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1 October 2009 Checklist of the Birds of Aruba, Curaçao and Bonaire, South Caribbean
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Abstract

We present an updated checklist of the birds of the islands of Aruba, Curaçao and Bonaire, and the islets of Klein Curaçao and Klein Bonaire, southern Caribbean, and compare this with earlier checklists (K.H. Voous, Stud. Fauna Curaçao Carib. Isl. 7: 1–260, 1957; Ardea 53: 205–234, 1965; Birds of the Netherlands Antilles, 1983). The avifaunal composition of the three main islands is relatively similar (similarity coefficients of 74–78% for residents and 65–73% for migrants) whereas the two islets are, or were in the past, inhabited mainly by sea birds. The total number of recorded resident species for these islands has increased from 115 (1957) to 168 (2006), and of migrants from 117 (1957) to 236 (2006). This increase was most prominent for the island of Aruba (residents from 34 to 56, migrants from 28 to 166), and least for Curaçao (residents from 42 to 57, migrants from 55 to 168). Historically Klein Curaçao was an important nesting site for seabirds, i.e. boobies, gulls and terns, but mining of guano in the 19th century significantly lowered the ornithological value of the islet. Klein Bonaire suffered heavily from the presence of goats but is slowly recovering following their removal and the islet's inclusion.

Despite the presence of a large number of migrants, or non-breeding birds, the islands are of limited importance as a stop-over site for birds. Migrants arrive from both the north (boreal migrants from North and Middle America) and the south (austral migrants from South America). We illustrate the phenology of migration with the numbers of migrant warblers species and migrant gulls and terns, and the abundance of migrant raptors recorded on the three islands. While migrants can be observed in all months of the year, for the warblers and raptors there are clear peaks in boreal spring (Mar–Apr) and autumn (Oct–Nov), with few summering birds in the boreal summer. The gulls and terns appear to be present in more or less equal numbers during all months of the year.

About two-thirds of the breeding residents are either deemed common or rather common, and this proportion is consistent for all three islands. Of the breeding residents few are common or very common on one island, and at the same time scarce or very scarce on other islands. Notable exceptions are Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber that is an abundant breeding resident on Bonaire, a regular non-breeding visitor (with several attempts of breeding) in the low hundreds on Curaçao, but is only an irregular non-breeding visitor on Aruba. Yellow Oriole Icterus nigrogularis is common as a breeding resident on Curaçao, rather common on Bonaire, but scarce on Aruba.

The islands are home to six globally threatened or near-threatened species. Two species, the Caribbean Coot Fulica caribaea and the Yellow-shouldered Parrot Amazona barbadensis are represented by globally significant populations, whereas the other species (Piping Plover Charadrius melodus, Olivesided Flycatcher Contopus cooperi, Cerulean Warbler Dendroica cerulea and Golden-winged Warbler Vermivora chrysoptera) use the islands as over-wintering or stop-over site during migration. The Yellow-shouldered Parrot is found mainly on Bonaire, where there is a resident population of some 400 birds; small numbers are occasionally observed on Aruba and these may comprise migrant birds from Venezuela's Paraguaná Peninsula or may represent released birds. The Caribbean Coot is present on all three islands and its status on the islands has improved, with more breeding sites occupied and more birds present than in Voous's time. From a conservation perspective, a significant breeding population of Greater Flamingo on Bonaire and a smaller population on Curaçao are noteworthy as well as a breeding colony of Least Tern Sterna antillarum on Klein Bonaire. On the basis of the presence

INTRODUCTION

Formerly the islands of Aruba, Curaçao and Bonaire, and their satellite islets Klein Curaçao and Klein Bonaire, all situated north of Venezuela, belonged to the Netherlands Antilles, forming part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The Netherlands Antilles furthermore comprised the islands of Sint Eustatius, Saba and the southern half of the island of Sint Maarten / St Martin, located southeast of the Virgin Islands. Once a colony of the Netherlands, in 1954 the status of the Netherlands Antilles was changed from a colonial territory to part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands as a separate country. The island of Aruba was part of the Netherlands Antilles until 1986, when it was granted status aparte, becoming yet another part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands as a separate country. In the near future the southern part of Sint Maarten will be granted a similar status aparte as Aruba. Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius will become special municipalities of the Netherlands. For Curaçao negotiations are under way dealing with the future constitutional structure as an autonomous country that has at least the same status aparte as Aruba. When these constitutional changes are realized, the name Netherlands Antilles will no longer indicate any kind of political unity. For ease of reference we use the term ‘Netherlands Antilles’ to refer to the islands of Aruba, Curaçao and Bonaire collectively. The use of this term does not in any way imply an expression of opinion on the part of the authors as to the socio-political situation in the southern Caribbean.

The islands were ‘discovered’ by Alonso de Ojeda in 1499, and colonised by the Netherlands in the 17th century. With a minimum distance of c. 30 km Aruba is situated nearest to the South American mainland whereas this increases to 70 km for Curaçao, and to 87 km for Bonaire (Fig. 1).

Ornithologically the islands are best known because of the work of the late Professor Karel H. Voous who published extensively on the avifauna of the islands, although the first research on the islands' avifauna dates back to 1892 (Hartert 1893). Voous's 1955 publication was one of the first scientific regional checklists of the Caribbean region and with its updates (Voous 1957, 1965b, 1983; see also Spaans 1974) has been a standard work ever since.

The bird faunas of Aruba, Curaçao and Bonaire are typical for the region and like other faunas (Woods & Sergile 2001) form an impoverished representation of what is found in mainland South America. In addition the islands are used as a stop-over and wintering site for migrants from both the north and the south (Debrot & Prins 1992, Prins & Debrot 1996, Mlodinow 2004, 2006, in press, Wells & Child Wells 2001, 2002, 2004, 2005).

After the publication of the third updated checklist (Voous 1983), Voous (1985) published additions to the avifauna of the south Caribbean group drawing attention to the increase in number of species of birds observed in the area. Although he did not publish any new papers on the subject in later years, Voous retained his interest in the ornithology of the Netherlands Antilles, and especially the Leeward islands, until his death in 2002 (Drent et al. 2002, Wattel & Prins 2002, Debrot et al. 2003). He avidly corresponded with both professional ornithologists and birders on the three islands. In this manner a great amount of new data was amassed on common and rare species, including species new to the islands. In collaboration with the Zoological Museum Amsterdam (ZMA), where Voous formerly acted as head of the bird department, he supervised several students that conducted fieldwork on selected bird groups in the region. As such, a wealth of new information has accumulated on the avifauna of these islands, most of which remains unpublished. Quite a few of the data that have been published remain hidden in the grey literature, often published in Dutch, again hampering the accessibility of these newly acquired data.

Figure 1.

The Caribbean with just north of the South American mainland, the islands of Aruba, Curaçao and Bonaire.

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Since the early 1980s the Netherlands Antilles have seen a boom in tourism, facilitating many birders that make stop-overs on the islands. Not only did this result in an increase of our knowledge on the avifauna of the islands, but it also increased the need for an accurate and up to date checklist of the region. At the same time, the increase in tourism, and more general the increase in economic activities, has led to significant changes in land-use having its effect on the status of birds (Prins & Nijman 2005, Nijman et al. in press).

Combining all this, we considered the production of a new and updated checklist warranted. In 2001 the ZMA initiated a project aimed assembling, sorting, checking and scrutinising all records of the birds in the Netherlands Antilles. The aim of the present paper is to We first present our analysis of the data and secondly, we present the systematic checklist. In illustrating changes in species composition and analysing abundances of species, we focus on taxa for which we had most accurate and quantitative data, and we highlight taxa of conservation significance.

  • (1) provide an accurate list of species that occur on the three islands, including Dutch and Papiamentu names,

  • (2) assess the increase of residents and migrants recorded on the three islands,

  • (3) report on the changes in abundance and residential status in particular in reference to Voous' findings,

  • (4) report on the Important Bird Areas (sensu BirdLife) on the islands.

METHODS

Study area

Our study area comprises the islands of Aruba, Curaçao and Bonaire and their satellites. Aruba lies 75 km west of Curaçao and c. 30 km north of Venezuela's Paraguaná Peninsula. Its surface area is approximately 190 km2 and its highest point is the 189 m Jamanota hill. Rainfall averages 426 mm/year and the vegetation is typically xerophytic. Landscapes are dominated by sparse low scrub growth and the flora numbers 303 species (Stoffers 1981, de Freitas 1996, de Freitas & Rojer 2000). Curaçao, the largest of the three islands, has an area of 444 km2 and receives an average rainfall of 567 mm/year. The island's highest point is the 375 m Mt. Christoffel situated in the northern hilly part. The island has dense secondary woodlands and its flora numbers 491 species (Beers et al. 1997). Klein Curaçao lies c. 8 km southeast of Curaçao, is sparsely vegetated and measures a mere 1.3 km2. Bonaire lies 75 km east of Curaçao and 87 km north of Venezuela. Its surface is approximately 288 km2 and its highest point is the 241 m Brandaris hill. Rainfall averages 504 mm/year and the vegetation is xerophytic. There are large tracts of dense scrubland (3–4 m high) and evergreen woodlands, especially on the northern half of the island (de Freitas et al. 2005). The flora numbers 353 species (de Freitas & Rojer 2000). The island of Klein Bonaire, just off the westcoast of Bonaire measures c. 6 km2. Once covered in large trees it became severely degraded by the grazing of goats such that it is now covered mainly in dense shrubland.

While at present the islands are largely devoid of tall trees, in the past all three main islands have been at least partially covered in forest. The pre-colonization history of the Netherlands Antilles is poorly known, but the archaeological evidence indicates the presence of permanent settlements in Aruba at around 1100 BP (Versteeg & Rostain 1997). In their accounts, Amerigo Vespucci and Alonso de Ojeda in the late 15th and early 16th century mention the islands along the coast of Venezuela where most trees are of brazilwood Haematoxylon brasiletto. Versteeg & Ruiz (1995) give an account of the forests on Aruba. Since the arrival of Europeans, rapid growth of the population, felling of wood for private use and commerce, land cultivation and introduction of domestic animals have seriously affected the environment of the islands (Klosowska et al. 2004), and have led to a serious decrease in the amount of forested land. Klosowska et al. (2004), on the basis of sediment cores collected from Curaçao, demonstrate that since the establishment of permanent human settlements at around 1100 BP, watersheds have undergone intensive deforestation, especially during the European colonization at the beginning of the 16th century (Terpstra 1948, Beers et al. 1997). The presence of a high abundance of charred plant remains in two sediment cores dated at 900–1100 BP and 500 BP, respectively, representing land clearance by forest burning, indicates that land clearance by burning must have been a common practice by the newly arrived South American settlers. Deforestation resulting from agriculture and construction caused increased erosion.

The islets of Klein Curaçao and Klein Bonaire also have seen a dramatic change in their vegetation cover. Klein Curaçao must once have been an important breeding site for seabirds but especially in the 19th century the harvesting of their phosphorus deposits (guano from the birds) left a barren island with a restricted value for bird life. At present few trees are found apart from some coconut palms Cocos nucifera, although a rehabilitation programme is underway to establish a new natural vegetation. Nowadays Klein Bonaire is covered in shrub and bushy vegetation, and the odd lagoon, but photographs from the past show that much more tall trees were present (and indeed in the 1930s it was a breeding site of e.g. White-tailed Hawk Buteo albicaudatus; Rutten 1931) but also that the impact of hundreds of goats roaming the island has left little of the lower vegetation untouched. At present Klein Bonaire is part of the protected area network, and goats are no longer present, allowing the vegetation to recover.

Data acquisition

Our primary source of information for the checklist consisted of data we collected on the Netherlands Antilles during the last decade. We conducted fieldwork on the islands in 1997–1998 (Aruba: JHR), 2005–2006 (Curaçao, Bonaire, Klein Bonaire: VN), whereas AOD grew up on Curaçao where he has been actively engaged with native wildlife since his youth and employed as a resident biologist since 1989. During this period several students from the ZMA have conducted fieldwork in the islands; we used their unpublished reports for bird records. Secondly, the archives of Prof. K.H. Voous and Frater Candidus van der Linden (both stored at the ZMA) were searched for data on the birds and their environments. FCL was resident on the island of Bonaire from 1967 to 1995, while KHV visited the islands on several occasions between 1951 and 1989.

Thirdly, we obtained information on the birds of the Netherlands Antilles stored in various museums, partially through a search of their online databases, viz. American Museum of Natural History, New York (AMNH), Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelpia (ANSP), Cornell University Museum of Vertebrates, Ithaca (CU), Field Museum Natural History, Chicago (FMNH), National Museum of Natural History/Naturalis, Leiden (RMNH), United States Natural Museum/ Smithsonian Institution, Washington (USNM), and Zoological Museum Amsterdam (ZMA) (Table 1).

There is no taxonomic facility in the Netherlands Antilles, so for many years specimens have been sent to the ZMA. In addition we solicited data from the British Museum of Natural History, which houses the world's largest bird collection, but since the collection is not yet databased it was not possible to retrieve these data (M. Adams in litt.).

Fourthly, information on the birds of the Netherlands Antilles was solicited from observers and ornithologists that had visited the islands in recent years. Lastly, we conducted an extensive literature search, including unpublished (web-based) bird reports so as to obtain the relevant information.

For our species list we followed the systematic arrangement of Howard & Moore (Dickinson 2003). The geographical limits for seabirds included in the checklist are latitudes 11°45′–12°30′N and longitudes 68°00′–70°30′W. Some records of seabirds just outside this range have been included when they add significantly to the status information within the Netherlands Antilles. Their inclusion, however, does not pretend to be exhaustive. Furthermore, especially for seabirds it was not always possible to pinpoint their exact location, making it difficult to judge nearest to which island they were observed. Throughout the species accounts, islands and islets have been treated in a west-to-east order, viz. Aruba, Curaçao (including Klein Curaçao), Bonaire (including Klein Bonaire).

All existing reports of birds from the islands were scrutinised. Highly unlikely observations were discarded, whereas the less doubtful records were evaluated after additional data had been obtained from the observer. Searching the internet we did come across a number of sites that provided species lists for the different islands, including, occasionally, species not mentioned in our list. If additional details could be obtained by the webmaster these were considered for inclusion, if not, they were discarded.

Table 1.

Number of specimens (number of species) from Aruba, Curaçao and Bonaire stored in seven zoological museums (see text for abbreviations).

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For the older records, i.e. before 1983, we largely relied on Voous (1983) and Voous (1985). Records after 1983 were evaluated by us and by Voous, up until his death in 2002. Feral species are included once they have established themselves as a breeding population.

Analysis

We calculated measurements of similarity for the three islands for residents and migrants separately. We used Baroni-Urbani and Buser Coefficients (Krebs 1999):

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where SB = Baroni-Urbani and Buser similarity coefficient, a = number of species on island A and island B (joint occurrences), b = number of species on island A but not on B, c = number of species on island B but not on A, and d = number of species absent in A and B but otherwise present in the islands under study.

So as to obtain a greater insight in the migration of raptors over the islands, we scrutinised the (unpublished) travel diaries (11 in all) of K.H. Voous, and compiled a database of raptors for the islands (J. Booij, unpubl. data). Between 1951 and 1989 Voous visited the Netherlands Antilles six times for ornithological research; in all he spent 234 days in the field (Aruba, 32 field days; Curaçao, 106 field days; Bonaire, 96 field days). Biogeography, comparative ecology and systematics of raptors were Voous's main research themes (7/13 of his PhD students obtained their degree on studies on birds of prey), and he published copiously on these subjects. While in the field in the Antilles, he meticulously recorded all occurrences of raptors on a daily basis. We converted these entries to a quantitative database. Only days in which Voous had spent the larger part of the day in the field were included. When numbers of raptors were not explicitly quantified, remarks such as ‘a pair’ (‘een paar’), ‘several’ (‘verschillende’ or ‘diverse’), and ‘a many’ (‘steeds’, ‘heel wat’) were converted to numbers according to a fixed scheme. Following Voous (1983) all raptors that did not have a breeding population on the island are considered migrants. Given the close geographical proximity and comparable relative abundance of the species on the islands, data from the three islands were pooled to increase sample sizes for individual months and to increase the generality of our conclusions. Encounter rates during one month were tested against the encounter rate of the other months combined, with expected values generated based on a uniform temporal distribution corrected for observer effort.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Species richness and similarities between islands

We have documented 280 species, 54 of which are resident on the islands, 208 are migrants, and in addition 18 species have resident and migrant populations. The number of residents differs little between the three main islands, with 56 species occurring on Aruba, 57 species on Curaçao, and 55 species on Bonaire. Likewise, the number of migrants (including those species that also have resident populations) differs little between the three main islands, i.e. 168 species occurring on Curaçao, 166 species on Aruba and 167 species on Bonaire.

Similarity is largest between Curaçao and Bonaire, with a similarity coefficient of 0.78 for residents and 0.73 for migrants (Table 2). Ten residents and 57 migrants are found on Curaçao but not on Bonaire, and 8 residents and 36 migrants that occur on Bonaire are not found on Curaçao. Next is Aruba and Bonaire with a similarity coefficient of 0.75 for residents and 0.67 for migrants. Eleven residents and 44 migrants are found on Aruba but not on Bonaire, and 10 residents and 45 migrants that occur on Bonaire are not found on Aruba. The similarity between Aruba and Curaçao is least. They have a similarity coefficient of 0.74 for residents and 0.65 for migrants. Ten residents and 46 migrants are found on Aruba but not on Curaçao, and 11 residents and 48 migrants that occur on Curaçao are not found on Aruba. Curaçao is the most forested island and Aruba is the least forested island. The difference in aridity, secondary forest cover and plant diversity is great and probably contributes to the large difference in species composition.

The number of species recorded from the three islands has increased significantly over time (Fig. 2). In 1892, Hartert (1893) recorded a mere 38–40 species for each of the three islands, whereas there has been a steady increase ever since (Cory 1909, Rutten 1931, Voous 1955, 1957, 1965b, 1983, 1985). Differences in birding activities in the 1950s initially led to an increase in Bonaire only and later efforts in the 1960s resulted in an increase in species recorded for Curaçao and Aruba as well. The data also suggest that there has not been a decrease in the number of new species recorded over time, and that we can expect significantly more species to be recorded in the coming years.

Table 2.

Baroni-Urbani and Buser similarity coefficients between resident (upper right hand part) and migrant (lower left hand part) birds on the Netherlands Antilles.

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Figure 2.

Increase in species recorded in the Netherlands Antilles over time (time scale not linear).

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Breeding residents

The abundance of breeding birds in terms of number of species that are judged to be ‘abundant’, ‘common’, etc. differs little between the three islands (Table 3). Very few species are deemed abundant breeding residents, and those that are, are the same for the three islands. The exception is Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber that is an abundant breeding resident on Bonaire, an irregular non-breeding visitor on Aruba and a regular non-breeding visitor (with several attempts of breeding) in the low hundreds on Curaçao. Most breeding residents, about two-thirds, were deemed common or rather common and only a few species were considered scarce or very scarce breeding resident.

Interesting are those species that are common breeding residents in one island but, albeit present, far less common on another. Crested Caracara Caracara cheriway e.g. is considered a common breeding resident on Curaçao but a scarce breeding resident in Aruba and Bonaire. A similar pattern is present in the Yellow Oriole Icterus nigrogularis which as a breeding resident is a common on Curaçao, rather common on Bonaire, but scarce on Aruba.

A similar pattern as observed in the Greater Flamingo is observed in the Scaly-naped Pigeon Columba squamosa. It is a rather common breeding resident on Bonaire, but a scarce breeding resident on Curaçao and, although formerly breeding on Aruba is now not longer breeding on the island. Conversely, Laughing Gull Larus atricilla is a common breeding resident on Aruba but few breed on Curaçao or Bonaire. Rufous-collared Sparrow Zonotrichia capensis is common as a breeding bird on Curaçao, rather common on Aruba, but is no longer present on Bonaire, despite having been introduced in the 1950s. Similarly, Least Grebe Tachybaptus dominicus is a rather common breeding bird on Aruba and Curaçao but is a scarce breeding resident on Bonaire.

Migrant birds

Migration between North and South America roughly follows three distinct flyways (e.g. Zalles & Bildstein 2000). Many birds, particularly those breeding in western North America, migrate overland between North America and South America via the Mesoamerican Land Corridor. A second, less pronounced migration route follows the eastern arc of Caribbean islands, from Florida in the north to Trinidad and Tobago in the south. Mainly from recovery of ringed birds we know that others, including many that breed in eastern North America, migrate across the Caribbean Sea, including routes that follow the Florida-Cuba-Yucatan Peninsula (Santana & Temple 1987). Considering that the number of species recorded in the autumn migration period was considerable higher, with more individuals recorded, than in spring (but see Fig. 3), Voous (1957: 29) noted that spring migration “has up to now hardly been noticed” and later (Voous 1983: 24) that spring migration “is not very apparent in The Netherlands Antilles”.

On the islands 30 species of Parulidae have been recorded, one of which, Yellow Warbler Dendroica petechia, is resident. The other 29 species are migrants from North America, observed in the Netherlands Antilles during the winter months (Fig. 4). Small numbers of a few species such as Black-and-white Warbler Mniotilta varia and Common Yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas have also been observed during summer. The overall number of migrant warbler species is greatest in Oct–Nov with >25 species. Most species of warblers have been recorded on Bonaire (with 20 species in Nov alone), and decidedly less on Curaçao (just 12 species in Nov), probably because birding activity is lower there and birds are more concentrated than on Aruba and Bonaire. On Curaçao the number of species recorded during the return migration (Feb–Apr) is lower than that of the other two islands. Compared to the Venezuelan Paraguaná Peninsula (Bosque & Lentino 1987) more species have been recorded on the Netherlands Antilles. Considering the very small numbers observed in the Paraguaná Peninsula it is remarkable that there a higher number of warblers is recorded during the spring migration.

Table 3.

Status of breeding residents in the Netherlands Antilles (see status in the systematic list), showing that roughly an equal number of species fall in the different abundance classes on the different islands.

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Figure 3.

Number of migrants by month (including those species for which both resident and migrant species have been recorded on the islands).

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Figure 4.

Migrant warblers recorded in the Netherlands Antilles; presented are the number of species recorded for each of the individual islands.

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To date 26 species of gulls, terns (including noddies and skimmers) and skuas have been recorded in the Netherlands Antilles. Eight species also have breeding populations on the islands (1 gull, 7 terns on Aruba; 1 gull and 2 terns on Curaçao, 1 gull and 4 terns on Bonaire) that are augmented by migrants from surrounding areas. These migrants are observed during all months of the year, without any clear temporal pattern, or if anything a small lull in the winter months (Fig. 5). Most species have been recorded on and surrounding Aruba, where especially during spring and summer twice as many species can be found as on Bonaire and Curaçao.

Detailed studies on raptor migration based on visual counts in the Netherlands Antilles and indeed other parts of the Caribbean region are limited (cf. Rodriguez Santana et al. 2003), and few data are available on the spatial and temporal variation in the abundance of migrant raptors (cf. Nijman et al. 2005). The Netherlands Antilles do not appear to form part of any of the main migratory flyways (Voous 1983, Nijman et al. 2005).

Based on Voous's diaries the resident Crested Caracara (184 records), American Kestrel Falco sparverius (133), and White-tailed Hawk (65) were recorded by Voous in all months, as was the migrant Osprey Pandion haliaetus (124). Migrant Merlin Falco columbarius (15) and Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus (14) were recorded mostly in March and November (Fig. 6). Only a single Yellow-headed Caracara Milvago chimachima was observed in January. On average, 0.71 migrant raptors per day were seen, with monthly averages varying between 0–1.20 individuals/day (Fig. 6). Migrants were mostly recorded in March, October and November, and least in January, July and August.

Inspection of Fig. 6 suggests that the spring migration covers a 3 to 4-months period, when based on daily encounter rates some 65 migrants can be observed. The autumn migration occurs over a shorter time period, i.e. 2–3 months, during which some 80 migrants can be observed.

Encounter rates (individuals/day) of the three migrant species have increased between 1951–1961 and 1977–1989 (Table 4). This trend was significant for the Osprey, largely due to an increased abundance in March (χ2 = 5.82; df = 1; P < 0.025). For both peak migration months encounter rates of migrants were significantly higher in 1977–1989 than in 1951–1961 (March: χ2 = 7.27, if = 1, P < 0.01; October: χ2 = 4.06, df = 1, P < 0.05). In contrast to the migrants, encounter rates of resident species decreased, significantly so for the Crested Caracara and American Kestrel (Table 4). Whether or not this decrease continued in more recent times is open for further research but cursorial observations on Curaçao at least suggest that the Crested Caracara shows an increase in numbers.

Figure 5.

Migrant gulls, terns and skuas recorded in the Netherlands Antilles; presented are the number of species recorded for each of the individual islands, as well as the cumulative numbers.

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Figure 6.

Temporal variation in abundance (birds/day) of three migrant raptors on Aruba, Curaçao and Bonaire, between 1951 and 1989 based on the travel diaries of K.H. Voous. Note that no data are available for the month of February.

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Four distinct phases can be recognized for raptor migration on the Leeward Islands of the Netherlands Antilles, i.e. a sharp peak in October–November when migrants pass the islands on their southward journey, followed by a lull in December–January with a small number of over-wintering birds. A second peak, consisting of birds returning to their breeding grounds, is observed in February–March. During boreal summer, only few migrants remain in the islands, largely, and between May and September exclusively Ospreys.

