and a lectotype is designated for the equivalent name G. glabra Jacq.
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