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28 June 2017 Studying Plant–Pollinator Interactions in a Changing Climate: A Review of Approaches
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Plant–pollinator interactions are potentially at risk due to climate change. Because of the spatial and temporal variation associated with the effects of climate change and the responses of both actors, research to assess this interaction requires creative approaches. This review focuses on assessments of plants' and pollinators' altered phenology in response to environmental changes, as phenology is one of the key responses. I reviewed research methods with the goal of presenting the wide diversity of available techniques for addressing changes in these interactions. Approaches ranged from use of historical specimens to multisite experimental community studies; while differing in depth of historical information and community interactions, all contribute to assessment of phenology changes. Particularly insightful were those studies that directly assessed the environmental changes across spatial and temporal scales and the responses of plants and pollinators at these scales. Longer-term studies across environmental gradients, potentially with reciprocal transplants, enable an assessment of climate impacts at both scales. While changes in phenology are well studied, the impacts of phenology changes are not. Future research should include approaches to address this gap.
and Diane L. Byers "Studying Plant–Pollinator Interactions in a Changing Climate: A Review of Approaches," Applications in Plant Sciences 5(6), (28 June 2017).
Received: 14 February 2017; Accepted: 1 June 2017; Published: 28 June 2017

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