Conservation-dependent species

Six globally threatened and near-threatened species of birds have been recorded in the Netherlands Antilles, two of them are represented by resident populations, breeding on the islands; the remainder are migrants from North America or the Caribbean region. Of the two resident species, the Yellow-shouldered Parrot Amazona barbadensis and the Caribbean Coot Fulica caribaea, significant populations are found in the Netherlands Antilles: the former especially on Bonaire (Collar et al. 1992), the latter on all three islands (Nijman et al. 2008). From the small number of threatened migrants recorded in the Netherlands Antilles we have to conclude that it is unlikely that they represent a significant wintering area. On the other hand, by their very nature, the threatened migrants easily evade observation, and this has been exacerbated by the low observer coverage, especially during the winter months.

Apart from the Netherlands Antilles, the Yellowshouldered Parrot occurs in a few disjunct areas along the northern coastlands of Venezuela and on the Venezuelan islands of Margarita and La Blanquilla (Rodriguez-Ferraro & Sanz 2007, Sanz & Grajal 1998). Especially in Venezuela, where there is a strong internal pet market, the species is widely exploited for trade, and this, combined with its small population size, justifies it being considered Vulnerable according to IUCN threat criteria (Collar et al. 1992, IUCN 2006). Numbers on the mainland seem generally low, whereas those on La Blanquilla and Margarita have declined considerably, albeit that the population on the latter island is now being augmented by captive-bred birds (Sanz & Grajal 1998). Within the Netherlands Antilles, the largest population, and the only one that is with certainty not comprised of released birds only, is found on Bonaire, and numbers some 400 birds. On Aruba, Yellow-shouldered Parrot might have gone extinct in the late 1940s but since then singles, pairs and small parties have been observed irregularly. Some of these refer with certainty to released or escaped cage birds, but others may originate from the Paraguaná Peninsula (30 km to the southwest), where a small population of 30–40 birds remains (Collar et al. 1992). Whether or not the Yellow-shouldered Parrot historically was present on Curaçao is difficult to assess — the island's position in relation to Bonaire, Aruba, the Paraguaná Peninsula and indeed mainland Venezuela suggest it did — but in recent years the species is consistently recorded in small numbers doubtlessly partly consisting of escaped cage birds. In all, the population of Yellowshouldered Parrot in the islands represents a significant proportion of the global total, and hence is of global conservation importance.

Table 4.

Encounter rates (birds/day) with migrant and resident raptors in the Netherlands Antilles, between 1951 and 1989 based on the travel diaries of K.H. Voous.

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The Caribbean Coot (Vulnerable; Nijman et al. 2008) has suffered a marked decline throughout the Caribbean as a result of hunting pressures, habitat degradation and introduced predators, and has become extirpated as a breeding bird on some islands in the region (Frost & Massiah 2001, McNair & Cramer-Burke 2006, Nijman et al. 2008). Formerly it used to be uncommon in Aruba, Curaçao and Bonaire, breeding only when sufficient surface water was available (Voous 1983). However, since the 1980s the species has become more numerous on all three islands, and can now be observed in the hundreds (Prins & Nijman 2005, Prins et al. 2005). Both because of this increase, and given its precarious situation on many of the Caribbean islands, the population in the Netherlands Antilles is of significant global importance.

Three globally threatened songbirds and one threatened wader have been recorded as migrant in the Netherlands Antilles, i.e. the Olive-sided Flycatcher Contopus cooperi (Near-Threatened), the Cerulean Warbler Dendroica cerulea (Vulnerable), the Golden-winged Warbler Vermivora chrysoptera (Near-Threatened) and the Piping Plover Charadrius melodus (Vulnerable). The Olive-sided Flycatcher has faced population declines throughout its range. Habitat loss and alteration of forest management practices in its breeding grounds do not appear to explain this observed decline, and it has been suggested that loss or alteration of habitat in the wintering grounds may affect populations negatively. Olive-sided Flycatcher has been recorded on Bonaire in small numbers, confirmation of the species′ presence on Curaçao or Aruba is pending. Despite perhaps being overlooked, these islands do not appear important wintering grounds. Likewise for the Cerulean Warbler, the Netherlands Antilles do not appear to be an important wintering area, as it is recorded in small numbers on Bonaire only. Furthermore, the species is threatened primarily due to continuing habitat loss and fragmentation on its breeding grounds, although conversion of forest in its wintering areas may have attributed to its decline (BirdLife 2000). The Golden-winged Warbler has seen a decline in parts of its breeding range, but an increase in others (BirdLife 2000). Local declines correlate with advancing succession and reforestation, and the invasive range expansion of Blue-winged Warbler Vermivora pinus (Confer 1992). Loss of forest edge and open woodland on its wintering grounds, is another possible cause of its population decline. The species has been recorded only once on Bonaire, which argues against the idea that the islands are an important wintering area.

Of the Piping Plover Charadrius melodus some 6500 birds remain on their breeding grounds in North America, where the main threats are drought, inappropriate water and beach management, and disturbance (BirdLife 2000). The species uses the sandy beaches and tidal mudflats of Bonaire during the wintering period, but given the limited number of observations, it is difficult to assess how important the island is as a wintering area.

While the Greater Flamingo is not globally threatened, the breeding populations on especially Bonaire are large enough to be of global conservation importance. Intriguingly, Rutten (1931) observed no flamingos on the Pekelmeer (noting however, that they did breed there) but several hundreds were observed on Lake Goto on Bonaire. None were observed on Aruba and Curaçao. In the mid 1940s, after being disturbed by a plane and speedboat, for several years the flamingos no longer bred on Pekelmeer. In the 1950s the population had recovered to some 1000 pairs, and stragglers were reported from Curaçao and Aruba (Rooth 1965). At present some 5000 pairs breed on Pekelmeer, and several hundreds can be found on Lake Goto (Ligon 2006). Flamingos are occassionally observed on Aruba, but on Curaçao a population of over a hundred birds is present year-round, with (unsuccessful) breeding attempts in three locations in recent years.

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife (e.g. Heath & Evans 2000) recognises so-called Important Bird Areas (IBA) as sites that are of international importance for bird conservation. IBAs are defined as sites that (A1) regularly hold significant numbers of a globally threatened species, or species of global conservation concern (Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable, Near-Threatened, and Conservation Dependent species, but also species that are listed as Data Deficient: IUCN 2006). Other criteria for the status of IBA are (A2) that a site holds a significant number of a species that occurs only in a restricted range, or (A3) a biome-restricted species, or (A4) that a site is known to hold, on a regular basis, >1% of a global or biogeographic population of a congregatory waterbird or seabird species.

Following the criteria Al and A4 for IBAs as outlined in Heath & Evans (2000: 11–19), Nijman (2007) identified nine IBAs for Aruba, Curaçao, and Bonaire, some of which, in addition to birds, have important populations of endemic snails, butterflies, freshwater fish, mammals, reptiles, and sea turtles (Husson 1960, van Marken Lichtenbelt et al. 1993, Debrot & Pors 1995, Debrot 2003, Miller et al. 2003, Hulsman et al. 2008, Moolenbeek, unpubl. data). Since then, an inventory has been published of the IBAs in Aruba, Curaçao and Bonaire (Wege & Anadón 2008), increasing the number of IBAs in the islands to fifteen (Fig. 7).

On Aruba there are four IBAs (del Nevo 2008): Bubali Bird Sanctuary (Mlodinow 2004, 2006), Tierra del Sol Saliña, Oranjestad Reef Islands and San Nicolas Bay Reef Keys (van Halewijn et al. 1984, van Halewijn 1985, 1990). Bubali, a former saltpan, fed by a sewage treatment plant, and now turned into a freshwater marshland, is important for global bird conservation, because of the presence of the Vulnerable Caribbean Coot Fulica caribaea (Nijman et al. 2008) and the biome-restricted Bare-eyed Pigeon Columba corensis. Also in Tierra del Sol Saliña the Caribbean Coot and the Bare-eyed Pigeon occur. In addition this site shows a rich diversity of ducks, herons and other waterbirds. The Oranjestad Reef Islands are significant for their breeding terns, primarily the northern South American subspecies of the Sandwich Tern Sterna sandvicensis eurygnatha. The San Nicolas Bay Reef Keys, off the southwest coast of Aruba, are critically important on account of the presence of large breeding colonies of Sandwich Tern (up to 3500 nests), Sooty Tern Sterna fuscata (3200 nests), Roseate Tern Sterna dougallii (100 nests), Common Tern Sterna hirundo (100 nests), Least Tern Sterna antillarum (100 nests), and Bridled Tern Sterna anaethetus (100 nests).

Figure 7.

Important Bird Areas of Aruba, Curaçao and Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles (from BirdLife International 2008).

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Curaçao harbours five IBAs (Debrot & Wells 2008): North-east Curaçao parks and coast, Malpais-St Michiel (Anonymous 1989), Dam Muizenberg, Jan Thiel Lagoon and the islet of Klein Curaçao. North-east Curaçao Parks and coast includes Christoffel National Park, named after the highest hill on the island, which holds a significant list of bird species among which are the Bare-eyed Pigeon and the restricted range Caribbean Elaenia Elaenia martinica. In addition, some 500 Least Terns breed on the coast of the area. The IBA status of both Malpais-St Michiel and Muizenberg is based on the presence of tens to hundreds of Caribbean Coot (Prins et al. 2005), and also because of the regular occurrence of hundreds of Greater Flamingo. The shrubland of Malpais-St Michiel is important for the Caribbean Elaenia and Bare-eyed Pigeon. The rather small wetland of Klein Hofje, adjacent to the sewage treatment facility at the head of Piscadera Bay, though not listed as an IBA, harbours regularly a small breeding population of the Caribbean Coot. It may be considered a valuable link in the chain of breeding places for the species. Many other waterbirds are also regularly observed there. Jan Thiel Lagoon is an area of outstanding natural beauty, and harbours large numbers of bird species, including a substantial population of (nonbreeding) Greater Flamingos. Unfortunately, given the regular disturbance caused by tourists and recreationists (A. Brijder, unpubl. data), as well as the sub-optimal conditions of the lagoon for boosting large populations of brine flies and brine shrimps, it may not be expected that flamingos will start to breed in the area. The lagoon is nesting habitat to 75 pairs of Common Tern and variably (e.g. in 1996) more than 100 pairs of Least Tern (Debrot et al. 2009), though recently the numbers have been smaller. With adequate protection even the formerly numerous Sandwich Tern (Ansingh et al. 1960) might return to nest here again. Klein Curaçao is significant for its breeding population of Least Tern, 286 of which nested in 2002. Historically, far greater numbers of terns bred at the islet, including Sandwich Terns (Junge & Voous 1955).

Bonaire boasts the largest number of IBAs in the Netherlands Antilles, six in all (Wells & Debrot 2008): Washington-Slagbaai National Park, Dos Pos, Washikemba-Fontein-Onima, Klein Bonaire, Lac Bay and Pekelmeer Saltworks. Washington-Slagbaai National Park, including Lake Goto, and a northeastern extension towards the village of Rincon, is an IBA because of the presence of a significant population of the Vulnerable Yellow-shouldered Parrot (Collar et al. 1992) and the Caribbean Coot (Nijman et al. 2008). The restricted range species Caribbean Elaenia and Pearly-eyed Thrasher Margarops fuscatus both breed at the site and also significant populations of the Greater Flamingo (Rooth 1965), Sandwich Tern and Least Tern. Dos Pos is important for its population of the Vulnerable Yellow-shouldered Parrot. In winter, c. 40% of the island's parrots roost in the IBA. Bare-eyed Pigeon, Caribbean Elaenia and Pearly-eyed Thrasher all occur at this site. Nearby Washikemba-Fontein-Onima is considered an IBA through the presence of a breeding population of Caribbean Coot. However, because of poor maintenance of Dam Onima water leaks away, leading to desiccation of the lake during the end of the dry season, thus reducing the value of the IBA. The islet of Klein Bonaire qualifies as an IBA on account of the presence of a breeding colony of around 200 Least Tern (Wells & Child Wells 2006, Wells & Debrot 2008). Also Bare-eyed Pigeon and Caribbean Elaenia are found here. Lac Bay on the south-east side of Bonaire is a documented roost site for Yellow-shouldered Parrot. Numbers of Greater Flamingo occasionally exceed 200, and the IBA supports good numbers of breeding and wintering shorebirds, breeding herons and breeding Least Terns. In the south of Bonaire, the Pekelmeer harbours a breeding colony of thousands of the Greater Flamingo, the largest in the Caribbean (Rooth 1965, Collar et al. 1992). The surrounding larger saltworks area further harbours some 180 nesting pairs of Least Tern, 30 pairs of Common tern, 85 pairs of Royal Tern and 85 pairs of Sandwich Tern (Debrot et al. 2009). The irregular presence of the Vulnerable Piping Plover adds to the value of the IBA.

Plate 1.

Map of Aruba, Curaçao and Bonaire. Indicated are locations of photographs, referring to plate numbers.

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Plate 2.

Professor K.H. Voous and his wife on Bonaire, 1951. (Photographer unknown)

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Plate 3.

Lake Goto, kibrahachas. (Photo G. van Buurt)

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Plate 4.

Salt Co saltpans. (Photo G. van Buurt)

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Plate 5.

Rooi Lamoenchi. (Photo A. Debrot)

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Plate 6.

Arikok National Park, Cunucu Arikok. (Photo G. van Buurt)

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Plate 7.

San Nicolas Bay Reef Keys. (Photo A. Debrot)

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Plate 8.

Hill near Alto Vista, Mt. Arikok on background. (Photo A. Debrot)

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Plate 9.

Boca Prins. (Photo B. Denneman/Vogelbescherming)

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Plate 10.

Arikok National Park, tonalite rocks. (Photo B. Denneman/Vogelbescherming)

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Plate 11.

Savaneta. (Photo S. Mlodinow)

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Plate 12.

Tierra del Sol. (Photo S. Mlodinow)

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Plate 13.

Bubali. (Photo A. Debrot)

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Plate 14.

View of western Curaçao countryside, with Ascención country house. (Photo G. van Buurt)

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Plate 15.

Hato area, limestone terrace. (Photo A. Debrot)

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Plate 16.

Isla Makuaku, Magnificent Frigatebirds. (Photo G. van Buurt)

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Plate 17.

Limestone terrace near Daaibooi. (Photo A. Debrot)

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Plate 18.

Isla Makuaku. (Photo G. van Buurt)

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SYSTEMATIC LIST

Names of species

The scientific and English names and the sequence of species are with a single exception identical to those given in Dickinson (2003), The Howard & Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World — third edition. The genus Piranga, placed under Genera Incertae Sedis in Dickinson (2003), is incorporated in the Thraupidae (C.S. Roselaar, pers. comm.). The Dutch names (Du) are those given in Walters (1997). Common local names are included as follows: Ar denotes Papiamento as spoken on Aruba, Cu denotes Papiamuntu as spoken on Curaçao, and Bo denotes Papiamen as spoken on Bonaire. Local names were coined for species without names in the native Papiamentu by borrowing from Dutch, English or Venezuelan Spanish common names, so as to provide a complete list of local names for lay use in the future. When scientific names differ from those mentioned in Voous (1983), the old name is given as a synonym. The cut-off date for including new data is 31 December 2006. An exception has been made for species recorded for the first time in the islands after that date.

Range

The range covers the distribution of the entire species. For migratory species the winter area is outlined. When relevant, additional information is given for occurrence of the species on the mainland of northern South America, e.g. Colombia and Venezuela. The indication ‘Middle America’ is understood to include Mexico. ‘Central America’ comprises Guatemala to Panama. The geographical limits for seabirds included in the checklist are latitudes 11°45′–12°30′ and longitudes 68°00′–70°30′W. Occasionally additional breeding information is given for seabirds.

Habitat

The habitat description applies to the species range and not only to its range in the Netherlands Antilles.

Status

The status of a species is given for each island separately except when it is the same for all three islands. In such cases it is indicated once at the beginning of the status account, even though details for individual islands may be listed. In addition, we provide information on specimens in the collections of the zoological institutions listed below. When a series of observations are made by the same observer or are mentioned in the same publication, the reference is given at the end of such a series. The following categories of occurrence are mentioned:

  • Breeding resident

  • Breeding visitor

  • Irregular breeding visitor

  • Non-breeding visitor

  • Passage migrant

  • Casual visitor

Tentatively the following categories of abundance are given, but these are primarily subjective and intended to give a general indication. Since the publication of Voous (1983) no long-lasting ornithological research has been performed on the islands. Most of the recent records mentioned in this list were obtained from local bird watchers, from people who stayed in the islands on holiday or birding expeditions and from short research projects by students of the Zoological Museum Amsterdam. Further research is certainly necessary to get a thorough year-round impression of the abundance of the species on the islands.

Breeding birds

  • Abundant

  • Common

  • Rather common

  • Rather scarce

  • Scarce

  • Very scarce

Non-breeding birds

  • Large numbers

  • Rather large numbers

  • Rather small numbers

For species occurring only rarely in any particular island the following terms are used:

  • Regular non-breeding visitor: >20 records

  • Non-breeding visitor in small numbers: 10–20 records

  • Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers: 4–10 records

  • Casual visitor: 1–3 records

Specimens listed are from the following museums:

  • AMNH (American Museum of Natural History, New York)

  • ANSP (Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia)

  • CU (Cornell University Museum of Vertebrates, Ithaca)

  • FMNH (Field Museum Natural History, Chicago)

  • RMNH (National Museum of Natural History/Naturalis, Leiden)

  • USNM (United States Natural Museum/Smithsonian Institution, Washington)

  • ZMA (Zoological Museum Amsterdam)

Abbreviations of names of observers mentioned in the checklist:

  • AK A. van der Kooi

  • AOD A.O. Debrot

  • BDB B. de Boer

  • CB C. Beachell

  • CJH C.J. Hey

  • DFM D.F. Meijer

  • DMCP D.M.C. Poppe

  • EJ E. Jansen

  • FCL Brother C. van der Linden†

  • FHA F.H. Ansingh†

  • GJR G.J. Rorijs†

  • HJK H.J. Koelers†

  • JCL J.C. Ligon

  • JHR J.H. Reuter

  • KHV K.H. Voous†

  • LS L. Spoormakers

  • RM R. Messemaker

  • RVH R. van Halewijn

  • SGM S.G. Mlodinow

  • SS S. Stapert

  • TDK T. de Kort

ODONTOPHORIDAE

Crested Bobwhite Colinus cristatus

  • Du: Kuifbobwhite Ar: Patrishi, Cucui, Patrushi Cu, Bo: Sloké, Slòke

  • Range From W Guatemala south to E Brazil.

  • Habitat Arid lowlands, scrub, savannas.

  • Status Rather common breeding resident on Aruba and Curaçao.Aruba Three specimens 1892 (AMNH); 13 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 1 specimen 1974 (ZMA). Curaçao Four specimens, 1892 (2), sine die (2) (AMNH); 7 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 2 specimens, 1930, 1936 (RMNH); 1 specimen sine die (USNM); 19 specimens, 1951, 1952 (11), 1953 (2), 1954 (2), 1989, 1991, sine die (ZMA). Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu: C. c. cristatus of coastal regions of Colombia and Venezuela.

ANATIDAE

White-faced Whistling Duck Dendrocygna viduata

  • Du: Witwangfluiteend Ar: Pato pigigi cara blanco Cu, Bo: Patu pidjidji kara blanku

  • Range Discontinuous. Tropical Middle and South America, including some islands in the Caribbean; also tropical Africa. Common in N Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Marshes, swamps, lagoons, rivers.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. One record of a single bird, Bubali, 17 Aug 1982 (DFM). Curaçao Casual visitor. Two birds, Groot Santa Martabaai, 19–30 May 1957 (P.A. van der Werf); 28 birds, Malpais, 28 Apr 1972 (W. Bokma); several records from Klein Hofje in 1990s (no specified date, J. van der Woude). Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Black-bellied Whistling Duck Dendrocygna autumnalis

  • Du: Zwartbuikfluiteend Ar: Pato pigigi barica preto Cu, Bo: Patu pidjidji barika pretu

  • Range From S USA south to C South America and the West Indies. Common in N Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Marshes, lagoons, stream borders.

  • Status Aruba Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Two birds at sea near Arashi (opposite the lighthouse), 10 Sep 1977 (EJ, slide examined by KHV); 1 bird seen at the reef off San Nicolas, 8 Jul 1981 (R. Stanley); 5 birds, Bubali, 7 Aug 2002 (TDK). Curaçao Rather scarce breeding resident. Since 1991 present throughout the year (GJR, AOD). Since 1992 considered resident at the sewage plant at Klein Hofje. First breeding observed 1993. Occasionally observed elsewhere, e.g. 15 birds, Saliña Daaibooi, 31 Mar 2005 (AOD). Bonaire Casual visitor. Thirteen birds near Sabana, 29 Jan 1981 (Dr and Mrs Boyer, FCL, colour-slides examined by KHV); adult on temporary pool near Lagun, 25 May 2004 (SS in Ligon 2006, photo examined by JCL).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: probably D. a. discolor of South America and the West Indies.

Fulvous Whistling Duck Dendrocygna bicolor

  • Du: Rosse Fluiteend Ar: Pato pigigi kané Cu, Bo: Patu pidjidji kané

  • Range Discontinuous. Predominantly tropical and subtropical zones of the Americas, the West Indies, Africa and Asia. Formerly common, but now rare, in Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Fresh and brackish shallow waters, marshes, lagoons, wet fields.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. One record of 4 birds, 27 Feb–May, and probably through to Sep 1965 (L.A. Peterson). One of these birds shot and mounted (private collection, colour-slide examined by KHV). Curaçao No records. Bonaire Casual visitor. One record of 4 adult birds, freshwater lakes of Onima and Playa Grandi, 9 Mar–25 May 1975 (FCL, A.L. Spaans, A.A. van den Boogaard). Additional records made less likely by dramatic population decline in N South America.

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons

  • Du: Kolgans Ar: Ganso cara blanco Cu, Bo: Gans kara blanku

  • Range North America and Eurasia. Unrecorded in Venezuela (Hilty 2003) and south of Cuba in the West Indies (Raffaele et al. 1998).

  • Habitat Tundra, lakes, marshes, wet meadows, estuaries.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. One record of adult bird at Bubali, Jun 1980 (AK, colour-slides examined by KHV).

  • Curaçao and Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar: probably A. a. frontalis from North America.

Comb Duck Sarkidiornis melanotos

  • Du: Knobbeleend Ar: Pato bòlòbònchi Cu, Bo: Patu bòlòbònchi

  • Range Circumtropical in America (generally absent from Amazonia), Africa and continental Asia. Uncommon in Venezuela, but disperses widely from May into October (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Lakes, ponds, marshes, wooded swamps and rivers.

  • Status Casual visitor. Aruba Four males, Bubali, 20 Aug 1982 (DFM, TDK); 4 males, Bubali, 20 Aug 1992 (DFM, TDK, D.J. Boerwinkel). Curaçao Single bird, Malpais, 30 Mar 1971 (E. van Campen); 9 birds same place, same date, on film (W. Bokma, film examined by KHV). Bonaire Eight birds, Washikemba, 3 Apr 1975 (FCL); 1 adult male, Mona Pasashi, 18 Apr 1981 (FCL); 6 birds, temporary freshwater ponds east of entrance to Washington-Slagbaai National Park, 10 Mar 2000 (SS in Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: probably S. m. sylvicola from South America.

American Wigeon Anas americana

  • Du: Amerikaanse Smient Ar: Pato amerikana Cu, Bo: Patu merikano

  • Range Boreal North America. Winters along the Atlantic and Pacific coast of North America, Middle America, south to NW South America and the West Indies. Found nearly annually in Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Lakes, marshes, ponds, shallow coastal waters and farmland.

  • Status Non-breeding winter visitor in small numbers, largely depending on the presence of seasonal freshwater ponds between Oct and May. Curaçao Four specimens, 1952, 1955 (3) (ZMA). Bonaire A male ringed in North Dakota on 14 Aug 1956 was recovered in Bonaire 9 Dec 1956 (Luciana M. Thodé); 1 bird in flock of 70 Blue-winged Teal, Washikemba, 1 Nov 2001 (JCL and L. Sall in Ligon 2006); several on pond near entrance Washington-Slagbaai National Park, 17 Dec 2004 (JCL and T. Hunefeld in Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Mallard Anas platyrhynchos

  • Du: Wilde Eend Ar: Pato rabo di krùl Cu, Bo: Patu rabu di krùl

  • Range Primarily throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Unrecorded in Venezuela (Hilty 2003), but records exist for many islands in Lesser Antilles (Raffaele et al. 1998).

  • Habitat Shallow water of ponds, lakes, marshes. In winter also cultivated fields.

  • Status Aruba and Curaçao No records. Bonaire Casual visitor. One adult female, Mona Pasashi, 19 Sep 1983 (FCL, Mrs B. Lüsse, colour-slides examined); 1 adult female, Lac, 16 Apr 1985 (FCL); 1 female, Mona Pasashi, 11 Jul 1985 (FCL, the observer suggested that these 1985 records could be from the same bird); 1 adult female, Playa Grandi, 6 Dec 1989 (FCL).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Bo: probably A. p. platyrhynchos from North America.

Blue-winged Teal Anas discors

  • Du: Blauwvleugeltaling Ar: Pato morèkè Cu, Bo: Patu morèkè

  • Range Boreal North America; winters from S USA, Middle America, south to C Peru, C Argentina, S Brazil and the West Indies.

  • Habitat Ponds, lagoons, freshwater and brackish marshes, sluggish streams.

  • Status Regular non-breeding visitor. Present throughout the year in varying numbers. Parties of up to 250 birds recorded irregularly, depending on the presence of freshwater ponds. Aruba One specimen 1979 (ZMA). Curaçao Eight specimens, 1951 (2), 1954 (2), 1955 (2), 1977, 1997 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Cinnamon Teal Anas cyanoptera

  • Du. Kaneeltaling Ar: Pato koló kané Cu, Bo: Patu koló kané

  • Range W Canada and W USA south to C Mexico. In South America C Colombia and from C Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay and S Brazil south to the Straits of Magellan. Winters from SW USA to NW and C South America. Several small resident populations in Colombia (Hilty & Brown 1986) have resulted in only one Venezuelan record (Hilty 2003). Multiple records throughout the West Indies, including the Lesser Antilles (Raffaele et al. 1998).

  • Habitat Shallow freshwater with abundant water vegetation, sluggish streams, marshy grasslands.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. One male, Tierra del Sol, 30 Oct 2007 (Mlodinow in press, colour-photo examined).

  • Curaçao and Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar: ssp unidentified, but most likely the North American A. c. septentrionalium which occasionally migrates as far south as Panama and N Colombia (Madge & Burn 1988, Evarts 2005); the West Indian records also presumed to pertain to this subspecies (Raffaele et al. 1998).

Northern Shoveler Anas clypeata

  • Du: Slobeend Ar: Pato boca hancho Cu, Bo: Patu boka hanchu

  • Range North-western North America and temperate Eurasia. Winters from the western USA, Gulf coast and Atlantic coast from Maryland south to Middle and N South America, Bermuda and the West Indies. Also W and S Europe, N tropics of Asia and Africa. Scarce non-breeding visitor to N Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Ponds, lagoons, marshes, sluggish streams. In winter also brackish marshes.

  • Status Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Aruba Most records from Bubali: 1 male and 1 female, 7 Jan–11 Feb 1978 (EJ, AK); 1 male, 5 Jan 1980 (AK); 15–20 birds, Mar 1988 (RVH and others); 9 birds, 21 Feb 1993 (D.W. Finch); 6 birds, 8 Feb 1997 (EJ); 4 males, 17 Apr 1998 (JHR); 2 males, Tierra del Sol, 10 Jan 2001 (H. Farber); 2 males, Tierra del Sol, 23 Mar 2003 (SGM and CB). Curaçao Two birds, de Savaan, 3 Dec 1994 (BDB); 2 birds, de Savaan, 10 Dec 1994 (BDB, possibly the same birds); 1 bird, Malpais, 29 Oct 1995 (BDB); 1 bird, Klein Hofje, 29 Oct 1996 (BDB); 2 birds, Klein Hofje, 30 Oct 1997 (BDB). Bonaire Three males, Saliña Bartol and 3 males, Saliña Funchi (suggested by observer to be probably the same birds), 31 Dec 1972–5 Jan 1973 (A.L. Spaans); 2 adults, Lac Bacuna, 25 Sep 1984 (FCL); 5 adults, Washikemba, 29 Sep 1985 (FCL); 1 adult, Onima, 13 Jan 1986 (FCL); 3 adults, Playa Grandi north, 16 Feb 1986 (FCL); 2 males and 1 female, temporary freshwater pond near mangrove-lined dirt road leading to Lac Cai, 10 Mar 2000 (JCL and SS in Ligon 2006); 4 birds in a flock of Blue-winged Teal, Washikemba, 1 Nov 2001 (JCL and L. Sall in Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

White-cheeked Pintail Anas bahamensis

  • Du: Bahamapijlstaart Ar: Pato di aña Cu, Bo: Patu di aña

  • Range Tropical and subtropical parts of the Americas and the West Indies.

  • Habitat Freshwater lakes, ponds, mangroves, marshes, coastal waters.

  • Status Rather common breeding resident and possibly passage migrant as numbers vary during the year. Observed the year round on fresh water ponds. Curaçao One specimen 1911 (FMNH); 1 specimen sine die (USNM); 3 specimens, 1953, 1955, 1956 (ZMA). Bonaire Two specimens 1951 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: A. b. bahamensis of the West Indies and N (coastal) South America.

Northern Pintail Anas acuta

  • Du: Pijlstaart Ar: Pato rabo largo Cu, Bo: Patu rabu largu

  • Range Temperate and cold North America and Eurasia. Winters along Atlantic and Pacific coast south of the breeding range. Recorded only three times in Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Lakes, rivers, marshes, ponds, barrens, tundra. In winter also estuaries.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. One male, Tierra del Sol, 23 Mar 1997 (JHR); 1 male, Bubali, 3 Jul 2002 (TDK); 1 male, Tierra del Sol, 23–30 Mar 2003 (Mlodinow 2004). Curaçao No records. Bonaire Casual visitor. One male and 1 female, Playa Grandi, 2–9 Feb 1980 (FCL and P. Boyer); 1 bird on freshwater pond near Cai, 10 Mar 2001 (JCL and P.H. in Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Common Teal/Green-winged Teal Anas crecca

  • Du: Wintertaling Ar: Pato ala bèrdè Cu, Bo: Patu ala bèrdè

  • Range Boreal North America, N and C Europe and Asia. Winters in southern part of the breeding range. The North American population south to Central America and the West Indies; the Eurasian population south to N Africa and SE Asia. Unrecorded in Venezuela (Hilty 2003), but at least one record from Colombia (Hilty & Brown 1986) and three from Trinidad and Tobago (ffrench 1991).

  • Habitat Shallow lakes, marshes, ponds, streams. In winter also flooded fields, brackish and freshwater marshes.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. Two males and 3 females, Tierra del Sol, 25, 28 and 30 Mar 2003 (Mlodinow 2004, video recording examined); 1 male, Tierra del Sol, 27 Mar 2004 (SGM and CB in litt). Curaçao Casual visitor. One male, Muizenberg, 17 and 18 Mar 1996 (the bird had a white breast stripe and lacked the white stripe along scapulars, BDB). Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar and Cu: A. c. carolinensis from N North America

  • Note A. c. carolinensis is considered as a separate species in some recent publications (van den Berg & Bosman 1999, Dudley et al. 2006).

Ring-necked Duck Aythya collaris

  • Du: Ringsnaveleend Ar: Pato boca manchá Cu, Bo: Patu boka manchá

  • Range Temperate and boreal North America. Winters south primarily along both coasts of the USA and Middle America as far as Panama and the West Indies. Recorded less than once per decade in Lesser Antilles (Raffaele et al. 1998), and only three times in Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Marshes, bogs and sloughs. In winter lakes, ponds, rivers.

  • Status Casual visitor. Aruba First record 2 females, Tierra del Sol, 12–16 Mar 2005 (Mlodinow 2006). Curaçao Eight adults in summer plumage, Muizenberg, Nov 1999 (BDB); 7 birds, Muizenberg, 10 Jan 2000 (BDB); 1 bird, Muizenberg, 26 Nov 2000 (BDB). Bonaire Adult male observed at Washington-Slagbaai National Park, 23 Jan 1971 (P.A. and F.G. Buckley).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Lesser Scaup Aythya affinis

  • Du: Kleine Topper Ar: Pato tòper chikito Cu, Bo: Patu tòper chikí

  • Range North-western North America. Winters along coastal areas from S USA south through Middle America; rarely to the West Indies. Only four records from Venezuela, all December to mid-March (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Marshes, lakes and ponds. In winter coastal lagoons, estuaries, rivers.

  • Status Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers, depending on the presence of (sometimes temporary) freshwater ponds. Curaçao One specimen 1930 (RMNH); 4 specimens, 1952, 1955, 1956 (2) (ZMA). Bonaire Exceptional record of a flock of 18 birds, no locality, 23 Jan 1971 (P.A. and F.G. Buckley); 1 female, freshwater pond near airport, 10 Nov 2004 (JCL and T. Sipes in Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Bufflehead Bucephala albeola

  • Du: Buffelkopeend Ar: Pato kabez di bagòn Cu, Bo: Patu kabes di bagòn

  • Range North-west and C North America. Winters south through the USA as far as the Gulf coast and C Mexico. Rare in the West Indies, with no records south of Jamaica and Puerto Rico (Raffaele et al. 1998) and unrecorded in Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Lakes, ponds, slow rivers. In winter freshwater lakes, bays and estuaries.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. One bird (probably adult male in eclipse plumage), Malpais, 30 Nov–7 Dec 1998 (BDB, colour-slide examined by C.S. Roselaar). Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Masked Duck Nomonyx dominicus

  • Du: Maskerstekelstaart Ar: Pato mascará Cu, Bo: Patu maskará

  • Range From S Texas south through Middle America to tropical South America and the West Indies. Widespread, though local, in N Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Ponds, lagoons, swamps, sluggish streams, marshes.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. One bird, Klein Hofje, 21 Oct–13 Nov 1994 (BDB); 2 birds (male and female), Muizenberg, 27 Apr 1997 (BDB, DMCP); 2 birds (male and female), Muizenberg, 4–11 May 1997 (BDB). Bonaire Casual visitor. One record of an immature bird, Saliña Martinus, 22 Feb 1981 (FCL, colour-slide examined by KHV).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic. Syn. Oxyura dominica.

PROCELLARIIDAE

Black-capped Petrel Pterodroma hasitata

  • Du: Zwartkapstormvogel Ar: Parha di tormenta pèchi preto Cu, Bo: Para di tormenta pèchi pretu

  • Range Breeds in the mountains of some of the larger Greater Antilles. Non-breeding birds detected regularly in the Caribbean and W Atlantic Ocean north to North Carolina, USA, and south to E Brazil.

  • Habitat Open seas, except when breeding.

  • Status Non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Fifteen records mostly of single birds within the limits of the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba seas, at distances varying from 7 to 16 nautical miles from land. Thirteen between 24 Apr 1970 and 28 May 1970 (RVH); 1 bird off Aruba 21 Dec 1970 (RVH) and another 28 May 1972 (DMCP).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu and Bo: P. h. hasitata from the Greater Antilles. The only other ssp P. h. caribbaea from Jamaica probably extinct.

Audubon's Shearwater Puffinus lherminieri

  • Du: Audubons Pijlstormvogel Ar: Palomba pía di patu, Chokwèkwè Cu, Bo: Kapiadó Audubon

  • Range Worldwide tropical oceans.

  • Habitat Open seas, except when breeding.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. One bird (adult male) Otrobanda, Willemstad, 9 Dec 1954 (HJK) (erroneously given as 1955 by Voous 1983); 1 bird at sea off Klein Curaçao, 29 Jan 1992 (RM). One specimen 1955 (ZMA) Bonaire Rather scarce, possibly breeding, visitor. First record carcass washed ashore at Lagun, 21 May 1960 (J. Rooth); another found along AISCO saltpan, Apr 1980 (FCL); sound records were made of 1 adult and 1 juvenile on the rocky coast near Malmok, Sep 1977 (FCL, J. and H. Coffie); flock of 4 individuals near Sorobon at sea, 23 May 2003 (D. Walters). Two specimens, 1960, 1980 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu, Bo: P. l. lherminieri from the West Indies, but the occurrence of P. l. loyemilleri from the SW Caribbean coast cannot be excluded.

Great Shearwater Puffinus gravis

  • Du: Grote Pijlstormvogel Ar: Capiadó grandi Cu, Bo: Kapiadó grandi

  • Range Breeds on Tristan da Cunha group in S Atlantic Ocean. Outside the breeding season occurring on the Atlantic Ocean, from Arctic circle south to Tierra del Fuego and South Africa. Uncommon to rare non-breeding visitor to most of the West Indies (Raffaele et al. 1998).

  • Habitat Open seas, except when breeding.

  • Status Aruba and Curaçao No records. Bonaire Casual visitor. One record. Desiccated carcass found Aug 1976 on lower limestone terrace at Piedra Pretu, south of Lac (Mrs B. Lüsse, identified by KHV).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Bulwer's Petrel Bulweria bulwerii

  • Du: Bulwers Stormvogel Ar: Parha di tormenta Bulwer Cu, Bo: Para di tormenta Bulwer

  • Range Tropical and temperate Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. Unrecorded in W Atlantic or Caribbean, except 2 old records from Florida (AOU 1998), several recent ones off North Carolina, USA, and records noted below.

  • Habitat Open seas, except when breeding.

  • Status Four records of single birds in 1970 and 1972 in extralimital waters N of the 3 islands, increasingly common further north (RVH). Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. Sight record 4 nautical miles NE off Klein Curaçao, 13 May 1970 (RVH). Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

HYDROBATIDAE

Wilson's Storm Petrel Oceanites oceanicus

  • Du: Wilsons Stormvogeltje Ar: Parha di tormenta Wilson Cu, Bo: Para di tormenta Wilson

  • Range Breeds along coasts and in coastal mountains of Antarctica and on most antarctic and subantarctic islands. Non-breeding birds occur widely through Atlantic and Indian Oceans and in waters off Australia, New Zealand, and Indonesia. Rare in N Pacific.

  • Habitat Open seas, except when breeding.

  • Status Casual visitor. Aruba Small group of up to 9 birds following ship from Curaçao to harbour of Oranjestad 11 Jun 1970; 3 birds following the same vessel 24 Jun 1970, off Punta Basora, SE Aruba; single bird between Curaçao and Aruba 7 Sep 1971 (RVH). Curaçao Single bird off the coast at Punt Kanon, 17 Jul 1970 (RVH). Bonaire Single bird 6 miles NW off the island, 14 Jul 1970 (RVH).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ssp unidentified (not distinguishable in flight).

Leach's Storm Petrel Oceanodroma leucorhoa

  • Du: Vaal Stormvogeltje Ar: Parha di tormenta Leach Cu, Bo: Para di tormenta Leach

  • Range Breeds in N Atlantic and Pacific Ocean. Non-breeding birds spread widely through tropical and subtropical waters.

  • Habitat Open seas, except when breeding.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. Sight record from Klein Curaçao, 26 Jan 1952 (KHV). Specimen Willemstad harbour, 17 Jan 1967 (M. Joubert) (ZMA). Bonaire Casual visitor. Playa Pabao (erroneously Playa Abao in Voous 1983), 17 Nov 1979 (FCL). Wounded live bird handled at sea off the SW shore of Klein Bonaire, 2 Jul 1996 (JCL and SS in Ligon 2006). One specimen (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu, Bo: nominate O. l. leucorhoa from N Atlantic and N Pacific.

PODICIPEDIDAE

Least Grebe Tachybaptus dominicus

  • Du: Amerikaanse Dodaars Ar: Zambuyadó chikito Cu, Bo: Sambuyadó chikí

  • Range Subtropical and tropical America, from S Texas to N Argentina and the West Indies.

  • Habitat Temporary or permanent freshwater bodies.

  • Status Aruba Rather common breeding resident. Present throughout the year since formation of the sewage ponds of Bubali (1973), first recorded 11–27 Aug 1973 (CJH). Still breeding there Sep 1988 (RVH). Curaçao Rather common breeding resident. Breeding first recorded Malpais, 15 Jul 1967 (Th.P. Beerlage). Present throughout the year at the sewage treatment plant of Klein Hofje, at Klein Kwartier and at the Blue Bay golfcourse. Four specimens, 1951, 1955 (2), 1956 (ZMA). Bonaire Scarce breeding resident. Numbers vary with the presence of freshwater ponds. First breeding recorded Onima, 6 Nov 1981 (FCL) after heavy rains. Pair with 6 young, Onima ponds, Mar 2000 (JCL); 2 stripe-headed young, ponds at Dos Pos, 16 Jun 2000, together with 3 sub-adults and 2 adults possibly indicating double brood (JCL); 20 immature birds seen on freshwater pond near entrance Washington-Slagbaai National Park, 1 Nov 2000 (JCL and L. Sall in Ligon 2006). One specimen 1951 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: T. d. brachyrhynchus of tropical South America.

Pied-billed Grebe Podilymbus podiceps

  • Du: Dikbekfuut Ar: Zambuyadó pico diki Cu, Bo: Sambuyadó pìk diki

  • Range Temperate and tropical America, from Canada to S Argentina (Chubut), and the West Indies.

  • Habitat Temporary or permanent freshwater bodies. In winter also on brackish and saline lagoons.

  • Status Scarce breeding resident. Aruba First record on temporary freshwater pond near Palm Beach, Jan 1955 (H. Bresser, H. Sutmöller). Present throughout the year since formation of the sewage ponds of Bubali (1973). Breeding at Bubali recorded since 1992 (DFM, TDK). Also observations of several broods at Tierra del Sol, 26 Mar–3 Apr 2004 (SGM and CB in litt). Curaçao First recorded on water reservoirs of Muizenberg, Dec 1954, after heavy rains (HJK). More recently regularly present at sewage treatment plant of Klein Hofje. Four specimens, 1955 (2), 1956 (2) (ZMA). Bonaire First breeding record at Onima, Mar 1953 (B. Read, G.D. Stout); five juveniles with striped heads, pond near entrance Washington-Slagbaai National Park, 30 Apr 2000; at least 3 pairs nesting, same locality, Mar 2005 (both observations JCL, in Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: P. p. antarcticus of continental South America recorded as breeder or vagrant. However, occasional occurrence of P. p. podiceps from North and Middle America and P. p. antillarum from Greater and Lesser Antilles, cannot be excluded.

PHOENICOPTERIDAE

Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber

  • Du: Rode Flamingo Ar: Flamingo Cu, Bo: Flamingo, Chogogo

  • Range Caribbean region, and from Central America south to NE Brazil and Galapagos Islands. In the Old World S Europe, Africa and W and C Asia. Locally common in N Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Shallow saline lagoons, coastal estuaries with high salinity mudflats.

  • Status Aruba Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Nine birds, Saliña Cerca, 29 May 1986 (RVH); 1 bird, Saliña Master, 2 Jun 1986 (RVH); 1 bird, Bubali, 11 Jun 1986 (RVH); 1 bird, Tierra del Sol, 18 Feb 2004 (F. Bonset, photograph W. de Mooy). Curaçao Regular non-breeding visitor in rather large numbers. A group of 101 birds was seen in saliña's on the road to Bullenbaai, 31 Oct 2001 (M. van den Berg, H. Lo-Sioe-Fon and R. Wellens); 178 birds, Dam Muizenberg, 29 Apr–20 May 2005 (LS). Breeding attempts have been recorded at the saliñas Jan Kok, St. Michiel and Muizenberg (BDB). Four specimens, 1956, 1957, 1996 (2) (ZMA). Bonaire Breeding resident. Breeding at the saltpans in Pekelmeer. In the 1980s the population was estimated at c. 10.000 pairs, but in the dry winter of 2001–2002 numbers were down to <5.000 pairs (Ligon 2006). A smaller population is found at Lake Goto, numbering between 350 (17 Aug 1992, LS) and 100–150 (3 Apr 2002, Ligon 2006). Twenty two specimens, 1952 (3), 1979, 1980 (14), 1982, 1985, sine die (2) (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu and Bo: P. r. ruber of the Caribbean.

  • Note In some recent publications P. ruber and P. roseus are considered separate species.

CICONIIDAE

Wood Stork Mycteria americana

  • Du: Kaalkopooievaar Ar: Cigueña amerikana Cu, Bo: Garsa kabes chino

  • Range From South Carolina south along coasts of Mexico and Central America to W Ecuador and N Argentina, also Greater Antilles. Fairly common in N Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Marshes, swamps, lagoons and mangroves.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. One bird present at Bubali from 16 Feb 1977 (when still immature) till at least Oct 1984 (CJH, DFM, KHV, Mrs V. Roose, colour-slides examined by KHV). Curaçao and Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

THRESKIORNITHIDAE

  • White Ibis Eudocimus albus

  • Du: Witte Ibis Ar: Ibis blanco Cu, Bo: Ibis blanku

  • Range Coastal areas of the Americas. From Virginia at the Atlantic and Baja California (lat. 27° N) at the Pacific coast south to French Guiana and NW Peru, also Greater Antilles. Uncommon in N Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Mangroves, marshes, lagoons, lakes and wooded swamps.

  • Status Aruba Formerly regular non-breeding visitor, but no records since 1984. At least 28 records of adult and juvenile birds at Bubali from 1977 until 1982 (mostly between Dec and Jul, various observers); 2 birds, Bubali, Jul–Sep 1983 (T. van Ingen in litt); 3 birds, Bubali, Jul–Aug 1984 (DFM, TDK). Curaçao Casual visitor. One record (1925) of immature bird caught and photographed (Frater M. Realino). Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Scarlet Ibis Eudocimus ruber

  • Du: Rode Ibis Ar: Ibis còrá Cu, Bo: Ibis kòrá

  • Range Northern South America. From E Ecuador eastward as far as the Amazon delta in coastal Brazil. Locally common in N Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Coastal swamps, lagoons, mangroves and seasonal freshwater swamps.

  • Status Aruba Formerly regular non-breeding visitor, but no records since 1980. At least 13 records at Bubali from 1977 until the end of 1980 (various observers in Voous 1983). Curaçao Casual visitor. First record immature bird, Klein Hofje, 27 Apr 2007 (L. Pors and M. Pors-da Costa Gomez, colour-photo examined). Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus

  • Du: Zwarte Ibis Ar: Ibis preto Cu, Bo: Ibis pretu

  • Range Cosmopolitan, mainly in the tropics and subtropics. In the Americas from the Atlantic coast of S Canada, south along the Gulf coast to NW South America and the West Indies. Fairly common to common in NW Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Marshes, swamps, lagoons, shallow lakes.

  • Status Aruba Regular non-breeding visitor. At least 20 records at Bubali from 1977 until 1983 (various observers); 1 bird, Bubali, Jul–Aug 1989 (DFM); 1 bird, Bubali, 20 Aug 2003 (TDK); 1 bird, Tierra del Sol, 27 Mar 2004 (SGM and CB in litt.). Curaçao Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. One bird Malpais, 16 Oct–19 Nov 1971 (E. van Campen); 1 bird, Klein Hofje, 8–20 Nov 1992 (BDB); 1 bird, Malpais, 21 Nov 1992 (possibly same bird as previous record, BDB); 1 bird, Klein Hofje, 31 Jan 1993; 1 bird, Klein Hofje, 8 Apr 1993 (BDB); another record from Klein Hofje, 1993 (J. van der Woude); 1 bird, Klein Hofje, 27 Nov 1997 (BDB); 1 bird, Klein Hofje, 28 Mar 1998 (BDB). Bonaire Casual visitor. One adult, Lac, 29 Sep–16 Oct 1980 (FCL); 1 bird, airport marsh, 5 Jan 2005 (Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

White-faced Ibis Plegadis chihi

  • Du: Witmaskeribis Ar: Ibis cara blanco Cu, Bo: Ibis kara blanku

  • Range Tropical and temperate zones of the western Americas. No records from the West Indies, Columbia, or Venezuela.

  • Habitat Marshes, swamps, lagoons, shallow lakes and rivers.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. One sight record, Bubali, Jun 1978 (AK, slide examined by KHV). Immature White-faced Ibis may have been present among groups of immature Glossy Ibis at Bubali 1977–1983. Curaçao and Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Roseate Spoonbill Ajaia ajaja

  • Du: Rode Lepelaar Ar: Cucharón còrá Cu, Bo: Kucharon korá

  • Range Southern USA, from approximately 30° N southward through Middle America to C Chile and C Argentina, and the West Indies. Common in Venezuela (Hilty 2003). Wanders over great distances north and southward.

  • Habitat Marshes, swamps, mangroves, lagoons, rivers.

  • Status Aruba Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Five records between 1908 and 3 Sep 1974 (Voous 1983); 1 immature bird, Spanish Lagoon, 4 Apr 2004 (SGM and CB in litt); 2 juvenile birds, Tierra del Sol, 27 Jul 2004 (W. de Mooy, colour-photos examined). One specimen 1908 (FMNH). Curaçao Casual visitor. One bird, Santa Krus, 10 May 1998 (K. Beylevelt). Bonaire Casual visitor. One immature bird, Slagbaai, 11 Apr 1960 (J. Rooth); 1 bird observed for a week, Saliña Boca Slagbaai, May 1998 (Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic. Syn. Platalea ajaja.

ARDEIDAE

Boat-billed Heron Cochlearius cochlearius

  • Du: Schuitbekreiger Ar: Garabèt boca di lancha Cu, Bo: Garabèt bok'i lancha

  • Range Middle America and N and C South America. Widespread and not rare in Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Wooded fringes of freshwater creeks, lakes and inundated fields, mangroves.

  • Status Aruba and Curaçao No records. Bonaire Casual visitor. Sight record of apparently immature bird, shrubs surrounding saltpans of Salt Company, 7 Oct 1972, by birdwatching party from Florida (C. Russell Mason, Nina Dean Steffee and others, slide examined by KHV).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Bo: most likely C. c. cochlearius from N and C South America.

Pinnated Bittern Botaurus pinnatus

  • Du: Zuid-Amerikaanse Roerdomp Ar: Garabèt di caña Cu, Bo: Garabèt di kaña

  • Range From S Middle America south to South America as far as Ecuador and N Argentina. Local, but not rare in Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Freshwater swamps overgrown with reeds or rushes.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. Single bird, caught, photographed and subsequently released, Oranjestad, 18 Jan 1972 (EJ). Curaçao and Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar: most likely B. p. pinnatus from Central and South America.

Least Bittern Ixobrychus exilis

  • Du: Amerikaanse Woudaap Ar, Cu, Bo: Garabèt enano

  • Range From SE Canada and W USA south through Middle America to C Colombia and CW Peru and to SE Brazil and Paraguay; the West Indies. Fairly common, but very local, in N Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Freshwater marshes, reed-beds, sedges. In winter also brackish or saltwater swamps.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. One bird, Muizenberg, 20 Oct 2005 (J. and I. Roos, colour-photos examined). Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu: ssp unknown.

Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax

  • Du: Kwak Ar: Krabèchi bachi preto Cu, Bo: Krabèchi bachi pretu

  • Range Worldwide from temperate to tropical zones.

  • Habitat Along streams, in ponds, marshes, swampsand mangroves, occasionally in drier areas along canals and reservoirs, sleeping by day in shrubs and trees.

  • Status Probably scarce breeding resident and non-breeding visitor. Aruba Mainly at sewage ponds of Bubali, but also at Tierra del Sol and at seasonal wetlands with emergent vegetation. One specimen 1978 (ZMA). Curaçao Recorded from several lagoons and sewage plants. One specimen 1954 (ZMA). Bonaire Recorded from entrance of Lake Goto and Saliña Tarn.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: N. n. hoactli, widespread in the Americas.

Yellow-crowned Night Heron Nyctanassa violacea

  • Du: Geelkruinkwak Ar: Krabèchi Cu, Bo: Krabèchi korona hel

  • Range From NE USA south through Middle America to South America as far as N Peru and E Brazil, and the West Indies.

  • Habitat Primarily marine coasts, but also in other aquatic habitats. Roosting by day in high scrub and rock crevices.

  • Status Rather scarce breeding resident and rather common visitor throughout the year, never far from the seashore. Curaçao Seven specimens, 1951 (2), 1952, 1954 (2), 1955, 1957 (ZMA). Bonaire One specimen 1969 (USNM); 4 specimens, 1951, 1972, 1979, 1982 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: N. v. bancrofti of Baja California to El Salvador, including the West Indies. The occurrence of N. v. violacea from C and E USA and N. v. cayennensis from South America cannot be excluded.

Green Heron Butorides virescens

  • Du: Groene Reiger Ar, Cu, Bo: Galiña di awa, Caw-caw

  • Range North and Middle America, the West Indies. In winter, rarely south to N Colombia and N Venezuela.

  • Habitat Prefers overgrown salt or freshwater margins, and all kinds of marshes.

  • Status B. v. maculata rather common breeding resident. B. v. virescens probably uncommon winter visitor. Aruba Two specimens 1892 (AMNH); 2 specimens 1908 (FMNH). Curaçao Ten specimens belonging to both ssp, 1951 (6), 1952 (2), 1954, 1993 (ZMA). Bonaire Eight specimens belonging to both ssp, 1951 (5), 1952 (2), 1979 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: B. v. maculata from the West Indies and B. v. virescens from North and Central America.

Striated Heron Butorides striata

  • Du: Mangrovereiger Ar, Cu, Bo: Galiña di awa strepiá

  • Range Cosmopolitan (except North and Middle America). Common in Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Prefers overgrown salt or freshwater margins, marshes and riverbanks.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. One bird observed at Malpais, 9 Feb 1993 (BDB). One specimen 1952 (ZMA). Bonaire Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Sight record of 1 bird along the saltpans of Pekelmeer, 3 Oct 1979 (FCL, KHV); Pekelmeer, 4 May 1980 (FCL); sight record of 1 bird near Witte Pan, 2 Jun 1985 (FCL); 2 birds near Cai, 30 Jun 1985 (FCL). One specimen 1980 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu and Bo: B. s. striata from South America. Syn. Butorides striatus.

  • Note Voous (1983) claims to have studied a specimen from Aruba (collection RMNH) and one from Bonaire (collection ZMA) showing characters intermediate between B. striatus and B. virescens and to have observed intermediates in the field in Bonaire. For discussion of hybridisation, see Hayes (2001).

Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis

  • Du: Koereiger Ar: Garabèt di baca Cu, Bo: Garabèt di baka

  • Range Africa, Eurasia, Australia; since the late 19th century has colonized the Americas from Africa, ranging from S Canada to Tierra del Fuego including the West Indies. Now almost a cosmopolitan species.

  • Habitat Wet fields, marshes, swamps, pastures, grassland (often associated with grazing mammals), arid wastelands.

  • Status Aruba Rather common breeding resident, seen over most of the island, but concentrated around Bubali. First recorded for Aruba: Mar–Apr 1944 (Drury et al. 1953). One specimen 1979 (ZMA). Curaçao Rather common breeding resident. Often seen feeding on agricultural fields. First recorded for Curaçao: 18 May 1967 (P.A.W.J. de Wilde), first breeding record of 15–20 pairs, Isla Makuaku, Sint Jorisbaai, 25 Jun 1967 (P.A.W.J. de Wilde). One specimen 1977 (ZMA). Bonaire Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers (JCL). First recorded for Bonaire: 27 Jan 1970 (P.A. and F.G. Buckley); 1 bird regularly seen along entrance road into Plaza Resort during winter 2001–2002, until 3 Apr 2002; 2 birds along road near Stadium, 24 Mar 2004 and 1 bird Playa Frans, 13 Nov 2004 (all records Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: B. i. ibis.

Great Blue Heron Ardea herodias

  • Du: Amerikaanse Blauwe Reiger Ar, Cu, Bo: Garsa blou grandi

  • Range North America, from coastal Alaska to S Mexico, Cuba, Jamaica, Virgin Islands, Los Roques off Venezuela and Galapagos Islands. In winter to Central America and the West Indies.

  • Habitat Marshes, lakes, ponds, lagoons, mangroves, riverbanks and seacoasts. The white form of A. h. occidentalis is found almost exclusively in marine habitats, particularly tidal grass flats, lagoons and mangroves.

  • Status Non-breeding visitor in rather small numbers throughout the year where fresh- or saltwater is available. Aruba One specimen of ssp herodias 1980 (ZMA). Curaçao The partly white Würdemann's morph was observed at saliña Abou, near Daaibooi, 16 Jul 2006 (M. Aliabadian and V. Nijman, colour-photo examined). One specimen 1884 (USNM); 3 specimens of ssp herodias, 1952, 1954, 1955 (ZMA). Bonaire Birds of Würdemann's morph observed on several occasions (or in some cases possibly the same bird, see also Voous 1983): mangroves of Lac, 30 July 1972 (DMCP, photo examined); same place Nov 1975–24 May 1977 (FCL, KHV, colour-slides examined); juvenile at Playa-Rincon, 19 Oct 1975 (A.A. van den Boogaard, photos examined); near Washikemba, 27 June 1985 (FCL); near Slagbaai, 10 April 1986 (FCL). Two specimens of ssp herodias, 1951, 1982 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: mainly A. h. herodias from North America. Both colour morphs of A. h. occidentalis recorded from all 3 islands.

Great Egret Ardea alba

  • Du: Grote Zilverreiger Ar: Garsa blanco grandi Cu, Bo: Garsa blanku grandi

  • Range Cosmopolitan, mainly south of 45° N.

  • Habitat Marshes, lakes, ponds, riverbanks, lagoons, mangroves, tidal marshes, seashores.

  • Status Aruba Rather scarce, irregular breeding visitor. Mainly near Bubali and Tierra del Sol; first confirmed nesting (7 nests, 6 with eggs), Bubali, 21 Sep 1988 (RVH, colour-slides examined); 4 nests containing eggs or immatures, Bubali, 30 May 1990 (RVH, colour-slides examined); same locality, 11 Feb 1997 (EJ). Curaçao Non-breeding visitor in rather small numbers. Three specimens, 1952, 1955 (2) (ZMA). Bonaire Non-breeding visitor in rather small numbers and irregular breeding visitor. Nested in Feb 1980 in mixed colony on Klein Bonaire (E. Bartels, colour-slide of young examined by KHV).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: the American ssp A. a. egretta. Syn. Egretta alba.

Whistling Heron Syrigma sibilatrix

  • Du: Fluitreiger Ar, Cu, Bo: Garsa flùitdó

  • Range South America, disjunct. E Colombia and Venezuela and from Bolivia to SE Brazil and NE Argentina. Common in Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Open, wet grassland, shallow waters and marshy areas.

  • Status Aruba and Curaçao No records. Bonaire Casual visitor. One bird observed, Saliña Boca Slagbaai, 8 Jan 2003 (JCL, B. Griesemer and J. Cannon, colour-photo examined) (Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Bo: ssp unknown, but most likely S. s. fostersmithi from NE Colombia and NW Venezuela.

Reddish Egret Egretta rufescens

  • Du: Roodhalsreiger Ar: Garsa còrá Cu, Bo: Garsa kabes kané, Garsa kòrá

  • Range Coastal areas and islands of E Pacific, from Baja California south to SW Mexico, Gulf of Mexico, Greater Antilles and Caribbean Sea.

  • Habitat Mangroves, marshes, beaches.

  • Status Aruba Non-breeding visitor (both colour morphs, white and grey) in small numbers. Mostly in the saliñas and in shallow water on the leeward coast. Curaçao Non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Mostly single individuals of the white morph. Bonaire Rather common breeding resident. Both colour morphs breeding. Near Pekelmeer a greyish, possibly intermediate bird was seen, 1 May 1991 (GJR). Four specimens 1951 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: E. r. rufescens of Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea.

Tricolored Heron/Louisiana Heron Egretta tricolor

  • Du: Witbuikreiger Ar: Garsa barica blanco Cu, Bo: Garsa tres koló, Gran gudjee, Garsa barika blanku

  • Range Pacific coast from S California to N Peru, Atlantic coast from Maryland to NE Brazil, the West Indies.

  • Habitat Mangroves, marshes, along rivers and ponds.

  • Status Rather common breeding resident. Aruba Primarily at Bubali. One specimen 1892 (AMNH); 4 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 1 specimen 1951 (ZMA). Curaçao Three specimens, 1951, 1954 (2) (ZMA). Bonaire Two specimens 1951 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: E. t. ruficollis of E USA and Caribbean region.

Little Blue Heron Egretta caerulea

  • Du: Kleine Blauwe Reiger Ar: Garsa blou chikito Cu, Bo: Garsa blou chiki

  • Range Southern coastal USA, from approximately 45° N, Gulf coast, south through Middle America to South America, as far as S Peru and Uruguay, the West Indies.

  • Habitat Mangroves, marshes, ponds and flooded grassland.

  • Status Aruba Rather scarce irregular breeding visitor. First record of breeding near Spanish Lagoon, 1992 (DFM). One specimen 1908 (FMNH). Curaçao Non-breeding visitor in rather small numbers. Mainly in saliñas. Six specimens, 1952 (5), 1956 (ZMA). Bonaire Very scarce irregular breeding visitor. First breeding record for the Netherlands Antilles: Lac, 4 Aug 1983, 2 nests each with 2 eggs (CJH). Two specimens 1951 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Snowy Egret Egretta thula

  • Du: Amerikaanse Kleine Zilverreiger Ar: Garsa blanco chikito Cu, Bo: Garsa blanku chiki

  • Range Central USA, from approximately 45 °N, south (predominantly in coastal areas) to South America, as far as C Argentina and W Patagonia, the West Indies.

  • Habitat Marshes, lakes, ponds, lagoons, mangroves.

  • Status Aruba Common breeding resident. One specimen 1988 (ZMA). Curaçao Rather common breeding resident. In addition probably visitor from North or South America. Four specimens, 1951 (2), 1954, sine die (ZMA). Bonaire Common breeding resident. Three specimens, 1951, 1959, 1980 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: E. t. thula.

Little Egret Egretta garzetta

  • Du: Kleine Zilverreiger Ar: Garsa blanco oropeo Cu, Bo: Garsa blanku oropeo

  • Range Southern Europe, Africa, SE Asia, Japan, south to New Guinea and Australia. Winters in S Europe, SE Asia, throughout Africa and Australasian region to New Zealand. Recently the species extended its range to America. First recorded in the West Indies in 1954 (Raffaele et al. 1998). At present, regular in Trinidad, Tobago and Surinam (Hayes & White 2001). Breeds in small numbers in Barbados and occurs as vagrant throughout the West Indies (Mlodinow 2004), but is unrecorded in Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Marshes, lakes, flooded fields, estuaries.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. One bird, Tierra del Sol, 25–30 Mar 2003, direct comparison with E. thula was possible (Mlodinow 2004) (video recording examined); 1 bird (perhaps same individual as in 2003) among Snowy Egrets and other herons, Bubali, 12 Mar 2005, two plumes clearly visible in the wind (Mlodinow 2006). Curaçao and Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar: E. g. garzetta.

PHAETHONTIDAE

Red-billed Tropicbird Phaethon aethereus

  • Du: Roodsnavelkeerkringvogel Ar: Bubi rabo largo shouru Cu, Bo: Bubi rabu largu shouru

  • Range Tropical E Pacific, Caribbean, tropical Atlantic and N Indian Ocean. Breeds on islands of Los Hermanos and Los Roques off N Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Open seas, except when breeding.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Two birds caught on board of ship: 1 near the island, 7 Feb 1939 (H.W.G. Cossee) and 1 in the harbour, 4 Feb 1966 (HJK) (date erroneously given as 1968 in Voous 1983); oiled bird found on the north coast, 30 Oct 1968 (staff CARMABI, specimen in ZMA); sight record of bird flying past Watamula, Westpunt, Dec 1978 (R. Hensen); sight record of bird at sea near Klein Curaçao, 29 Jan 1992 (RM). Bonaire Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Sight record of bird at 20 nautical miles NW off Cape Malmok, 25 May 1970 (RVH); sight record of bird at 12 miles SW off south cape of island, 12 May 1977 (B.H.M. de Jong); 1 dead adult found near Sorobon/Lac, 14 May 1986 (B. Lüsse and FCL, colour-slide examined by KHV); 1 juvenile collected and photographed on south-east coast, 20 Jul 1991 (EJ, specimen in ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu, Bo: P. a. mesonauta from the tropical Atlantic, Caribbean and E Pacific.

White-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon lepturus

  • Du: Witstaartkeerkringvogel Ar: Bubi rabo largo blanco Cu, Bo: Bubi rabu largu blanku

  • Range Worldwide in tropical and subtropical seas and oceans. Widespread breeder in the West Indies, but distinctly more numerous in the north (Raffaele et al. 1998). Unrecorded in Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Open seas, except when breeding.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. One sight record 5 miles NE off Westpunt, 20 May 1970 (RVH). Bonaire Casual visitor. One sight record 12 miles NW off Cape Malmok, 23 Jun 1970 (RVH).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu, Bo: probably P. l. catesbyi from the Caribbean.

FREGATIDAE

Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens

  • Du: Amerikaanse Fregatvogel Ar, Cu: Skèrchi, Makuaku Bo: Maniwá

  • Range Along both coasts of the Americas. Pacific coast from Baja California to N Peru, Atlantic coast from Florida to S Brazil; Galapagos, the West Indies and Cape Verde Islands.

  • Habitat Open seas, seen primarily along the coast; also crossing high over the islands. Gathering in communal roosts in isolated places and on mangrove islands.

  • Status Non-breeding visitor in rather large numbers, observed mainly along leeward coasts. Aruba Occasional breeding on islands in Paardenbaai suspected, but not confirmed (TDK). Three specimens 1892 (AMNH). Curaçao Count of 120 birds, just before sunset, Isla Makuaku, Sint Jorisbaai, Jun 1990 (Debrot & de Freitas 1991); 80 birds at Sint Jorisbaai, 31 Jul 1992 and 50 birds, 11 Aug 1992 (LS). Eight specimens, 1951 (2), 1952 (3), 1954, 1961 (2) (ZMA). Bonaire Adults and juveniles regularly roost in the mangroves of Lac. One specimen 1908 (FMNH).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Great Frigatebird Fregata minor

  • Du: Grote Fregatvogel Ar, Cu, Bo: Makuaku menor

  • Range Tropical and subtropical Pacific, Indian and S Atlantic Ocean. Has been recorded in E North America in Maine and Michigan, USA. Aruba record is only one for Caribbean.

  • Habitat At sea, breeding on small isolated islands, in bushes or mangroves.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. First record immature bird at Ceroe Colorado, 15 Mar 2005 (Mlodinow 2006). Curaçao and Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ssp unknown.

PELECANIDAE

Brown Pelican Pelecanus occidentalis

  • Du: Bruine Pelikaan Ar: Rògans Cu, Bo: Ganshi

  • Range Along both coasts of the Americas. Atlantic coast from S New York south to E Venezuela, including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, Pacific coast from S British Columbia south to S Chile.

  • Habitat Coastal waters.

  • Status Aruba Common along the leeward coast, also at Bubali and at ponds in Tierra del Sol. P. o. occidentalis resident, breeding since 1966. P. o. carolinensis non-breeding visitor from North America in small numbers. Two specimens 1892 (AMNH); 1 specimen 1908 (FMNH); 7 specimens, 1951, 1952 (3), 1972, 1979, 1984 (ZMA). Curaçao Regular non-breeding visitor in rather small numbers. Three specimens, 1954, 1955, sine die (ZMA). Bonaire Common non-breeding resident, mainly observed along the leeward coast. Two specimens 1952 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: the small Caribbean ssp P. o. occidentalis and the larger ssp from the Gulf and USA coasts P. o. carolinensis.

SULIDAE

Masked Booby Sula dactylatra

  • Du: Maskergent Ar: Bubi blanco Cu, Bo: Bubi blanku

  • Range Worldwide in tropical and subtropical seas and oceans.

  • Habitat Open seas, breeding on open ground on oceanic islands.

  • Status Aruba Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Single adult, coast at California, 27 Apr 1980 (EJ); 1 bird off San Nicolas Bay, 21 May 1987 and another on a small island in San Nicolas Bay, 22 May 1987 (both observations RVH); immature off the south point, Jul 1989 (DFM, TDK); 1 immature between Aruba and Venezuela, Aug 1989 (DFM, TDK); 1 adult bird, Malmok, May 2003 (P. Vandormael, photograph examined). Curaçao Casual visitor. One bird between Curaçao and Klein Curaçao, 9 Nov 2005 (AOD, L. Pors). Bonaire Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. One adult caught Piedra Pretu, 1 Mar 1976, subsequently released (R. Heitkönig); 1 subadult at Malmok, 13 Oct 1979 (FCL, KHV); 1 subadult, Punt Vierkant, 24 Jan 1988 (FCL, Mr and Mrs Watts); 1 bird along east coast near the Onima indian inscriptions, 8 Nov 2002 (O. Ottema in Ligon 2006); 1 adult bird, off Invisibles dive site, 9 Oct 2004 (Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: S. d. dactylatra from the Caribbean.

Red-footed Booby Sula sula

  • Du: Roodpootgent Ar: Bubi pia còrá, Bubi balau Cu, Bo: Bubi pia kòrá

  • Range Worldwide in tropical and subtropical seas and oceans.

  • Habitat Open seas, breeding in trees and shrub on oceanic islands.

  • Status Aruba Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Caught on board tanker 14 miles west of Aruba, 31 Mar 1955 (FHA); 1 adult, Ceroe Colorado, Sep 1978; 1 immature Andicuri, Jan 1979 (EJ, colour-slides examined by KHV); 1 immature, Malmok (German Wreck), 12 Mar 2005 (SGM and CB). One specimen 1955 (ZMA). Curaçao Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Several records at sea and small number of single birds recorded on cliff ledges of Watamula, Westpunt (Voous 1983); 1 bird, Boka St. Marie, 30 Jul 1992 (LS). Bonaire Non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Ten records (1976 to 1986) of single birds (FCL, colour-slides examined by KHV). Larger groups: 18 birds, near Willemstoren, 29 Jun 1992; 17 birds, same locality, 1 Jul 1992; 43 birds, same locality, 3 Jul 1992 (all records J. Zwaaneveld); 1 injured bird (brown morph) on beach south of Sorobon, Jul 2001 (C. Powell, per JCL, photo examined). One specimen 1978 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: S. s. sula from S Caribbean and tropical Atlantic Ocean.

Brown Booby Sula leucogaster

  • Du: Bruine Gent Ar, Cu, Bo: Bubi brùin Range Worldwide in tropical and subtropical seas and oceans.

  • Habitat Open seas, breeding on islands on flat ground. Stays closer to the coast than other Sula species.

  • Status Regular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Recorded in all months of the year. Aruba Regularly roosts at wrecks off Malmok and on navigational structures near Ceroe Colorado. Two specimens, 1951, 1952 (ZMA). Curaçao Roosting site at Watamula. Seven specimens, 1952 (2), 1955, 1964, 1970, 1994, 1996 (ZMA). Bonaire Recorded regularly along Kralendijk Harbour. Eight specimens, 1955, 1970 (5), 1979 (2) (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: S. l. leucogaster from the Caribbean and tropical Atlantic Ocean.

PHALACROCORACIDAE

Neotropical Cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus

  • Du: Bigua-aalscholver Ar, Cu, Bo: Deklá

  • Range From S USA south to Tierra del Fuego; Cuba in the West Indies.

  • Habitat Coastal bays, lagoons and freshwater locations.

  • Status Aruba Rather common breeding resident and most likely also non-breeding visitor during all seasons. First nesting record: Bubali, 6 May–5 Jun 1989, c. 15 active nests (RVH, colour-slides examined). One specimen 1908 (FMNH). Curaçao and Bonaire Regular and probably seasonal non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Mostly absent from Oct–Jan. Curaçao Five birds, Klein Hofje, 20 Oct 2005 (I. and J. Roos, photo examined). Two specimens 1952 (ZMA). Bonaire Early record of 3 adult birds, Lake Goto, 2 Jan 1983 (FCL); during dry winter 2001–2002 birds observed at Put Mangel, Washington-Slagbaai National Park (D. and E. Compton in Ligon 2006); several birds at mangroves Cai, last week Feb 2003 (JCL, S. Fried and other observers in Ligon 2006). Three specimens, 1961 (2), 1984 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: P. b. brasilianus of Central and South America. Syn. Phalacrocorax olivaceus.

Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus

  • Du: Geoorde Aalscholver Ar, Cu, Bo: Deklá orea

  • Range North America from Alaska and Newfoundland south to California, Florida, Cuba and the Bahamas. Accidental south to St. Martin in Lesser Antilles (AOU 1998). Unrecorded in South America.

  • Habitat Coastal waters and inland lakes. More frequently found on salt water than Neotropical Cormorant.

  • Status Aruba and Curaçao No records. Bonaire Casual visitor. One sight record of immature, Saliña Martinus, 16–18 Sep 1979 (FCL, Mrs B. Lüsse, colour-slide examined by KHV).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Bo: ssp unknown, but most likely nominate P. a. auritus from E North America.

CATHARTIDAE

Black Vulture Coragyps atratus

  • Du: Zwarte Gier Ar: Zamuro preto Cu, Bo: Zamuro pretu

  • Range E and S USA, Middle America and through most of S America. Common throughout Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Ubiquitous (except heavily forested regions), especially around human habitations.

  • Status Aruba Voous (1985) mentioned two birds of this species imported in the early 1970s from Colombia and released on Aruba. One bird Savaneta, 6 Jan 1973 (CJH, EJ, colour-slide examined); 2 birds Savaneta, Jul 1977; 1 bird Savaneta, 1982 (both DFM). It is unclear if this last observation is ex captivitate or not. Curaçao and Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

FALCONIDAE

Crested Caracara Caracara cheriway

  • Du: Kuifcaracara Ar, Cu, Bo: Warawara

  • Range From S USA through Middle America to N South America as far south as N Peru, N Brazil and Trinidad.

  • Habitat Open country, grassland, scrub.

  • Status Aruba Rather scarce breeding resident. Numbers are increasing, but still low due to persecution. Often observed on cultivated land. Mostly seen in pairs, but groups of up to 14 (TDK) or 9 (R. Derix) have been recorded. Two specimens 1940 (ANSP); 1 specimen 1908 (FMNH); 2 specimens 1930 (RMNH); 1 specimen 1952 (ZMA). Curaçao Rather common breeding resident. The decline mentioned by Voous (1983) seems to have stopped on Curaçao. Fifteen specimens, 1951 (4), 1952 (5), 1954, 1955 (2), 1957, sine die (2) (ZMA). Bonaire Very scarce breeding resident. Numbers still decreasing due to persecution. A total of 10 birds were seen on 9 Jan 1998 of which 6 were together in one flock; copulating pair observed near Santa Barbara, 25 Mar 2001; 1 bird, Dos Pos, 14 Mar 2002; 3 immature birds Washington-Slagbaai National Park, 18 Sep 2002; 2 birds Peaceful Canyon, 12 Feb 2003; 1 subadult along mangrove marsh road into Cai, 30 Jan 2005 (all observations Ligon 2006). One specimen 1908 (FMNH); 1 specimen 1930 (RMNH); 1 specimen 1969 (USNM); 2 specimens, 1951, 1979 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic. Syn. Polyborus plancus cheriway.

Yellow-headed Caracara Milvago chimachima

  • Du: Geelkopcaracara Ar: Warawara cabez hel Cu, Bo: Warawara kabes hel

  • Range From S Central America to N Argentina and S Brazil. Common in Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Open country, farmland, scrub.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. One immature bird observed soaring over Julianadorp, 19 Jan 1952 (KHV). Bonaire Casual visitor. One bird observed near Cai, 24–26 Dec 1996 (Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu, Bo: probably M. c. cordata from Central and N South America.

American Kestrel Falco sparverius

  • Du: Amerikaanse Torenvalk Ar, Cu, Bo: Kinikini

  • Range From N North America south through Middle America to Tierra del Fuego, the West Indies.

  • Habitat Open country, cultivated lands, scrub, suburban areas.

  • Status Common breeding resident on Aruba and Curaçao. Aruba Two specimens 1892 (AMNH); 4 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 2 specimens 1930 (RMNH); 1 specimen 1929 (USNM); 3 specimens 1951 (ZMA). Curaçao Four specimens, 1892 (3), 1907 (AMNH); 12 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 5 specimens, 1930 (3), 1936 (2) (RMNH); 2 specimens, 1892, 1895 (USNM); 26 specimens, 1951 (8), 1952 (3), 1953, 1954 (2), 1955 (2), 1958, 1981, 1989, 1991, 1994 (3), 2000, 2003, sine die (ZMA). Bonaire Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. One bird seen hovering at Pekelmeer, 12 May 1960 (members of the Florida Audubon Society); 1 bird, 28 Jul 1973 (J. Rooth); 1 adult bird, Pekelmeer, 8 Mar 1980 (FCL and P. Boyer); 1 bird perched on a branch at the eastside of the road near Cai, 24 Feb 1986 (D.B. Stavros).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu: F. s. brevipennis endemic to Aruba and Curaçao; most likely this is also the ssp occasionally recorded on Bonaire.

Merlin Falco columbarius

  • Du: Smelleken Ar, Cu, Bo: Falki shouru, Kinikini grandi

  • Range Arctic and subarctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Winters in temperate and northern tropical regions.

  • Habitat Open country. In winter open land, estuaries, seacoasts.

  • Status Fairly common non-breeding visitor, mostly between Oct and Apr. Curaçao Summer observation of a female, 13 Jun 1956 (FHA and HJK). Two specimens, 1952, 1956 (ZMA). Bonaire Summer observations of single adult birds, Toeristenweg, 15 Jul 1980 (FCL); near Lake Goto, 12 Jul 1981 (FCL). One specimen 1951 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: F. c. columbarius from N North America.

Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus

  • Du: Slechtvalk Ar, Cu, Bo: Falki peregrino

  • Range Cosmopolitan.

  • Habitat Open country, tundra, marshes, seacoasts.

  • Status Non-breeding visitor in rather small numbers between Sep and May, mostly immatures. Recorded from hills, coasts and saline lagoons. Aruba In Mar 1997 and Apr 1998 adults and juveniles regularly seen in the north of the island (JHR). Bonaire Two adults observed over the Salt Works on 22 Oct 1979 (KHV). Of these the male at least showed all the characteristics of the small northern ssp F. p. tundrius (Voous 1983).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: probably mostly F. p. tundrius from arctic North America.

ACCIPITRIDAE

Osprey Pandion haliaetus

  • Du: Visarend Ar: Gabilan piscador Cu, Bo: Gabilan piskadó, Gabilan di laman, Patalewa

  • Range Almost cosmopolitan, but not breeding in South America.

  • Habitat Lakes, rivers, estuaries, seacoasts.

  • Status Regular non-breeding visitor throughout the year. Predominantly along seacoasts, lagoons and mangroves. Most observations are of single birds, but greater numbers, up to 3 or 4 together, not rare (JHR). Birds crossing over from one side of an island to the other are frequently seen inland. Aruba One specimen 1979 (ZMA). Curaçao Two specimens, 1951, 1953 (ZMA). Bonaire Three specimens, 1951, 1978, 1979 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: P. h. carolinensis from North America.

Swallow-tailed Kite Elanoides forficatus

  • Du: Zwaluwstaartwouw Ar: Milano rab'i swalchi Cu, Bo: Milano rab'i souchi

  • Range From coastal SE USA south through Middle America W of Andes to N Peru and E of Andes to N Argentina and Uruguay. In winter northern population migrates southward and extreme southern population migrates northward. Fairly common in Venezuela, though more widespread in the east (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Forested regions, open woodland and swampy areas.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. One bird, Bubali, 25–30 Mar 2003 (Mlodinow 2004, video recording examined); 1 bird, Bubali, 13 Apr 2003 (likely the same bird, T. Koppejan). Curaçao No records. Bonaire Casual visitor. One bird, Noord Saliña, northern Kralendijk, 26 Apr 2002 (G. and Y. van Hoorn in Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Bo: ssp unidentified, but the regular occurrence of the South American race E. f. yetapa on Trinidad from March to August (ffrench 1991) would seem to indicate that this subspecies is the most likely to occur in our area.

White-tailed Kite Elanus leucurus

  • Du: Amerikaanse Grijze Wouw Ar: Milano rabo blanco Cu, Bo: Milano rabu blanku

  • Range Western and S USA, south through Middle America to large parts of South America (mainly E of Andes) as far as C Argentina and C Chile. Fairly common in N Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Savannas, open woodland, marshes, farmland.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. An immature bird observed at different places, 13 Jun 1980 (KHV, EJ, AK, colour-slide examined). Curaçao and Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar: E. l. leucurus from South America.

Northern Harrier/Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus

  • Du: Blauwe Kiekendief Ar: Gabilan americano Cu, Bo: Gabilan merikano

  • Range From subarctic and temperate North America south to S USA and in N Eurasia south to the Mediterranean region. In Western Hemisphere winters regularly south to Panama and the Greater Antilles and casually to Columbia and Lesser Antilles (Hilty 2003, Raffaele et al. 1998). One record from Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Marshes, moors, prairies. In winter also cultivated fields and grassland.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. Sight record, Klein Hofje, 31 Oct–30 Nov 1997. As maroon flanks were observed, most likely a juvenile bird, sex unknown (BDB). Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu: C. c. hudsonius from North America.

White-tailed Hawk Buteo albicaudatus

  • Du: Witstaartbuizerd Ar, Cu: Falki, Partawela Bo: Gabilan di seru

  • Range From SE USA, south through Middle America to N and C South America (except Amazonian Brazil), as far as C Argentina. Fairly common in Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Grassland, savannas.

  • Status Scarce and local breeding resident, most numerous on Curaçao. Nesting mostly in candelabra cactus near escarpments or on bush-clad hills. Aruba If still present, only 1 or 2 breeding pairs (Voous 1983). Recently small number of observations of single birds, Bubali, Mar, May (juvenile) 1988; same locality, Sep 1988 (3 adult and 2 immature) (RVH); 1 juvenile, Tierra del Sol, Mar 1997 (JHR). One specimen 1930 (RMNH). Curaçao Regularly seen in small numbers in the larger undisturbed wilderness areas around the island. Regularly recorded at mount Sint Christoffel (Reijns 1984), Oostpunt, Tafelberg St. Hironymus, Tafelberg Sta. Barbara, Malpais and Hato-San Pedro. One bird seen at Klein Hofje, 27 Apr 1997, and near Malpais, 30 Apr 1997 (possibly the same bird, DMCP); 1 bird, Jan Thiel, 12 Mar 1999 (AOD) and 1 bird, 11 Nov 2001 (M. van den Berg, LS and H. Lo-Sioe-Fon); 2 birds, Oostpunt, 15 Nov 2005 (AOD and S. Criens). One specimen sine die (AMNH); 1 specimen 1952 (USNM); 4 specimens, 1962, 1985 (2), sine die (ZMA). Bonaire Two birds, Washington-Slagbaai National Park, 6 Mar 1986 (D.B. Stavros, FCL); 1 bird, above mangroves Lac, 19 Mar 2003 (M. Flikweert); 1 bird perching near Karpata, 1 Apr 2003 (M. Flikweert, J. de Freitas) and again 11 Apr 2003 (M. Flikweert); 1 bird soaring above Rooi Sangu, 17 Apr 2003 (M. Flikweert). One specimen 1892 (AMNH); 4 specimens, 1951 (3), 1952 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: B. a. colonus from N South America.

RALLIDAE

Sora Rail Porzana Carolina

  • Du: Soraral Ar: Gaito sora Cu, Bo: Gaitu sora

  • Range Boreal and temperate North America. In winter to S USA, south through Middle America to N South America and the West Indies.

  • Habitat Freshwater marshes, swampy grassland and overgrown edges of saline lagoons. In winter also in salt water and brackish marshes.

  • Status Non-breeding visitor (Aug to Apr) in rather small numbers, more numerous in years with good rains (Voous 1983). Curaçao Ten specimens, 1951 (3), 1952, 1954, 1955, 1957, 1977 (3) (ZMA). Bonaire Two summer records: One adult bird, mangroves of Lac, 24 Jun 1984; 1 bird on freshwater pond, Dos Pos, 14 Jul 2000 (both records by JCL, see Ligon 2006). Two specimens, 1951, 1993 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Purple Gallinule Porphyrio martinica

  • Du: Amerikaans Purperhoen Ar: Gaito biña Cu, Bo: Gaitu biña

  • Range From S USA through Middle America to South America as far as N Chile (W of Andes) and N Argentina (E of Andes), the West Indies.

  • Habitat Freshwater marshes and pools with emergent and floating vegetation.

  • Status Non-breeding (possibly occasionally breeding) visitor in small numbers. Both adults and juveniles have been recorded. Very secretive, but since no water-plants are present in most of the temporary, partly inundated areas, it is relatively often observed in the open. Curaçao Breeding suspected in 1956 (HJK); 1 adult and 2 juveniles, Klein Hofje, 8–11 Nov 1992 (BDB); 1 juvenile, Savaan, 23 Sep 1994 (BDB). Six specimens, 1954, 1956 (3), 1977, sine die (ZMA). Bonaire Possible indications of breeding: 1 injured immature, Kralendijk, 13 Dec 2001; 1 subadult male, Sabadeco area north of Kralendijk, 14 Jun 2004; 2 birds (adult and immature) on pond across road from Dos Pos, 8 Mar 2005; 2 birds (1 adult), pond near entrance Washington-Slagbaai National Park, 31 Mar 2005 (all records see Ligon 2006). One specimen 1978 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic. Syn. Porphyrula martinica.

Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus

  • Du: Waterhoen Ar: Gaito pico còrá Cu, Bo: Gaitu pik kòró

  • Range Semi-cosmopolitan in temperate and warm zones, absent from Australia.

  • Habitat Freshwater marshes, and shore vegetations of ponds and pools.

  • Status Aruba Locally rather common breeding resident since formation of the Bubali sewage ponds (1973) and in the permanent ponds of Tierra del Sol, 1997 (JHR). Curaçao Rather scarce breeding resident. Breeding suggested in 1956, 1971; nest with one egg, Klein Hofje, 17 Apr 1994 (BDB); breeding recorded from Dam Muizenberg, 27 Apr 1997 (adult and pulli seen, DMCP). Three specimens 1956 (ZMA). Bonaire Irregular breeding visitor. Juvenile birds observed at Onima reservoir, 14 Nov 1981 (FCL); 2 adults with 4 downy young, pond at Dos Pos, Jul 2000 (Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu: breeding birds belong to the West Indian ssp G. c. cerceris but in all 3 islands occurrence of other ssp, G. c. cachinnans from N and Middle America, or G. c. galeata from continental South America cannot be excluded.

American Coot Fulica americana

  • Du: Amerikaanse Meerkoet Ar: Gaito pico blancu, Kùt Cu, Bo: Gaitu pik blanku, Kùt

  • Range From S Canada to South America as far as N Chile; the West Indies.

  • Habitat Shallow freshwater lakes, ponds and marshes. In winter also deep lakes, brackish bays and estuaries.

  • Status Aruba Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. P.A. and F.G. Buckley observed coots with a red bill knob in 1971; 1 bird, Bubali, 16 Dec 1992 (GJR); at Tierra del Sol 1 immature, 26 Mar 2004, 1 adult, 30 Mar 2004, 2 adults, 12 Mar 2005 (SGM and CB). Curaçao Casual visitor. Bird with thick reddish brown knob at base of shield, Malpais, 1971 (W. Bokma, film examined by KHV); bird with prominent bill knob relieves mate without callus at nest with eggs, Malpais, 1971 (E. van Campen, film examined by KHV, see Voous 1985); 1 bird, Dam Muizenberg, 21 Jun 1997 (BDB). One specimen 1955 (ZMA, see Note). Bonaire Casual visitor. P.A. and F.G. Buckley observed coots with a red bill knob in 1971.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu and Bo: most likely F. a. americana from temperate and warm N and Middle America.

  • Note In the collection of the ZMA is a subadult male (ZMA 28706: Dam Muizenberg, Curaçao, 8 May 1955), originally labelled F. caribaea, with an extensive red bill knob. It is inseparable from F. americana of the same age. This subadult bird is in an adult plumage mixed with still fairly fresh juvenile feathers on head and neck, a stage reached a few months after hatching, suggesting a laying date somewhere in mid-winter, which seems to exclude the possibility that the bird is a stray from North America (Prins et al. 2005). On account of the occurrence of mixed pairs (like the one at Malpais in 1971) some authors have considered F. americana and F. caribaea conspecific (Payne & Master 1983, Voous 1983, 1985).

Caribbean Coot Fulica caribaea

  • Du: Caribische Koet Ar: Gaito frente blancu, Kùt Cu, Bo: Gaitu frente blanku, Kùt

  • Range The West Indies and NW Venezuela.

  • Habitat Freshwater lakes, ponds and marshes.

  • Status Rather common breeding resident on Aruba and Curaçao. Seen and found breeding when and where freshwater ponds are present. Curaçao Since formation of Klein Hofje, Dam Muizenberg and the Dam of Malpais present throughout the year. On 21 Jun 1997 more than 800 birds counted at Dam Muizenberg (BDB) and 29 Apr–20 May 2005 c. 600 birds (LS). Four specimens, 1955 (2), 1956 (2) (ZMA). Bonaire Irregular breeding visitor, depending on freshwater ponds. Abundantly breeding early 1986 after three months of heavy rain (FCL); 4 active nests, 2 of these with downy chicks in temporary pool near entrance of Washington-Slagbaai National Park, Mar 2000; 3 nests with a total of 9 chicks and 3 nests with eggs, Onima, 14 Mar 2001; 40–50 young of various ages on pond near entrance of Washington-Slagbaai National Park, 18 Feb 2005, first young seen in late December (all records Ligon 2006). Two specimens, 1980, 1982 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

ARAMIDAE

Limpkin Aramus guarauna

  • Du: Koerlan Ar, Cu, Bo: Garao

  • Range Southeastern part of the USA, Greater Antilles, and from S Mexico south to South America as far as Ecuador W of Andes, and Argentina E of Andes. Fairly common in Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Freshwater marshes, swamps, mangroves.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. One bird, Ceroe Colorado, Feb 1975 (R. Stanley, colour-slides examined by KHV); 1 bird, Tierra del Sol, 12 Mar 2005 (Mlodinow 2006). Curaçao and Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar: A. g. guarauna from N South America.

BURHINIDAE

Double-striped Thick-knee Burhinus bitriatus

  • Du: Caribische Griel Ar, Cu, Bo: Snepi di mondi

  • Range From S Mexico through Central America to N South America, Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles. Fairly common to common in Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Arid scrub, savannas, open woodland.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. One record, Piscadera Baai, Jul 1934, (photo of captured bird in de Jong 1948: plate 1). Status of the species difficult to ascertain, as it is essentially crepuscular and nocturnal, resting inconspicuously during the day. Rutten (1931) mentions two local names for the species (Krabétsj, Alcaraván), and de Jong (1948) reports several unconfirmed records from western Curaçao, indicating that it may have been more common than this single record suggests. Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu: tentatively identified by Voous (1983) from the single photograph as B. b. vocifer of N South America, but races difficult to separate owing to considerable individual variation.

HAEMATOPODIDAE

American Oystercatcher Haematopus palliatus

  • Du: Amerikaanse Bonte Scholekster Ar, Cu, Bo: Kibra kokolishi, Shon Piet

  • Range From the Atlantic and Gulf coast of the USA and along the Pacific coast from Baja California south to South America as far as C Chile and S Argentina; the West Indies.

  • Habitat Rocky and sandy seacoasts, tidal mudflats.

  • Status Aruba Rather scarce breeding resident. Breeding first recorded San Nicolas Bay keys, Jun 1987 (RVH, colour-slides examined by KHV); also breeding in same location, 17 May-3 Jun 1989 (RVH). One specimen 1908 (FMNH). Curaçao Non-breeding visitor in small numbers, also on Klein Curaçao. Six specimens, 1952 (3), 1954 (2), 1961 (ZMA). Bonaire Scarce breeding visitor. First breeding observed near Pekelmeer 1968 (Voous 1983); beach of Boca Onima, 1971 (SS); Playa Chiquitu, 29 May 1975 (FCL et al.); breeding suspected on Klein Bonaire. One specimen 1930 (RMNH).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: H. p. palliatus of North and South America and the West Indies.

RECURVIROSTRIDAE

Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus

  • Du: Steltkluut Ar, Cu, Bo: Snepi hudiu, Macamba, Kaweta di patu, Redadó

  • Range Worldwide in tropical and subtropical zones.

  • Habitat Shallow marshes, ponds, flooded fields and mudflats.

  • Status Rather common breeding resident and non-breeding visitor in varying numbers. Found on muddy shores and saltpans, but also along permanent or temporary freshwater ponds inland. Curaçao Two specimens 1892 (AMNH); 7 specimens, 1951, 1952 (3), 1954 (2), 1953 (ZMA). Bonaire Groups of up to 400 birds have been observed at Lac. At least 500 birds seen in mangrove marsh near junction with Sorobon road, 1 Nov 2001 (Ligon 2006). One specimen, Klein Bonaire, 1930 (RMNH); 2 specimens 1951 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: H. h. mexicanus of S USA, N South America and the West Indies.

American Avocet Recurvirostra americana

  • Du: Amerikaanse Kluut Ar: Kaweta di pato boka lantá Cu, Bo: Kaweta di patu boka lantá

  • Range Temperate North America. In winter along coasts south of the breeding range as far as Honduras, and rarely in the West Indies to Bahamas and Cuba. Casual in Carribean south to Barbados (Raffaele et al. 1998). No records from Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Marshes, mudflats, estuaries, ponds and lakes.

  • Status Aruba and Curaçao No records. Bonaire Casual visitor. One sight record of 2 birds, lagoon at Lac, 7 Mar 1979 (Mr and Mrs A. Patunoff).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

CHARADRIIDAE

Southern Lapwing Vanellus chilensis

  • Du: Chileense Kievit Ar, Cu, Bo: Kivit sur-amerikano

  • Range Almost whole of South America

  • Habitat Grassland, savannas, open marshes.

  • Status Aruba Irregular non-breeding and likely casual breeding visitor in small numbers. Sight record from Bubali, 6 Jun 1979 (AK, EJ, colour-slide examined by KHV); 1 bird, 30 May 2001 (R.L. Norton and A. White); 2 birds, Tierra del Sol, 30 Mar 2003; 2 birds, Tierra del Sol, breeding suspected on account of their aggressive behaviour, 26 Mar-3 Apr 2004 (Mlodinow 2005); another bird elsewhere at the same locality, same date; nest defense behaviour was also observed from a pair at Tierra del Sol, 12–16 Mar 2005 (all records SGM and CB). Curaçao Casual visitor. One bird, Klein Hofje, 17 May 2004 (AOD). Bonaire Casual visitor. First record of 2 birds on freshwater pond near entrance of Washington-Slagbaai National Park, 23 May 2006; 3 birds (2 behaving as if paired), same place, 6 Jun 2006; 2 birds, same place 18 Oct 2006 (JCL and others in Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar and possibly also Cu, Bo: V. c. cayennensis from N South America. Syn. Belonopterus chilensis.

American Golden Plover Pluvialis dominica

  • Du: Amerikaanse Goudplevier Ar: Lopi dorado Cu, Bo: Lopi dorá

  • Range Northern North America. Migrates in winter to C and S South America.

  • Habitat Tundras. In winter mudflats, beaches, grassland.

  • Status Non-breeding visitor in rather small numbers. In autumn mostly between Sep–Nov (earliest 7 Sep). Also recorded in Dec (Curaçao) and Jan, Feb (Bonaire). In spring rapid passage between the second half of Apr and the middle of May (J. Rooth). Aruba Late record of a single bird in the northwestern part of the island, 28 May 1985 (RVH). One specimen 1973 (ZMA). Curaçao A group of 25 birds at St. Michiel lagoon, 17 Oct 2001 (R. Hoekstra and M. van den Berg); another group of 15 birds at the saliña's on the road to Bullenbaai, 31 Oct 2001 (M. van den Berg, H. Lo-Sioe-Fon and R. Wellens). Six specimens, 1951 (3), 1954 (2), 2003 (ZMA). Bonaire One bird in non-breeding plumage, Slagbaai, 26 Sep 1997 (Ligon 2006). One specimen 1929 (USNM); 1 specimen 1988 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Grey Plover/Black-bellied Plover Pluvialis squatarola

  • Du: Zilverplevier. Ar: Lopi gris Cu, Bo: Lopi shinishi

  • Range High arctic of North America and Eurasia. In winter along coasts of USA, Middle and South America, and the West Indies. The Eurasian birds winter along almost all coasts of the Eastern Hemisphere from 55° N southward.

  • Habitat Arid arctic tundra. In winter beaches, ponds, lakes, mudflats.

  • Status Regular non-breeding visitor in varying numbers. Some birds are recorded throughout the year, but numbers increase during migration periods. Aruba One specimen 1892 (AMNH); 4 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 1 specimen 1930 (RMNH); 2 specimens, 1951, sine die (ZMA). Curaçao Several autumn records for Klein Curaçao. Six specimens, 1951 (2), 1952 (2), 1954, 1955 (ZMA). Bonaire One specimen 1951 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: P. s. cynosurae from N Canada.

Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus

  • Du: Amerikaanse Bontbekplevier Ar, Cu, Bo: Lopi semipalmado

  • Range Low arctic North America. In winter along coasts of S USA, Middle and South America, including the West Indies.

  • Habitat Sandy areas and grassy or mossy tundra. In winter beaches, ponds, lakes, tidal mudflats.

  • Status Regular non-breeding visitor in varying numbers. One of the commonest waders during migration, but recorded throughout the year. Aruba Five specimens 1908 (FMNH); 2 specimens 1930 (RMNH); 4 specimens, 1951 (3), 1961 (ZMA). Curaçao One specimen 1930 (RMNH); 11 specimens, 1951 (3), 1952 (6), 1954 (2) (ZMA). Bonaire One specimen 1930 (RMNH).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Wilson's Plover Charadrius wilsonia

  • Du: Dikbekplevier Ar: Lopi pico diki Cu, Bo: Lopi pik diki

  • Range From Baja California south to N Peru and from E USA to NE Brazil, most of the West Indies. In winter from Florida south along the coasts of tropical South America.

  • Habitat Sandy beaches, tidal mudflats.

  • Status Rather scarce irregular breeding visitor and scarce winter visitor from North America. Aruba Two specimens (C. w. cinnamominus) 1892 (AMNH); 8 specimens (cinnamominus) 1908 (FMNH); 2 specimens (cinnamominus) 1930 (RMNH); 2 specimens (cinnamominus) Hadicurari, 7 Apr 1952 (ZMA); 1 specimen (C. w. wihonia) Hadicurari, 7 Apr 1952 (ZMA). Curaçao One specimen 1930 (RMNH); 11 specimens (ssp cinnamominus), 1951 (3), 1952 (4), 1953, 1954, sine die (2) (ZMA). Bonaire One bird probably of ssp C. w. wilsonia at Lake Goto, 24 Oct 1979 (KHV); two sight records of C. w. beldingi: 3 adult birds near airport, 8 Jun 1985, and 2 adults at Cai, 30 Jun 1985 (FCL); 2 birds, Lac, 16 Aug and 1 bird Lake Goto, 17 Aug 1992 (LS); 16–18 birds observed in Jul 2001, including 8–10 birds at Lac among which 1 chick and 6 birds observed on Klein Bonaire in Jul 2001, including 1 pair that possibly had eggs or young nearby (both records Wells & Childs Wells 2006). One specimen (ssp cinnamominus) 1908 (FMNH); 2 specimens 1930 (RMNH); 1 specimen (ssp cinnamominus) 1969 (USNM); 6 specimens (ssp cinnamominus), 1951 (2), 1952 (2), 1961 (2) (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: primarily C. w. cinnamominus from the Caribbean coast of Colombia and Venezuela, including the offshore islands. C. w. wilsonia from the Atlantic coast of SE USA and C. w. beldingi from the Pacific coast, C Baja California to Panama, have been recorded from Aruba and Bonaire. It is likely that all three races occur on all 3 islands.

Killdeer Charadrius vociferus

  • Du: Killdeerplevier Ar, Cu, Bo: Lopi killdeer

  • Range From boreal and temperate North America, south to C Mexico, Bahamas, Greater Antilles and the Pacific coast of Peru and Chile. In winter throughout temperate North America, Middle America, the West Indies and NW South America. Fewer than 10 records from Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Grassland, lakes, ponds and rivers. In winter plowed fields, mudflats and coastal beaches.

  • Status Aruba Rather scarce non-breeding visitor and breeding resident. Regularly breeding near Bubali since 1979; 14 birds observed there, including breeding pair with young and several others showing behaviour indicating nesting, 22 May-7 Jun 1984 (T. van Ingen, RVH); pulli seen at Tierra del Sol, 26 Jul 1982 (DFM, TDK); mating observed Tierra del Sol, Apr 1989 (JHR); 2 adults and 3 pulli, 18 Feb 1997 (EJ); 1 pair with downy chick and possible second breeding pair, Tierra del Sol, 12–18 Mar 2005; 1 possible breeding pair, Malmok Saltpans, 12–18 Mar 2005 (both SGM and CB). One specimen 1951 (ZMA). Curaçao Rather scarce non-breeding visitor and scarce breeding resident. First breeding record Klein Hofje, 19 Jun 1988, adults and a pullus observed (J. Vogel, photo examined); second record, Klein Hofje, 29 May 1994 (BDB); pullus observed, Klein Hofje, 3 Jun 1995 (BDB). Two specimens, 1951, 1960 (ZMA). Bonaire Regular non-breeding visitor in small numbers, mainly present during the winter months. One specimen 1951 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic Ar, Cu, Bo: probably the North American ssp C. v. vociferus.

Piping Plover Charadrius melodus

  • Du: Dwergplevier Ar: Lopi melódico Cu, Bo: Lopi melódiko

  • Range Temperate North America. In winter along Atlantic coast of SE USA, Gulf coast south to Yucatán, Bahamas and Greater Antilles. Casual farther south, with reports only from St. Kitts and Barbados in Lesser Antilles and from SW Ecuador (AOU 1998).

  • Habitat Sandy beaches, inland sandy and alkaline shores of shallow lakes. In winter primarily sandy beaches and tidal mudflats.

  • Status Aruba and Curaçao No records. Bonaire Casual visitor. One record from Pekelmeer, Salt Works, 18 Jan 1977 (FCL); a possible second sighting from the same location, 16 Jun 1982 (FCL); a plover paler than the snowy plover with conspicuous yellow legs may have been this species, south end of island near Salt Pier, last week Oct 2002 (D. Henderson in Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus

  • Du: Strandplevier Ar: Lopi bianco Cu, Bo: Lopi blanku

  • Range Almost cosmopolitan, but not in areas with boreal climates.

  • Habitat Sandy beaches, open flats near brackish or saline lakes, lagoons and ponds.

  • Status Generally present in small numbers from Feb till Oct on all three islands. Aruba Regular non-breeding visitor in rather small numbers. Possibly declining, and not seen in 1998 or 1999 (DFM). Curaçao Scarce breeding resident. Most nests with eggs have been recorded between May and Jul; early record of downy chicks in the second half of Mar 1953 (P.H.A. Bronneberg). Three specimens 1954 (ZMA). Bonaire Scarce breeding resident. Formerly the species may have been more abundant as Rutten (1931) reports it to be common. Breeding pairs and recently fledged young have been observed at Lake Goto, 10 May-10 Jun 1930 (Rutten 1931); downy chicks between Feb (P.A.W.J. de Wilde) and early Sep (FCL); 4 juveniles at saltpan along road to Cai, 8 Jun 2001 (Ligon 2006); 40 birds observed over a 4-day period in different parts of the island, of which 7 pairs showed evidence of breeding, also 6 adults and 1 chick on Klein Bonaire, Jul 2001 (Wells & Childs Wells 2006); few winter records, e.g. 4 birds near Sorobon, 29 Dec 2001 (JCL, J. and A. Watson, D. Preter in Ligon 2006). Three specimens 1930, including one from Klein Bonaire (RMNH); 6 specimens, 1952 (5), 1980 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: C. a. nivosus of North America and the West Indies.

Collared Plover Charadrius collaris

  • Du: Kraagplevier Ar: Lopi coyar Cu, Bo: Lopi koyar

  • Range Coastal areas from C Mexico, south through Central America to South America, including islands off Venezuela, south as far as W Peru and C Argentina.

  • Habitat Coastal and riverine sand beaches, lakes, ponds.

  • Status Regular non-breeding visitor in rather small numbers. Mostly seen during the northern summer. Aruba Records of maximally 25 birds, Bubali, 1984, 1989, 1991 (DFM); of single birds in Dec 1996, and Dec 1998 (H. Farber); 1 bird, Tierra del Sol, 28 Mar 2003 (SGM and CB); 1 bird, Malmok, 11 March 2005 (SGM and CB). Curaçao Three specimens, 1952, 1957 (2) (ZMA). Bonaire Observed well into Oct in 1984 and 1985 (FCL). A single record of “young birds in moult” in 1892 suggest occasional breeding (Hartert 1893). Though further possible breeding is suspected, no further evidence has been recorded. One bird, Pekelmeer, 16 and 18 Aug 1992 (LS); 3 birds on mudflats near Harbour Village Marina, 1 Jul 1997 (JCL); 1 bird along road to Cai, 8 Jul 1998 (JCL, J. Lanier, D. Preker); 1 bird along shoreline at Lagoen, mid-Jul 2001 (JCL, C. Powell); 2 birds at Playa Frans, 17 May 2002 (G. and Y. van Hoorn); 1 bird Lake Goto, 24 Apr 2005 (A. Cooley all records since 1998 in Ligon 2006). Two specimens 1892 (AMNH).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

JACANIDAE

Wattled Jacana Jacana jacana

  • Du: Leljacana Ar, Cu, Bo: Jacana

  • Range From Panama in Central America south to NW Peru and C Argentina. Common in N Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Marshes, ponds, lakes, rivers, areas with floating vegetation.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. One bird, Piscadera Baai, 21 Aug 1980 (BDB); 1 bird observed at Klein Hofje, 15 Mar 1992 (BDB). Bonaire Casual visitor. One bird found freshly dead, on an unspecified beach, 1971 (FCL).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu, Bo: J. j. intermedia from N Venezuela.

Plate 19.

Santa Cruz, mangroves. (Photo A. Debrot)

p19_137.eps

Plate 20.

Saliña Jan Kok. (Photo A. Debrot)

p20_137.eps

Plate 21.

Jan Thiel, saltpan. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p21_137.eps

Plate 22.

Boka Moisi. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p22_137.eps

Plate 23.

Saliña Playa Funchi. (Photo A. Debrot)

p23_137.eps

Plate 24A.

Washington-Slagbaai National Park, Saliña Matijs (wet season). (Photo B. Denneman/Vogelbescherming)

p24a_137.eps

Plate 24B.

Washington-Slagbaai National Park, Saliña Matijs (dry season). (Photo B. Denneman/Vogelbescherming)

p24b_137.eps

Plate 25.

Washington-Slagbaai National Park, Mt. Brandaris on background. (Photo A. Debrot)

p25_137.eps

Plate 26.

Washington-Slagbaai National Park, extreme deforestation. (Photo A. Debrot)

p26_137.eps

Plate 27.

Washington-Slagbaai National Park, sand dunes. (Photo B. Denneman/Vogelbescherming)

p27_137.eps

Plate 28.

Saliña Slagbaai. (Photo A. Debrot)

p28_137.eps

Plate 29.

Washington-Slagbaai National Park, Pilosocereus lanuginosus. (Photo B. Denneman/Vogelbescherming)

p29_137.eps

Plate 30.

Piedra Cruz. (Photo B. Denneman/Vogelbescherming)

p30_137.eps

Plate 31.

Put Bronswinkel. (Photo A. Debrot)

p31_137.eps

Plate 32.

Lac, mangroves. (Photo B. Denneman/Vogelbescherming)

p32_137.eps

Plate 33.

Blue-winged Teal Anas discors. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p33_137.eps

Plate 34.

Black-bellied Whistling Duck Dendrocygna autumnalis. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p34_137.eps

Plate 35.

White-cheeked Pintail Anas bahamensis. (Photo S. Mlodinow)

p35_137.eps

Plate 36.

Scarlet Ibis Eudocimus ruber. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p36_137.eps

Plate 37.

Least Grebe Tachybaptus dominicus. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p37_137.eps

Plate 38.

Pied-billed Grebe Podilymbus podiceps. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p38_137.eps

SCOLOPACIDAE

Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago

  • Du: Watersnip Ar, Cu, Bo: Snepi di awa

  • Range Boreal and temperate North America and Eurasia. In winter in southern part of the breeding range, south through Middle America to NW South America, from Ecuador to Surinam; the West Indies. In Eurasia in southern part of the breeding range south to S Europe, Asia and C Africa.

  • Habitat Wet, grassy areas. In winter flooded fields, bogs, marshes.

  • Status Regular non-breeding visitor in varying numbers. The number of birds depends on the presence of fresh water. Curaçao Seven specimens, 1951 (3), 1955 (2), 1956, 1977 (ZMA). Bonaire Two specimens, 1951, 1978 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: G. g. delicata from North America.

  • Note Recently G. delicata has been considered as a separate species (Banks et al. 2002).

Short-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus griseus

  • Du: Kleine Grijze Snip Ar: Snepi gris chikito, Snepi Cu, Bo: Snepi gris chikí, Snepi

  • Range Subarctic Canada and coastal S Alaska. In winter both coasts of temperate USA, Middle America, south to South America as far as coastal C Peru on the Pacific and coastal C Brazil on the Atlantic, the West Indies.

  • Habitat Grassy or mossy tundra, muskegs, bogs and wet meadows. In winter tidal mudflats, estuaries, beaches, ponds and pools.

  • Status Regular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Found throughout the year, but most numerous during migration periods. Curaçao Four specimens, 1954 (3), 1955 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: L. g. griseus from E Canada.

Long-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus scolopaceus

  • Du: Grote Grijze Snip Ar, Cu, Bo: Snepi gris grandi

  • Range Arctic NW Canada, inland Alaska and NE Siberia. In winter south from W North America to Panama, Gulf coast and S Florida. Casual in Lesser Antilles south to Barbados (Raffaele et al. 1998), but no definitive records from South America (AOU 1998).

  • Habitat Grassy tundra, bogs, muskegs and wet meadows. In winter marshes, mudflats, ponds, lakes and flooded fields.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. Two birds, Bubali, 9 Oct 1978 (EJ in Voous 1983). Curaçao Casual visitor. Two or three birds, lagoon near Willemstad, 11 Apr 1981 (A.L. Spaans and other observers in Voous 1983). Bonaire Possibly irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Fifty individuals, Pekelmeer, 30 Jul 1972 (DMCP); 3 birds, saline lagoon Cay, Lac, 13–20 May 1974 (A.A. van den Boogaard); 8 birds, Pekelmeer, 20 May 1977 (KHV); 2 birds, Witte Pan, 27 Dec 1977 (FCL) (these 4 records in Voous 1983); 2 birds, Boca Slagbaai, 24 May 1998 (JCL in Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

  • Note Owing to the great difficulty of separating non-breeding Short-billed and Long-billed Dowitchers it is not certain whether the Long-billed Dowitcher may be a regular non-breeding visitor. If so, this would be an extension of the known winter range (AOU 1998).

Hudsonian Godwit Limosa haemastica

  • Du: Rode Grutto Ar: Lopi càrá Cu, Bo: Lopi kòrá

  • Range Local in arctic and subarctic North America. Migrates in winter to the Atlantic coast of South America, from S Brazil to Tierra del Fuego.

  • Habitat Grassy tundra near water. In winter marshes, flooded fields and tidal mudflats.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. One bird, Bubali, 15 Dec 1977 (EJ, J.H. van den Koppel, photo examined by KHV); 1 bird at same locality 3 and 14–15 Oct 1979 (EJ, KHV and others); 1 bird, Bubali, 13 Sep 1988 (RVH). Curaçao Casual visitor. Malpais, 4–11 Nov 1962 (P.A. van der Werf); 1 bird, Klein Hofje, 7 Sep 1994 (BDB); 1 bird, Shut, 20 and 22 Oct 2005 (J. and I. Roos, colour-photos examined). Bonaire Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Sight record of 1 bird, near the harbour, 11 Oct 1983 (FCL, photo examined); 1 bird with 6 Whimbrels, salifia near Harbour Village Marina, 13 Oct 2000 (JCL); 1 bird, near entrance of Washington-Slagbaai National Park, 3 Nov 2000 (JCL); 1 bird, Cai, 21 Sept 2002 (JCL); 1 bird with Short-billed Dowitchers, salifia near Harbour Village Marina, 25 Sept 2002 (JCL) (for all JCL records see Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus

  • Du: Regenwulp Ar: Lopi piku doblá Cu, Bo: Lopi pik doblá

  • Range Low arctic and boreal North America and Eurasia. In winter from coastal areas of E and W USA and Middle America to S Chile and S Brazil; the West Indies. The Eurasian population migrates south to the coasts of Africa, Asia and Australasia.

  • Habitat Tundra. In winter beaches, rocky coasts, tidal mudflats, marshes, estuaries, flooded fields, pastures.

  • Status Regular non-breeding visitor in varying numbers. Seen throughout the year, but most common during migration periods. Primarily along the coast, but also at freshwater pools and wet areas. Curaçao One specimen of ssp hudsonicus collected at Klein Curaçao 1981 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: N. p. hudsonicus from North America. Occurrence of N. p. rufiventris from Alaska and NW Canada also possible. Note In recent literature N. p. rufiventris is no longer recognized as distinct subspecies.

Upland Sandpiper Bartramia longicauda

  • Du: Bartrams Ruiter Ar, Cu, Bo: Snepi Bartram

  • Range Boreal and temperate North America. In winter from Surinam and N Brazil to Uruguay and C Argentina (AOU 1998).

  • Habitat Grassland, prairies, pastures, open woodland. In winter also shores and mudflats.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. One bird, Bubali, Nov 1978 (AK, colour-slide examined by KHV). Curaçao Casual visitor. One bird, Rif, 30 Aug 1956 (HJK); 1 bird, Klein Hofje, 12 Feb 1993 (BDB). One specimen 1956 (ZMA). Bonaire Casual visitor. One bird, Pekelmeer, 25 Aug 1977 (FCL, colour-slide examined by KHV); 1 bird, Zuidweg, 22 Oct 1984 (FCL).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Greater Yellowlegs Tringa melanoleuca

  • Du: Grote Geelpootruiter Ar, Cu, Bo: Snepi pia hel grandi, Snepi pia hel largu

  • Range Low arctic North America. In winter coastal and S USA, Middle America, South America and the West Indies.

  • Habitat Bogs, muskegs, ponds, lakes, open woodland. In winter flooded fields, lagoons, coastal mudflats.

  • Status Regular non-breeding visitor in varying numbers. Present throughout the year, mostly in smaller numbers than Lesser Yellowlegs and most numerous in winter. Often in company of Lesser Yellowlegs and Black-winged Stilt. Aruba Three specimens 1908 (FMNH); 1 specimen 1978 (ZMA). Curaçao Four specimens, 1951 (3), 1954 (ZMA). Bonaire One specimen 1892 (AMNH); 1 specimen 1908 (FMNH); 1 specimen 1930 (RMNH); 2 specimens 1951 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa flavipes

  • Du: Kleine Geelpootruiter Ar: Snepi pia hel chikito Cu, Bo: Snepi pia hel chikitu

  • Range Arctic and subarctic North America. In winter coastal S USA, Middle America, South America and the West Indies.

  • Habitat Tundra, bogs. In winter marshes, flooded fields, ponds, mudflats.

  • Status Regular non-breeding visitor in rather large numbers. Present throughout the year but most numerous in winter. Commonly seen and heard, often in company of Greater Yellowlegs and Black-winged Stilt. For instance, mixed flocks of 200–300 Yellowlegs have been recorded on Bonaire (FCL). Aruba One specimen 1908 (FMNH). Curaçao One specimen 1930 (RMNH); 22 specimens, 1951 (14), 1952 (4), 1955 (2), 1956, 1977 (ZMA). Bonaire One specimen 1909 (FMNH); 4 specimens, 1951 (2), 1954 (2) (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Solitary Sandpiper Tringa solitaria

  • Du: Amerikaanse Bosruiter Ar, Cu, Bo: Snepi solitario

  • Range Boreal North America. In winter from N Mexico south through Central America to S Peru and C Argentina. Common in Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Bogs and ponds in coniferous taiga forest. In winter flooded areas, mudflats, marshes.

  • Status Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers, dependent on the presence of freshwater ponds. Aruba Likely an annual migrant: 2 birds, Bubali, 23–28 Mar 2003 (SGM, CB); 2 birds, Bubali, 3–8 Aug 2003 (TDK, DFM); 1 bird, Bubali, 30 Mar 2004; 1 bird, Santa Cruz, 2–3 Apr 2004 and 1 bird, Tierra del Sol, 2–3 Apr 2004 (SGM and CB); 2 birds near Paradera, 15 Mar 2005 (SGM and CB). Curaçao An unspecified record from 1990s (J. van der Woude); 1 bird, Dam Muizenberg, 3 May 2005 (LS). One specimen 1908 (FMNH); 6 specimens, 1951 (2), 1952, 1953, 1954 (2) (ZMA). Bonaire Mostly between Sep and Feb (FCL). Two birds, Saliña Slagbaai, 30 Oct 1998 (JCL); 2 birds, Washington-Slagbaai National Park, 18 Sep 2002 (JCL, C. and C. Field) (both observations see Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: probably T. s. solitaria from NE North America.

Spotted Sandpiper Actitis macularius

  • Du: Amerikaanse Oeverloper Ar, Cu, Bo: Snepi barika pintá

  • Range Canada and N USA. In winter from S USA to tropical and subtropical South America and the West Indies.

  • Habitat Sandy or muddy shores of streams, lakes, ponds, seacoasts. In winter also on rocky coasts.

  • Status Regular non-breeding visitor in rather small numbers. Present throughout the year, but most numerous during migration periods and in winter. Birds in summer plumage have been recorded as early as 19 Apr (Aruba, J. Hilbrands) and as late as 7 Sep (Curaçao, E. van Campen). Aruba One specimen 1908 (FMNH); 1 specimen 1988 (ZMA). Curaçao One specimen 1930 (RMNH); 2 specimens 1892 (USNM); 12 specimens, 1951 (7), 1952, 1953, 1954 (3) (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

  • Note A single bird photographed by I. Roos at Zakitó, Curaçao 13 Dec 2003, was at first tentatively identified as Wandering Tattler Heteroscelus incanus, but depicts almost certainly a Spotted Sandpiper.

Willet Catoptrophorus semipalmatus

  • Du: Willet Ar, Cu, Bo: Snepi ala di strepi

  • Range South C Canada, NC USA and from Nova Scotia south along the Atlantic coast to S Florida, Gulf coast, the West Indies. In winter along coasts of S USA, Middle America, south to C Chile and S Brazil, the West Indies.

  • Habitat Marshes, lakes, ponds, beaches. In winter also rocky shores, tidal mudflats and shallow waters.

  • Status Non-breeding visitor in rather small numbers. Mostly recorded between Aug and Mar. Curaçao Three specimens of ssp semipalmatus, 1952, 1954 (2) (ZMA). Bonaire Recorded in every month, but not of every year (FCL). Early sight record, 1 bird, Saliña Slagbaai, 17 Jul 1998 (Ligon 2006). One specimen of ssp inornatus 1961 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: both C. s. inornatus from SC Canada and NW USA and C. s. semipalmatus from coastal E North America have been recorded. Note C. s. inornatus and C. s. semipalmatus may represent separate species (SGM in litt).

Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres

  • Du: Steenloper Ar: Totolica di awa Cu, Bo: Totolika di awa, Giripitu

  • Range Arctic North America and arctic Eurasia. In winter along almost all temperate, subtropical and tropical coasts.

  • Habitat Tundra. In winter rocky coasts, beaches, lakes and tidal mudflats.

  • Status Non-breeding visitor in varying numbers throughout the year, but numbers smaller in summer. Aruba One specimen 1892 (AMNH); 7 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 1 specimen 1930 (RMNH); 3 specimens, 1951, 1973 (2) (ZMA). Curaçao Seventeen specimens, 1948, 1951 (7), 1952 (5), 1953, 1954, sine die (2) (ZMA). Bonaire Two specimens 1930 (RMNH); 3 specimens, 1951 (2), 1979 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: A. i. morinella from N Canada and NE Alaska.

Red Knot Calidris canutus

  • Du: Kanoet Ar: Snepi còrá Cu, Bo: Snepi kòrá

  • Range High arctic North America and Eurasia. In winter along the shores of the Gulf of Mexico and NE and S South America. In the Old World along W coasts of Europe, W and S Africa, S Asia, Australia and New Zealand.

  • Habitat Barren or stony tundra. In winter seacoasts, tidal mudflats, lake-shores, flooded fields.

  • Status Aruba Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. One bird, Coral Strand, 16 Nov 1971 (EJ); same location (same bird?) 24 Nov 1971 (A.D. Heineman); 2 birds, Savaneta, 12–24 Aug 1984 (DFM, TDK); 1 bird, Bubali, 20 Sep 1988 (RVH et al.). Curaçao Casual visitor. One sight record, Malpais, 4 Nov 1962 (P.A. van der Werf). Bonaire Regular non-breeding visitor in rather small numbers along the shores of the salt works (FCL, Mrs M. Hundley, A.L. Spaans). Largest number recorded along banks of Pekelmeer, 5 Feb 1983, over 175 birds (FCL); summer records: 3 birds, Pekelmeer, 9 Jul 2001; 1 bird, same locality, 11 Jul 2001; 1 bird, Sorobon on 1, 13 and 15 Jul 2001 (all records C. Powell in Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Bo, Cu: C. c. rufa from arctic Canada.

Sanderling Calidris alba

  • Du: Drieteenstrandloper Ar: Snepi bianco Cu, Bo: Snepi blanku

  • Range High arctic North America and Eurasia. In winter along almost all coasts of the USA, Middle America, South America and the West Indies. In the Old World along coasts between approximately 50° N and 50° S.

  • Habitat Dry sedge, barren or stony tundra. In winter mainly sandy beaches, more rarely mudflats.

  • Status Regular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Recorded throughout the year. Aruba One specimen 1908 (FMNH); 1 specimen 1951 (ZMA). Curaçao One specimen 1954 (ZMA). Bonaire Two specimens 1930 (RMNH); 4 specimens 1951 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Bo, Cu: C. a. rubida from NE Siberia and arctic North America.

Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla

  • Du: Grijze Strandloper Ar: Snepi gris Cu, Bo: Snepi pia pretu

  • Range Arctic North America. In winter along coasts from Central America to N Chile and S Brazil, the West Indies.

  • Habitat Open tundra. In winter mudflats, beaches, shallow lakes and ponds, flooded fields.

  • Status Regular non-breeding visitor in varying numbers, recorded in all periods of the year. Largest numbers during migration in Oct and Mar. Recoveries of ringed birds in Aruba and Bonaire show that Canadian birds arrive as early as Aug (EJ, FCL). Aruba Three specimens 1908 (FMNH); 5 specimens, 1973, 1978 (4) (ZMA). Curaçao Two specimens 1930 (RMNH); 12 specimens, 1951 (5), 1952 (2), of which 1 on Klein Curaçao), 1954 (4), 1974 (ZMA). Bonaire Two specimens 1930 (RMNH); 16 specimens, 1951 (12), 1952, 1979, 1981, 1983 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Western Sandpiper Calidris mauri

  • Du: Alaskastrandloper Ar, Cu, Bo: Snepi mauri

  • Range Alaska and NE Siberia. In winter along coasts of the USA, Middle America, N South America and the West Indies.

  • Habitat Coastal sedge tundra. In winter tidal mudflats, beaches, ponds, flooded fields.

  • Status Aruba and Curaçao Non-breeding visitor in rather small numbers. Present throughout the year, but most numerous during autumn migration from the end of July onwards. Curaçao Six specimens, 1951, 1954 (5) (ZMA). Bonaire Non-breeding visitor. Occasionally recorded in rather large numbers, such as >200 near Harbour Village Marina, 24 and 25 Sep 2002 (Ligon 2006) Four specimens, 1951 (2), 1952, sine die (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Least Sandpiper Calidris minutilla

  • Du: Kleinste Strandloper Ar: Snepi chikito Cu, Bo: Snepi chikí

  • Range Arctic and subarctic North America. Winters from S USA, Middle America, to N South America and the West Indies.

  • Habitat Mossy or grassy tundra. In winter mudflats, beaches, marshes, flooded fields, shallow lakes and ponds.

  • Status Non-breeding visitor in varying numbers. Present the year round, but largest numbers in Oct–Nov. Aruba Five specimens 1908 (FMNH); 3 specimens 1951 (ZMA). Curaçao Eleven specimens, 1951 (7), 1952 (2), 1954 (2) (ZMA). Bonaire One specimen 1892 (AMNH); 15 specimens, 1951 (13), 1952, 1990 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

  • Note Owing to the difficulty of identification in the field it is hard to assess the relative abundance of Semipalmated, Western and Least Sandpiper in the islands.

White-rumped Sandpiper Calidris fuscicollis

  • Du: Bonapartes Strandloper Ar, Cu, Bo: Snepi Bonaparte

  • Range Arctic North America. Winters in S South America as far as Tierra del Fuego.

  • Habitat Mossy or grassy tundra. In winter mudflats, coastal lagoons, marshes, flooded fields, ponds and lakes.

  • Status Non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Mostly observed during migration in spring (Apr–Jun) and autumn (Sep–Nov). Apparently most numerous about the second half of May. Aruba Three specimens 1908 (FMNH); 1 specimen 1988 (ZMA). Curaçao A group of 22 birds, Dam Muizenberg, 29 Apr-20 May 2005 (LS). Two specimens 1954 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Baird's Sandpiper Calidris bairdii

  • Du: Bairds Strandloper Ar, Cu, Bo: Snepi Baird

  • Range Arctic W North America and extreme NE Siberia. Winters in W and S South America as far as Tierra del Fuego. Though unrecorded in Venezuela (Hilty 2003), there is a scattering of records from the Lesser Antilles (Raffaele et al. 1998) and at least 2 records from Trinidad (ffrench 1991).

  • Habitat Dry coastal and alpine tundra. In winter inland wetlands or grassland, lakes, ponds, mudflats.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. One bird, Bubali, 8 Sep 1979 (EJ). Curaçao Casual visitor. One bird, Jan Thiel Lagoon, 28 May 1977 (KHV). Bonaire Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. One bird, Lac, 15 Sep 1980 (FCL); 12 birds, Dos Pos, 18 May 1986 (FCL); 1 bird, Lac, 29 Nov 1989 (FCL); a greater influx of birds of this species has been seen in one case (mid-Nov 2000; JCL), probably as a result of poor weather conditions during migration.

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Pectoral Sandpiper Calidris melanotos

  • Du: Gestreepte Strandloper Ar, Cu, Bo: Snepi strepi fini

  • Range Arctic North America and N Siberia. In winter south to S South America, SE Australia and New Zealand.

  • Habitat Wet coastal tundra. In winter wet grassland, flooded fields, ponds, pools and mudflats.

  • Status Regular non-breeding visitor in rather small numbers. Apparently most numerous during autumn migration (mid Jul—late Nov). Few records from Dec to May. Aruba Two specimens, 1963, 1979 (ZMA). Curaçao Eight specimens, 1951 (4), 1952 (2), 1954 (2) (ZMA). Bonaire Two specimens 1951 (2) (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Dunlin Calidris alpina

  • Du: Bonte Strandloper Ar, Cu, Bo: Snepi alpino

  • Range Arctic and boreal North America and Eurasia. In winter along the Atlantic-Gulf-Caribbean coast from Massachusetts in the USA to the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico and along the Pacific coast of North America from SE Alaska to Nayarit in Mexico. In Eurasia along coasts of W and S Europe, tropical and subtropical Africa and Asia. There are 2 undocumented reports from Venezuela (Hilty 2003) and records from Barbados, French Guiana, Peru, and Argentina (AOU 1998).

  • Habitat Wet coastal tundra. In winter mudflats, flooded fields, sandy beaches, lakes and ponds.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. One bird, Muizenberg, 18 Oct 2005 (J. and I. Roos, colourphoto examined). Bonaire Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. One bird, Lake Goto, 29 Mar 1985 (FCL and KHV); 1 bird, Pekelmeer, 10 Apr 1985 (P. Boyer); 2 birds, not in summer plumage, near the Kralendijk harbour, 4 Jun 1985 (FCL); 1 bird salinã Harbour Village Marina, 31 Aug 2002 (D. Walter in Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu, Bo: ssp not established, but from known winter distribution most likely to be either C. a. pacifica from W Alaska, C. a. arcticola from N Alaska, or C. a. hudsonia from C Canada.

Stilt-Sandpiper Calidris himantopus

  • Du: Steltstrandloper Ar: Snepi pia largo Cu, Bo: Snepi pia largu

  • Range W and C arctic North America. Winters in C South America with small numbers north to SW USA.

  • Habitat Sedge tundra. In winter shallow ponds and pools, mudflats and flooded fields.

  • Status Regular non-breeding visitor in varying numbers. Curaçao Two specimens, 1952, 1954 (ZMA). Bonaire Recorded throughout the year; flocks of up to 400 birds have been seen in saline lagoons of Pekelmeer, Lake Goto and at Cai (FCL, J. Rooth, A.L. Spaans). Two specimens 1952 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic. Syn. Micropalama himantopus.

Buff-breasted Sandpiper Tryngites subruficollis

  • Du: Blonde Ruiter Ar: Snepi blònt boca chikito Cu, Bo: Snepi blònt boka chikí

  • Range C and W Arctic North America and extreme NE Siberia. Winters in Paraguay, Uruguay and N Argentina. Scarce spring migrant in Venezuela, but unrecorded there during autumn (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Dry grassy tundra. In winter dry grassland, pastures, plowed fields, dry mudflats.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. Two groups of about 10 birds, Dam Muizenberg, 1 Oct 2000 (BDB). Bonaire Casual visitor. One bird, Malmok, 10–11 Oct 1970 (RVH, slide examined by KHV); 1 bird, Pekelmeer, 23 Oct-1 Nov 1984 (FCL, RVH).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Wilson's Phalarope Phalaropus tricolor

  • Du: Grote Franjepoot Ar, Cu, Bo: Snepi seha grandi

  • Range Breeds in S and SC Canada and W and NC USA east to region of Great Lakes. Winters primarily in W and S South America. One record from Venezuela (Hilty 2003); rare in the West Indies south to Barbados (Raffaele et al. 1998).

  • Habitat Shallow marshy wetlands. In winter shallow ponds, flooded fields and mudflats.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. Two moulting juvenile birds, Jan Thiel, 22 Sep 2001 (R. Hoekstra, description examined). Bonaire Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Two birds, Great Salt Lake, 25–27 Jan 1970 (P.A. and EG. Buckley, colour-slides examined by KHV); 1 bird in same location, Jan 1971 (same observers); about 10 birds, Lake Goto, 8 Mar 1979 (Mr and Mrs A. Patunoff); 1 bird in adult winter plumage, Playa Lechi, 21 Sep 1984 (FCL); 2 birds, Lake Goto, 5 Mar 2002 (American Birding Association Group, D. Canterbury in Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Red-necked Phalarope Phalaropus lobatus

  • Du: Grauwe Franjepoot Ar: Snepi seha boca fini Cu, Bo: Snepi seha boka fini

  • Range Arctic North America and Eurasia. In winter primarily at sea off W South America, Arabian Sea, Philippines and Indonesia. Very rare in Greater Antilles and unrecorded farther south in the West Indies (Raffaele et al. 1998). No records from Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Grassy ponds, marshes, bogs. In winter mostly pelagic. On migration lakes, ponds, marshes and estuaries.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. One moulting juvenile bird, Jan Thiel, 22 Sep 2001 (R. Hoekstra). Bonaire Casual visitor. Two records from the Great Salt Lake, 1 bird 25–27 Jan 1970 (colour-slides examined by KHV), and 2 birds 22–28 Jan 1971 (both records P.A. and EG. Buckley).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Grey Phalarope/Red Phalarope Phalaropus fulicarius

  • Du: Rosse Franjepoot Ar: Snepi seha boca diki Cu, Bo: Snepi seha boka diki

  • Range Arctic North America and Eurasia. In winter at sea off W South America and W and SW South Africa. Very rare in the West Indies where recorded on Cuba, Antigua, and the Virgin Islands (Raffaele et al. 1998). Unrecorded in Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Marshy coastal tundra. In winter pelagic. In migration bays, estuaries, ponds, lakes and marshes.

  • Status Aruba and Curaçao No records. Bonaire Casual visitor. One record, Playa Frans, 7 Nov 1999 (JCL, C. Herzfeld in Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

LARIDAE

Ring-billed Gull Larus delawarensis

  • Du: Ringsnavelmeeuw Ar: Meuwchi pico renchi Cu, Bo: Kahela pik renchi

  • Range Boreal and temperate North America. In winter south through the USA, Middle America and the Greater Antilles. Casual in Venezuela (Hilty 2003) and recorded as far south as mainland Ecuador, the Galapagos Islands, and Amazonian Brazil (AOU 1998).

  • Habitat Seacoasts, marshes, lakes, rivers, ponds. In winter estuaries, bays, fields and urban areas.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. One bird in second-winter plumage, Hadicurari, 20 Jan 1972 (EJ, colour-slides examined by KHV); 1 first-winter bird, same locality, Dec 1978 (AK, colour-slide examined by KHV). Curaçao No records. Bonaire Casual visitor. One sub-adult, Great Salt Lake, 23 Jan-22 Mar 1970 (P.A. and EG. Buckley, R. Soffer, colour-slide examined by KHV); one bird in second-winter plumage, mainly in harbour Kralendijk, 17 Jan-20 Feb 1982 (FCL, P. Boyer, colour-slides examined by KHV); 1 bird, coast near airport, Jun 2002 (R. Bartlett in Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Great Black-backed Gull Larus marinus

  • Du: Grote Mantelmeeuw Ar: Meuwchi lomba preto grandi Cu, Bo: Kahela lomba pretu

  • Range Coasts of E North America, S Greenland, Iceland and N and W Europe. Winters south along the Atlantic coast south to Florida, N Gulf coast and the Greater Antilles. In Europe south to the Mediterranean. Recorded in Central America south to Belize and in the West Indies south to Barbados (AOU 1998). One published record from Venezuela is the only one from mainland South America (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Rocky coasts and lakes. In winter coasts, beaches, estuaries and urban areas.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. One bird in almost fully adult plumage, Hadicurari coast, 24 Nov 1971-Feb 1972; 1 bird in similar or slightly more advanced adult plumage, same locality, 5 Nov-17 Dec 1972 (EJ and others, colour-slides examined by KHV). Curaçao No records. Bonaire Casual visitor. One record of a single bird, among Laughing Gulls and Royal Terns, inshore from Pink Beach, Pekelmeer, 16 Jan 2004 (JCL, C. Powell and others in Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Herring Gull Larus argentatus

  • Du: Zilvermeeuw Ar: Meuwchi gris Cu, Bo: Kahela gris

  • Range North America and Eurasia from the coasts of W Europe across N Russia and Siberia. In winter south along both coasts of North America and through the USA as far as S Central America and the West Indies, though very rare south of Greater Antilles as far as Barbados. In Eurasia south to the Mediterranean region, Black and Caspian seas, N Indian Ocean and NW Pacific coast. Fewer than ten records from Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Seacoasts, tundra, lakes. In winter beaches, bays, estuaries, rivers and urban areas.

  • Status Aruba Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. One bird, Beach of Hadicurari, 7 Nov 1972 (EJ); 1 bird, Bubali, 13 Mar 1975 (CJH) and 1 bird, 12 Jan and 15 Feb 1980 (EJ) (for all three records colour-slides examined by KHV); 1 immature bird on reef off harbour Oranjestad, 22 May and 9 Jun 1986 (RVH, colour-slides examined by P.D. Grant); 1 immature bird, San Nicolas Bay keys, 22 May 1987 (RVH). Curaçao No records. Bonaire Casual visitor. One bird, along road east of Rincon, 21 Jul 2000 (JCL, J. Lanier, B. Stefy in Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Bo: L. a. smithsonianus from North America.

Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus

  • Du: Kleine Mantelmeeuw Ar: Meuwchi lomba preto chikito Cu, Bo: Kahela lomba pretu chikí Range NW Europe. In winter along coasts of W Europe, Africa, Red Sea, Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea. African lakes and rivers. Also increasingly in small to moderate numbers in NE North America from Labrador and Great Lakes south to Florida. Rare, but increasingly reported throughout the West Indies.

  • Habitat Tundra, seacoasts, islands on inland lakes. In winter seacoasts, lakes, rivers, urban areas.

  • Status Aruba At least 8 records of dark-backed, yellow-legged gulls have been provisionally identified as this species, mostly on the basis of colour-slides (Voous 1977, 1983). Curaçao and Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar: probably L. f. graellsii or L. f. intermedius from W Europe.

Common Black-headed Gull Larus ridibundus

  • Du: Kokmeeuw Ar: Meuwchi Oropeo Cu, Bo: Kahela Oropeo

  • Range From Greenland east through Eurasia to E Siberia. In winter uncommon along the Atlantic coast of NE USA, increasingly less numerous farther south; very rare throughout the West Indies. Has been recorded in Surinam, Trinidad, and French Guiana (AOU 1998). In the Old World from southern part of breeding range south to W and E Africa, India, S Asia and the Philippines, as far south as the Equator.

  • Habitat Lakes, rivers, bogs, moors, grassland, marshes. In winter also seacoasts, estuaries and bays.

  • Status Aruba and Curaçao No records. Bonaire Casual visitor. One bird in immature winter plumage, Sabana near Kralendijk, 16 Feb-mid-Mar 1976 (FCL, P. Boyer, colour-slides examined by KHV).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Bonaparte's Gull Larus Philadelphia

  • Du: Kleine Kokmeeuw Ar: Meuwchi Bonaparte Cu, Bo: Kahela Bonaparte

  • Range Interior boreal North America. In winter from Massachusetts along the Atlantic coast south to Florida, Gulf coast and the Greater Antilles. Along the Pacific coast from Washington south to N Mexico. Accidental in the West Indies south to Barbados and apparently unrecorded in mainland South America (AOU 1998).

  • Habitat Near ponds and lakes in open coniferous woodland. In winter seacoasts, bays, estuaries, marshes, lakes, rivers and flooded fields.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. One bird in winter plumage, lake Muizenberg, 9 Sep 2000 (BDB); 1 bird, lake Muizenberg, 16 Sep 2000 (BDB); 3 birds, lake Muizenberg, 1 Oct 2000 (BDB). Bonaire Casual visitor. One sight record of 2 adult birds in winter plumage, harbour of Kralendijk, 3 Sep 1959 (J. Rooth).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Laughing Gull Larus atricilla

  • Du: Lachmeeuw Ar: Meuwchi haridó Cu, Bo: Kahela komun

  • Range Breeds on E coast of North America from S New Brunswick south to Florida, Gulf and Caribbean coast to N Venezuela and French Guiana, islands off Yucatán peninsula and the West Indies. On the Pacific coast NW Mexico. In winter Middle America, south to the coast of N Brazil and S Peru.

  • Habitat Seacoasts, bays, estuaries, breeding on densely vegetated inland islands. In winter also on cultivated fields.

  • Status Non-breeding summer visitor in rather large numbers, in Aruba staying also in winter. Aruba Common breeding resident nesting late Apr-early Aug (van Halewijn & Norton 1984). Number of nests on the San Nicolas Bay keys (alternatively known as Lago Reef) increasing from 13 to 58 in 1984–1990 (RVH in Gochfeld et al. 1994). In 2001 there were 350 nests (van Halewijn 2009). One specimen 1930 (RMNH); 9 specimens, 1951, 1952 (5), 1978 (2), 1987 (ZMA). Curaçao Irregular breeding visitor. Breeding recorded of 3 pairs in 2002 and 2 pairs in 2003 (one chick observed), Jan Thiel Lagoon (Debrot et al. 2009); occasionally (probably regularly) breeding on Klein Curaçao. Eight specimens 1952 (6), 1953, 1954 (ZMA). Bonaire Breeding visitor. Juveniles observed in small numbers, 1983 and 1984 (FCL); 10 pairs, island in Lake Goto, 2002; 50 pairs, Saltworks, 2002 (Debrot et al. 2009). Three specimens 1930 (RMNH); 5 specimens, 1952 (2), 1961 (2), 1989 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: the smaller West Indian ssp L. a. atricilla.

Franklin's Gull Larus pipixcan

  • Du: Franklins Meeuw Ar: Meuwchi Franklin Cu, Bo: Kahela Franklin

  • Range C and S Canada and C USA. In winter mainly along Pacific coast from N Middle America south to S Chile. Casual throughout the West Indies (Raffaele et al. 1998). Several sight records from Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Prairie marshes. In winter seacoasts, bays, estuaries, lakes, rivers, marshes, flooded fields.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. Sight record of 1 adult bird, Bubali, 19–20 Jan 1971 (P.A. and EG. Buckley); 1 bird in non-breeding plumage, Moomba Beach, 29 Mar 2004 (SGM and CB). Curaçao and Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Gull-billed Tern Sterna nilotica

  • Du: Lachstern Ar: Stèrnchi nilótiko Cu, Bo: Meuchi nilótiko

  • Range Almost cosmopolitan in temperate, subtropical and tropical zones. Fairly common to common year-round along Venezuelan coast (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Sandy seacoasts, estuaries. In winter lagoons, plowed fields, lakes and rivers.

  • Status Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Aruba First recorded at Bubali, 2 juveniles, 17 Aug 1984 (DFM); 2 adults, same locality, 23 Aug 1984 (DFM); 2 adults and 2 juveniles, Bubali, 7–28 Sep 1988 (RVH and others); 1 second-year bird, Tierra del Sol, 17 Aug 1997 (DFM, TDK); 1 adult, Bubali, 22 Aug 1997 (DFM, TDK); 5 adults, Bubali, no date (DFM, TDK); 3 birds, Spanish Lagoon, Aug 1997 (T. White); one spring record: 1 bird, Malmok saltpans, 14 Mar 2005 (SGM and CB). Curaçao Up to 1983 recorded during autumn migration between 25 Aug and 12 Oct (FHA, HJK). Since then: 1 bird, Klein Hofje, 13 Sep 1992 (BDB); 1 bird, 16 Sep 2000 (BDB); 3 birds, 1 Oct 2000 (BDB). Two specimens of ssp aranea, 1956, 1959 (ZMA). Bonaire Nine records between 1962 and 1981; 2 adults near airport, 11 Sep 1985 (FCL); 1 bird, saliña near Harbour Village Marina, 23 Sep 2002 (JCL); 1 bird, saliña near Pink Beach, 14 Jan 2004 (C. Powell in Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: although the ssp S. n. aranea from E USA, Bahamas and Greater Antilles has been collected on Curaçao in 1956 and 1959, the South American ssp S. n. groenvolii cannot be excluded. Syn. Gelochelidon nilotica.

Caspian Tern Sterna caspia

  • Du: Reuzenstern Ar: Stèrnchi gigante Cu, Bo: Meuchi gigante

  • Range Almost cosmopolitan, but very local. Not breeding in South America and the West Indies. Regular visitor in small numbers to Veneuzuelan coast, including a few summer records (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Seacoasts. In winter also bays, estuaries, lakes, marshes and rivers

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. Two birds in adult winter plumage, Bubali, 2 Oct 1977 (EJ, J.H. van den Koppel, colour-slides examined by KHV); 2 birds, Bubali, 24 Oct 1978 (EJ). Curaçao Casual visitor. A record of 1 bird, Santa Martabaai, 27 Nov 2001 (videofilm examined) and a record of 1 bird, along the road to Bullenbaai on 31 Oct, 1 and 5 Nov 2003 (all records LS). Bonaire Casual visitor. A number of birds, Kralendijk, 1 Mar 1970 (J. Rooth); 1 bird Sorobon, 6 Mar 1970 (J. Rooth). Before 2002 occasionally seen near Harbour Village Marina (Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Sandwich Tern Sterna sandvicensis

  • Du: Grote Stern Ar: Stèrnchi grande Cu, Bo: Bubi chikí

  • Range Along the Atlantic coast of the USA, Gulf coast, Yucatán in Mexico, south through the West Indies, to islands off Venezuela and coasts of N and E South America as far as Patagonia. In the Old World along the Atlantic coasts of temperate Europe, Mediterranean, Black and Caspian seas. In winter along the Pacific coast from S Mexico as far south as Ecuador and Peru and on the Atlantic coast through the breeding range from Florida, the West Indies, as far south as Uruguay. In the Old World from the southern parts of the breeding range to S South Africa, Persian Gulf and India.

  • Habitat Sandy seacoasts and islands. In winter also bays and estuaries.

  • Status Aruba Common breeding visitor. Population on San Nicolas Bay keys varying between 2450 and 3500 nests in 1984–1995 (R. de Kort, RVH in Gochfeld et al. 1994); similar numbers of nests recorded in 1999, 2000 and 2001 (A. del Nevo, van Halewijn 2009). One specimen 1908 (FMNH); 2 specimens 1930 (RMNH); 13 specimens, 1977, 1987 (5), 1988 (2), 1989 (4), sine die (ZMA). Curaçao Formerly numerous breeding visitor with up to 1600 nests, Jan Thiel Lagoon, 1959 (Voous 1983). No breeding has been observed since the early 1960s owing to heavy recreational pressure on the former nesting sites (Debrot et al. 2009). Recorded from Klein Curaçao. One specimen from Klein Curaçao 1952 (ANSP); 6 specimens, 1954 (2), 1958 (4) (ZMA). Bonaire Formerly numerous breeding visitor (maximum number of nests 3–4000, 1969, Voous 1983), recently breeding in varying numbers. An estimated 180 pairs were breeding (170–190 chicks observed) on Lake Goto, 2002 (Debrot et al. 2009). One specimen 1970 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: S. s. eurygnatha (Cayenne Tern) of South America. Shows signs of intergradation with S. s. acuflavida of North America (Voous 1968; Buckley & Buckley 1984; van Halewijn 1990). Slightly over half of the birds have yellow bills, others have a varying amount of black, less than 10% have a yellow-tipped black bill, hardly distinguishable from S. s. acuflavida. Occasionally an individual is observed with an orange bill like Sterna elegans. In N Aruba, 26 Mar–2 Apr 2004, SGM and CB studied 100 Sandwich Terns and tallied 77 “pure” eurygnatha-types, 5 acuflavida-types, and 26 birds that appeared intermediate. During that same visit, approximately 200 Sandwich Terns were observed closely in S Aruba, near breeding areas, with no acuflavida-types noted; approximately 80% were phenotypically “pure” eurygnatha-types and 20% appeared to be intergrades. In Bonaire, Jul 2001, Wells & Childs Wells (2006) recorded 10 individuals of eurygnatha-type and 1 of acuflavida-type.

Royal Tern Sterna maxima

  • Du: Koningsstern Ar: Stèrnchi di rey, Bubi chiquito Cu, Bo: Bubi chikí, Meuchi real

  • Range Along the Atlantic coast from N USA, the Gulf and Caribbean coast, through the West Indies, south to islands off the coast of Venezuela, French Guiana and the coast of Uruguay and Argentina. On the Pacific coast from S California in the USA to Sinaloa in Mexico. In the Old World along the coast of Mauretania in West Africa. In winter from coastal S USA south along both coasts of the Americas as far as Peru and Argentina and in the Old World along the coast of West Africa from Morocco to Angola.

  • Habitat Sandy seacoasts. In winter also estuaries and lagoons.

  • Status As a non-breeding visitor regularly found throughout the year on the leeward side of the islands. Numbers very variable (up to 500, depending on time of year). Aruba Scarce irregular breeding visitor on the San Nicolas Bay keys: 1 pair, 1998 (K. Beylevelt); 1–2 pairs, same locality, 1999, 2000, 2001 (A. del Nevo). One specimen 1892 (AMNH); 6 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 3 specimens, 1951, 1978, 1979 (ZMA). Curaçao Former breeding visitor in very small numbers (Voous 1983). Five specimens, 1952 (3), 1953, 1954 (ZMA). Bonaire Rather common breeding visitor. Breeding recorded Jun 1955 (K. Mayer, colour-slides, Voous 1957) and Jul 1960 (J. Rooth); at Saltpans, 2 nests, 19 May 1969, more nests and pulli, 30 Jun 1969 (RVH); c. 85 pairs and over 50 juveniles, Saltworks area, Jul 2002 (Debrot et al. 2009). Species observed at Klein Bonaire, Jul 2001 (Wells & Childs Wells 2006). One specimen 1892 (AMNH); 2 specimens 1930 (RMNH); 3 specimens, 1951, 1981, sine die (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: the American ssp S. m. maxima.

Roseate Tern Sterna dougallii

  • Du: Dougalls Stern Ar: Stèrnchi Dougall Cu, Bo: Meuchi Dougall

  • Range Almost cosmopolitan. Widely, but very locally distributed along the coasts of the N Atlantic, Indian and SE Pacific Oceans in temperate and tropical zones. In winter mostly off-shore. Atlantic population recently declining.

  • Habitat Sandy and grassy seacoasts and islands.

  • Status Rather scarce breeding visitor, present from Apr–Aug. Aruba First found nesting on San Nicolas Bay keys in 1892 (Hartert 1893); subsequently (by KHV) 10–15 pairs in 1961 (van Halewijn 1988); 40–50 nests in 1979 (EJ and others in van Halewijn 1988); between 43 and 112 nests 1984 to 1994 (R. de Kort, RVH in Gochfeld et al. 1994); 52 nests in 2001 (A. del Nevo, van Halewijn 2009); an early record of 19 birds, Baby Beach, 30 Mar 2004 (SGM and CB). Two specimens 1892 (AMNH); 1 specimen 1961 (ZMA). Curaçao First record of breeding on islet in Jan Thiel Lagoon, 1952; largest number of nests about 40, 1955 (Voous 1957); 10–15 nests found in Jan Thiel Lagoon and Masarigo island, Spaanse Water, Jun 1961 (KHV); no recent breeding observed (Debrot et al. 2009). Six specimens, 1954 (3), 1955 (2), 1961 (ZMA). Bonaire First recorded 1955 (K. Mayer, colour-slide, Voous 1957); 8 nests near Lake Goto, 1961 (KHV); later also found breeding at Pekelmeer (Voous 1983); recently no nest-sites found (Ligon 2006, Debrot et al. 2009).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: nominate S. d. dougallii.

Common Tern Sterna hirundo

  • Du: Visdief Ar: Stèrnchi comun, Meuwchi piku kòrá Cu, Bo: Meuchi pik kòrá

  • Range Boreal and temperate North America southward along the Atlantic coast to South Carolina, locally along the Gulf Coast and in the West Indies, also the islands off Venezuela. Boreal and temperate Europe and Asia southward to N Africa, the Middle East and Tibet. In winter Gulf Coast and the West Indies, south along the Atlantic coast of South America to Argentina, on the Pacific coast south to Peru. In the Old World from S Europe and S Asia south to South Africa and Australia.

  • Habitat Seacoasts, bays, estuaries, lakes and marshes. In winter primarily coastal waters and beaches.

  • Status Breeding visitor, present from Apr–Nov, scarce in winter. Aruba Rather scarce breeding visitor, nesting at several sites. Saliñas north of Bubali, about 110 pairs, 1974 (CJH); estimated total of 47–51 nests on entire island, 1984 (RVH); San Nicolas Bay keys, between 15 and 38 nests, 1984–1994 (R. de Kort, RVH in Gochfeld et al. 1994); San Nicolas Bay keys, 40 nests, 2001 (RVH in litt); early records: 1 bird, Malmok, 25–30 Mar 2003 and 1 bird, California lighthouse, 28 Mar 2003 (SGM and CB). One specimen 1908 (FMNH); 2 specimens 1930 (RMNH); 6 specimens, 1952, 1973 (2), 1981 (2), 1984 (ZMA). Curaçao Rather scarce breeding visitor. Estimated number of breeding pairs 30–35 in 1961 (Voous 1965a); about 135 nests in 4 localities, 2002, 2004 (Debrot et al. 2009). One specimen 1930 (RMNH); 13 specimens, 1951 (2), 1952 (4), 1953 (2), 1954, 1961 (3), 1977 (ZMA). Bonaire Rather scarce breeding visitor. Estimated number of breeding pairs 10–15 in 1961 (Voous 1965a); 3–4 nests, Saliña Slagbaai, Jun 1998 (Ligon 2006); 18 adults of which 3–4 attending nests and 7 fledglings, Pekelmeer, Jul 2001 (Wells & Childs Wells 2006); 5 nests, Lake Goto, 4 nests Saliña Slagbaai, 30 nests Saltworks Pekelmeer, 2002 (Debrot et al. 2009); early record Sorobon, 23 Mar 2002 (Ligon 2006). Three specimens 1930 (RMNH); 1 specimen 1981 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: nominate S. h. hirundo.

Least Tern Sterna antillarum

  • Du: Amerikaanse Dwergstern Ar: Stèrnchi chikito Cu, Bo: Meuchi chikitu

  • Range Locally in the interior and along both coasts of the USA, from C California south to Chiapas in S Mexico at the Pacific coast and from Maine south to Florida at the Atlantic coast, Gulf coast, the West Indies and islands in the Caribbean Sea. In winter to the coasts of Middle and N South America.

  • Habitat Seacoasts, lakes, rivers. In winter also beaches, bays and estuaries.

  • Status Common breeding visitor, scarce in winter. Found on the windward and leeward sides of the islands. Aruba San Nicolas Bay keys 1984–1994, between 20 and over 95 nests (R. de Kort, RVH in Gochfeld et al. 1994); San Nicolas Bay keys, 2001, 55 nests (A. del Nevo). Three specimens 1892 (AMNH); 3 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 1 specimen 1930 (RMNH). Curaçao Colony of about 100 pairs, Klein Curaçao, 1953 (HJK in Voous 1957). More than 620 breeding pairs recorded at 16 sites all over Curaçao, 2002 (Debrot et al. 2009). Eight specimens, 1952 (6), 1954 (2) (ZMA). Bonaire More than 360 adults observed at 13 sites with more than 73 nests and 62 fledglings at 10 sites in Jul 2001 (Wells & Childs Wells 2006); about 800 pairs nesting at 44 breeding sites, 2002 (Debrot et al. 2009). One specimen 1892 (AMNH); 3 specimens 1930 (RMNH); 2 specimens 1980 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: nominate S. a. antillarum of E and S USA and the Caribbean region. Syn. Sterna albifrons.

Bridled Tern Sterna anaethetus

  • Du: Brilstern Ar: Stèrnchi bril Cu, Bo: Meuchi brel

  • Range All tropical oceans, except C Pacific.

  • Habitat Coastal waters. Breeds on islands in crevices, on ledges, and on sandy or coral beaches.

  • Status Observed mostly from late Apr till late Aug, but occasionally recorded in Oct, Nov and Dec. Aruba Rather scarce breeding visitor. First recorded breeding on San Nicolas Bay keys opposite Ceroe Colorado, 1892 (Hartert 1893); rediscovered in 1961 (Voous 1963); present also 1976–1980 (EJ, AK, KHV); number of nest on San Nicolas Bay keys 1984–1990 varying from 29 to 59 (RVH in Gochfeld et al. 1994); up to maximally 100 birds, present in Aug every year in the 1990s (DFM, TDK); 122 nests, 1999–2001 (A. del Nevo, van Halewijn 2009). Two specimens 1892 (AMNH); 2 specimens, 1961, 1987 (ZMA). Curaçao Non-breeding visitor in rather small numbers. Three specimens, Klein Curaçao, 1953; on board ships off Curaçao, 1952, 1954 (ZMA). Bonaire Non-breeding visitor in rather small numbers.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: the West Indian ssp S. a. melanoptera.

Sooty Tern Sterna fuscata

  • Du: Bonte Stern Ar: Stèrnchi bata preto Cu: Meuchi bachi pretu Bo: Stèrnchi bata pretu

  • Range All tropical and subtropical oceans.

  • Habitat Pelagic, except when breeding. Breeding on sandy or coral beaches on islands, but most preferably among grass and bushes.

  • Status Only observed on or near the islands in the breeding season, Apr–Aug. Outside the breeding period common at sea far away from the islands (RVH, DMCP). Aruba Common breeding visitor on San Nicolas Bay keys, first recorded breeding in 1976 (van Halewijn 1988); number of nests increasing from over 366 to 3200, 1984– 1990 (RVH in Gochfeld et al. 1994); 6650 nests in 2001 (A. del Nevo, van Halewijn 2009). One specimen 1908 (FMNH); 6 specimens, 1988, 1989 (3), sine die (2) (ZMA). Curaçao Non-breeding visitor in rather small numbers. Two specimens, 1959, 1966 (ZMA). Bonaire Non-breeding visitor in rather small numbers. Two specimens, 1982, 1983 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, and Bo: the Caribbean and Atlantic ssp S. f. fuscata.

Black Tern Chlidonias niger

  • Du: Zwarte Stern Ar: Stèrnchi preto Cu, Bo: Meuchi pretu

  • Range Southern Canada and N USA. In the Old World primarily temperate zones of Europe and W Asia. In winter along the Pacific coast from C Mexico to Peru and along the N coast of South America from Colombia to Surinam. In the Old World along the coast of W Africa as far as Angola and NE Africa as far as Kenya.

  • Habitat Marshes, wet meadows. In winter offshore along seacoasts, bays and estuaries, also lakes and rivers.

  • Status Aruba Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. One bird in breeding plumage, saliña Palm Beach, 24 May 1972 (EJ); 2 birds near Oranjestad, 23 Aug 1972 (DMCP); 10 birds off the E and N coast, 25 Aug 1972 (DMCP); 1 bird, Bubali, 25 Aug–8 Sep 1979 (EJ); 1 bird, Bubali, 18 and 23 Aug 1984 (DFM, TDK); 1 bird in summer plumage, San Nicolas Bay keys, 17 May 1987 (RVH); 1–3 birds in winter plumage, Bubali, 25–27 Sep 1988 (RVH and others). Curaçao Casual visitor. Only record 5–8 birds, Schottegat, 3 Sep 1971 (van Halewijn 1973). Bonaire Casual visitor. One bird, 2 Jan 1971 (P.A. and F.G. Buckley); 2 immature birds, Lac, 14 Apr 1981 (A.L. Spaans and others); flock of 10–15 birds almost all in non-breeding plumage along southern coast near bridge at Tori's Reef, 9 Sep 2004 (day after hurricane Ivan passed c. 95 miles north of Bonaire, Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: C. n. surinamensis from North America.

Large-billed Tern Phaetusa simplex

  • Du: Grootsnavelstern Ar: Stèrnchi pico grandi Cu, Bo: Meuchi pik grandi

  • Range Inland and coastal South America, from Colombia and the Guianas southward E of Andes as far as C Argentina. In winter seacoasts of N and E South America. Erratic year-round visitor in small numbers to N coast of Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Rivers, lakes and estuaries. In winter also seacoasts.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. Male, 12 May 1908 (Cory 1909). One specimen 1908 (FMNH). Curaçao and Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar: probably P. s. simplex from N South America.

Brown Noddy Anous stolidus

  • Du: Noddy Ar, Cu, Bo: Noddy brùin

  • Range All tropical and subtropical oceans.

  • Habitat Pelagic, except when breeding. Breeding on islands on sandy beaches, rock ledges and trees.

  • Status Common in offshore waters. Found resting and sleeping on the coast of the 3 islands in all months of the year with a peak May–Aug. Often on steep cliffs in numbers up to several hundreds. Aruba Common non-breeding and rather scarce breeding visitor. First recorded breeding San Nicolas Bay keys with 2–5 nests, 1983 (van Halewijn 1988); number of nests on these keys varying from 4 to 45, 1984–1994 (R. de Kort, RVH in Gochfeld et al. 1994); increasing to 164, 2001 (A. del Nevo, van Halewijn 2009). Up to 1000 non-breeding birds in 1988 (RVH). Three specimens, 1973, 1989, 1990 (ZMA). Curaçao Non-breeding visitor in varying numbers. No confirmed breeding records. Five specimens (including 1 from Klein Curaçao), 1952 (2), 1957, 1958, 1964 (ZMA). Bonaire Non-breeding visitor in varying numbers. No confirmed breeding records.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: A. s. stolidus of the Atlantic and Caribbean region.

Black Noddy Anous minutus

  • Du: Witkapnoddy Ar: Noddy preto Cu, Bo: Noddy pretu

  • Range Tropical and subtropical Atlantic and Pacific Ocean.

  • Habitat Pelagic, except when breeding. Breeding on islands on rock ledges and trees.

  • Status Aruba Scarce breeding visitor. Beach at Ceroe Colorado, 1 Mar 1979, 1 adult in mummified condition (Mrs R. Stanley); 1 or 2 adults (amongst 40–80 Brown Noddies), Malmok, 30 Apr and 3 May 1979 (AK, colour-slides examined by KHV); 1 bird, San Nicolas Bay keys, 24 May 1989 (RVH); 5 adults, coastal islands off Savaneta, 25 Aug 1991 (DFM, TDK, colour-slides depicting Black and Brown Noddies examined); 13–20 nests 1992–1994, 48 nests 2001 (van Halewijn 2009). One specimen 1979 (ZMA). Curaçao No records. Bonaire Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. One adult caught and released, Lac, 1952 (K. Mayer, colour-slide examined by KHV); 1 record of remains (head and wings, collection ZMA), Pekelmeer, 1 Nov 1990 (GJR); 1 bird found in backyard, summer 2001 (B. Lüsse in Ligon 2006); 1 bird, Sorobon, 15 Nov 2002 (SS in Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Bo: A. m. americanus from the Caribbean Sea. Syn. Anous tenuirostris.

Black Skimmer Rynchops niger

  • Du: Amerikaanse Schaarbek Ar: Pico di skèr Cu, Bo: Bok'i skèr

  • Range USA, at the Pacific coast from S California south to Mexico and at the Atlantic coast from Maine south to Florida and the Gulf coast. In South America in W Ecuador and E of Andes along coasts and rivers from Colombia as far south as N Argentina. In winter along coasts of S USA, Middle and South America. Fairly common year-round in Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Sandy beaches, coastal islands, rivers. In winter also bays, estuaries, lagoons.

  • Status Aruba Regular non-breeding visitor in varying numbers. Curaçao Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. One adult bird in non-breeding plumage, Santa Martabaai, 26 Jan 1988 (J. Vogel, photo examined); 1 bird, Santa Martabaai, 23 Aug 1992 (LS); 1 bird, Klein Hofje, 31 May 1998 (BDB); 1 to 4 birds, Muizenberg, 19 Aug–25 Oct 2000 (BDB); 1 bird, Santa Martabaai, 6 and 9 Nov 2001 (M. van den Berg and LS, videofilm examined). Bonaire Casual visitor. One bird, Lac, 4 Apr 1979 (E. Bartels, J. Heidweiler); 1 bird, near Sorobon, early Jun 2003 (JCL, J. Mather and others, photo by P.S. Weber examined).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: R. n. cinerascens from N South America, though R. n. intercedens from E and SE South America may not be excluded.

STERCORARIIDAE

Great Skua Stercorarius cf. skua

  • Du: Grote Jager Ar, Cu, Bo: Saltadó grandi

  • Range North Atlantic. In winter C Atlantic.

  • Habitat Pelagic, except when breeding on rocky seacoasts, moors and sandy estuaries.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. A sight record of one dark brown skua between Curaçao and Bonaire, 7 miles NNE off Klein Curaçao, 21 Jul 1970 (RVH). Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Monotypic

  • Note At the time of the recorded observation it was not known that the South Polar Skua S. maccormicki appears in the Northern Hemisphere on migration. Consequently no attention was paid to the possibility that the observed individual may have belonged to that species. According to Voous (1983) the bird was dark brown and thus may have belonged to S. skua from the N Atlantic. On the other hand S. maccormicki from the Antarctic is far more migratory and therefore it seems more likely that it strays into the Caribbean. As no specimen was collected, the observed bird cannot be identified conclusively.

Pomarine Skua Stercorarius pomarinus

  • Du: Middelste Jager Ar, Cu, Bo: Saltadó mediano

  • Range Arctic North America and Eurasia. In winter primarily at sea of tropical and subtropical oceans.

  • Habitat Pelagic and along seacoasts; breeds on swampy tundra.

  • Status Recorded at sea in the neighbourhood of the islands in Apr (2), May, Sep (2), Nov (3) and Dec (RVH, A. van Gaans, Voous 1983). Aruba Casual visitor. One record, Bubali, 18 Jun 1974 (CJH, colour-slide examined by KHV). Curaçao and Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Parasitic Jaeger/Arctic Skua Stercorarius parasiticus

  • Du: Kleine Jager Ar, Cu, Bo: Saltadó chikí

  • Range Arctic and subarctic North America and Eurasia. In winter wanders over almost all, primarily southern, oceans.

  • Habitat Pelagic and along seacoasts; breeds on coastal tundra and marshes.

  • Status Seventeen records at sea over 3 nautical miles from the islands, 23 Apr–23 May 1970 and 12 Nov–21 Dec 1970 (RVH, DMCP, Voous 1983). Aruba Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. One bird at Arashi, 14 May 1971 (EJ); 1 immature bird on rocks in sea, 28–29 Apr 1979 (AK, colour-slides examined by KHV); daily observations of single immature birds, San Nicolas Bay, 17 May–12 Jun 1986 (RVH); 1 bird, San Nicolas Bay, 10 Jun 1987 (RVH); 1 immature, San Nicolas Bay, 19 May 1989 (RVH); 1 adult, Punta Basora, 23 May 1989 (RVH); 1 adult, Arashi, 19–23 Jul 2000 (DFM, TDK, P. van Scheepen); 1 adult, Arashi, 8 and 10 Aug 2003 (DFM, TDK). Curaçao Casual visitor. Remains of a dead bird, Sint Jorisbaai, 3 Jan 1952 (KHV). Bonaire Casual visitor. One injured immature found by local fisherman and later released, 7 Mar 1998 (Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Long-tailed Jaeger Stercorarius longicaudus

  • Du: Kleinste Jager Ar: Saltadó rabo largo Cu, Bo: Saltadó rabu largu

  • Range Arctic and subarctic region of North America and Eurasia. In winter subarctic and offshore South America and South Africa. Status in Caribbean poorly known, but seems rare in these waters.

  • Habitat Tundra, flats with sparse vegetation, moors. In winter pelagic.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. One bird, east of Baby Beach, near the dog cemetary, 18 May 1989 (RVH, colourslides examined by KHV). Curaçao and Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar: S. l. pallescens from North America.

COLUMBIDAE

Rock Dove Columba livia

  • Du: Rotsduif Ar: Palomba comun Cu, Bo: Palomba

  • Range Originally mountains in W and S Europe, C and S Asia and N Africa. Introduced worldwide.

  • Habitat Open unwooded country, steppe, farmland and desert. Nesting on seacliffs, mountainous areas, ruined buildings. Feral form also occurring in cities and towns.

  • Status Introduced since several decades. Commonly breeding in towns, on Curaçao recently also on cliffs in nature reserves like Hato, Rooi Rincon and Boka St. Michiel.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Like other feral populations, cannot be assigned to any known subspecies.

Scaly-naped Pigeon Columba squamosa

  • Du: Roodhalsduif Ar: Paloma azul Cu: Blauduif, Palomba di San Kristòf Bo: Palomba pretu, Palomba di baranka Range Greater and Lesser Antilles and islands off the coast of Venezuela.

  • Habitat Montane and lowland evergreen forest, but also arid woodland and plantations.

  • Status Aruba Former breeding bird, several birds recorded at Rooi Prins, 16–19 Jun 1930 (Rutten 1931). Since then casual visitor; record of 2 birds, Sep 1973 (CJH, Voous 1983); 1 bird seen on a wooded coral island near Oranjestad, about 1997 (TDK). Curaçao Scarce breeding resident, until recently restricted to the hills in the west and the areas without human habitation in the extreme east but now becoming tamer and more widespread. Since 1997 at least 14 sight records have been reported from various localities all over the island (AOD, BDB). Five specimens 1951, 1954, 1961, 1962, 2005 (ZMA). Bonaire Rather common breeding resident. Three specimens 1892 (AMNH); 1 specimen 1909 (FMNH); 2 specimens 1930 (RMNH); 2 specimens 1952 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Bare-eyed Pigeon Columba corensis

  • Du: Naaktoogduif Ar: Ala blanca, Barbacoa, Warakoa Cu: Ala blanca Bo: Palomba di mondi

  • Range Arid Caribbean coast of Colombia and Venezuela, including some off-lying islands.

  • Habitat Thorn scrub, acacias, suburban gardens and mangroves.

  • Status Common breeding resident. Numbers fluctuate according to rainfall (food) and hunting pressure, but the population seems to be increasing. Aruba One specimen 1908 (FMNH). Curaçao Four specimens 1892 (AMNH); 2 specimens, 1908, 1911 (FMNH); 2 specimens 1930 (RMNH); 17 specimens, 1951 (4), 1952 (4), 1954, 1955, 1961, 1991 (2), 1994, 1995 (2), 1996 (ZMA). Bonaire One specimen 1892 (AMNH); 3 specimens, 1908, 1909 (2) (FMNH); 1 specimen 1930 (RMNH); 3 specimens, 1951, 1978, 1983 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Eared Dove Zenaida auriculata

  • Du: Geoorde Treurduif Ar, Cu, Bo: Buladeifi di aña, Buladeifi, Patrushi

  • Range Southern Lesser Antilles, South America and islands off Venezuela.

  • Habitat Scrub, arid lowland and farmland.

  • Status Aruba Abundant breeding resident. One specimen 1892 (AMNH); 4 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 2 specimens 1930 (RMNH). Curaçao Common breeding resident. Two specimens 1892 (AMNH); 5 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 1 specimen 1884 (type specimen) (USNM); 13 specimens, 1951 (6), 1953 (3), 1954, 1955, 1996 (2) (ZMA). Bonaire Common breeding resident. One specimen 1892 (AMNH); 9 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 1 specimen 1930 (RMNH); 9 specimens, 1949, 1951 (6), 1952, 1961 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: the endemic ssp Z. a. vinaceorufa.

Common Ground Dove Columbina passerina

  • Du: Musduif Ar: Totolica Cu, Bo: Totolika

  • Range From S USA south through Middle America to N South America as far as Ecuador and E Brazil; the West Indies.

  • Habitat Arid and thorn scrub, acacia woodland, plantations, agricultural and urban areas.

  • Status Aruba Common breeding resident. Two specimens 1892 (AMNH); 14 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 3 specimens 1930 (RMNH); 6 specimens, 1951 (4), 1952, 1973 (ZMA). Curaçao Abundant breeding resident. Four specimens, 1892 (3), 1896 (AMNH); 7 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 3 specimens 1930 (RMNH); 31 specimens, 1948, 1951 (19), 1952 (5), 1955, 1957, 1977, 1994, 1996 (2) (ZMA). Bonaire Abundant breeding resident. Five specimens 1892 (AMNH); 9 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 1 specimen 1930 (RMNH); 11 specimens, 1951 (8), 1979 (2), 1984 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: ssp C. p. albivitta of the northern coastal regions of Colombia and Venezuela, including off-lying islands. Syn. Columbigallina passerina.

Ruddy Ground Dove Columbina talpacoti

  • Du: Steenduif Ar, Cu, Bo: Totolika venesolano

  • Range From Mexico south through Central America to South America as far as Chile and Argentina. Common to abundant in Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Arid and thorn scrub, agricultural and urban areas.

  • Status Aruba and Curaçao No records. Bonaire Casual visitor. Sight record of single bird near Kralendijk, 8 Aug 1980 (FCL, J. van der Linden, J. van der Salm, colour-slides examined by KHV).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Bo: ssp unknown, most likely C. t. rufipennis from N South America. Syn. Columbigallina talpacoti.

White-tipped Dove Leptotila verreauxi

  • Du: Verreaux' Duif Ar: Pecho bianco Cu, Bo: Ala duru, Buladeifi di hoffi Bo: Jiwiri

  • Range From S Texas and N Mexico south through Central America to South America as far as N Peru (W of Andes) and N Argentina.

  • Habitat Dry open woodland, scrub, forest edge, plantations, farmland.

  • Status Aruba Rather common breeding resident, occurring mostly in uninhabited areas (DFM). Three specimens 1908 (FMNH); 2 specimens 1930 (RMNH); 1 specimen 1951 (ZMA). Curaçao Common breeding resident. One specimen 1892 (AMNH); 1 specimen 1930 (RMNH); 15 specimens, 1951 (9), 1952, 1955 (2), 1993, 1994, 1997 (ZMA). Bonaire Common breeding resident. Two specimens 1892 (AMNH); 3 specimens, 1908 (2), 1909 (FMNH); 3 specimens 1930 (RMNH); 1 specimen 1969 (USNM); 1 specimen 1952 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: ssp L. v. verreauxi of N South America.

PSITTACIDAE

Rose-ringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri

  • Du: Halsbandparkiet Ar, Cu, Bo: Prikichi renchi ros

  • Range Tropical Africa and almost all of S Asia. Introduced in many countries in temperate and tropical regions, where it has established itself as a breeding bird.

  • Habitat All kinds of woodland, among human habitations, agricultural areas, fruit plantations.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Introduced breeding resident. Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu: ssp unknown.

Brown-throated Parakeet Aratinga pertinax

  • Du: Maïsparkiet Ar, Cu, Bo: Prikichi

  • Range Panama and along N coast of South America from NE Colombia to the Guianas, including off-lying islands.

  • Habitat Arid scrub, savannas, mangroves, woodland, farmland, plantations.

  • Status Common breeding resident. Aruba Three specimens 1892 (AMNH); 3 specimens 1940 (ANSP); 8 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 4 specimens 1930 (RMNH); 14 specimens, 1951 (9), 1952 (2), 1955 (2), 1973 (ZMA). Curaçao Three specimens 1892 (AMNH); 8 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 5 specimens, 1885 (2), 1930 (3) (RMNH); 1 specimen 1917 (USNM); 24 specimens, 1948, 1951 (14), 1952, 1955, 1957 (2), 1994, sine die (4) (ZMA). Bonaire Seven specimens 1892 (AMNH); 12 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 2 specimens, 1930, sine die (RMNH); 7 specimens, 1969 (6), sine die (USNM); 28 specimens, 1951 (16), 1954 (2), 1961 (2), 1972, 1978 (2), 1980, 1982, sine die (3)(ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar: endemic A. p. arubensis. Cu: endemic A. p. pertinax (introduced to St Thomas and Puerto Rico). Bo: endemic A. p. xanthogenia.

Green-rumped Parrotlet Forpus passerinus

  • Du: Groene Muspapegaai Ar, Cu, Bo: Bibitu

  • Range Northern South America, from Colombia to the Guianas and Brazil south to the Amazon basin. Common to abundant in N Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Acacia scrub, savannas, dry forest, open woodland, mangroves, farmland.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Irregular non-breeding (possibly breeding) visitor in small numbers. First recorded 1868; rumour has it that captive birds from Colombia have been set free near Klein Piscadera shortly before 1940 (Voous 1957); repeatedly recorded 1943–1964; again 1971 and later, Malpais (BDB) (contrary to Voous (1983) who stated that the species had not been seen since 1964). Five specimens 1954 (ZMA).

  • Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu: ssp viridissimus from Venezuela (Voous 1957).

Yellow-shouldered Parrot Amazona barbaiensis

  • Du: Geelvleugelamazone Ar, Cu, Bo: Lora

  • Range N Venezuela and the adjacent islands La Blanquilla, Bonaire and Margarita Island.

  • Habitat Thorn scrub and arid woodland.

  • Status Aruba Former breeding bird. The wild population is assumed to have become extirpated by 1947 (Voous 1983). Incidental records in 1955, 1961, 1965 and 1974 most probably escaped cage-birds, but may also refer to stragglers from the Paraguaná Peninsula, Venezuela. Seven observations of a pair, Ceroe Colorado, Nov 1984 (5 times), Apr 1985 and May 1985 (E.A.P. de Raadt); 3 birds, Ceroe Colorado, 1992 (DFM). In 1998 F.H. Bonset released 3 parrots from Venezuela belonging to this species (colour-photo examined). Two specimens 1892 (AMNH); 1 specimen 1908 (FMNH); 2 specimens, 1930, sine die (RMNH). Curaçao Introduced species in very small numbers. Group of 6 birds, Julianadorp, 3 Nov 1985 (BDB); some individuals, possibly originating from Bonaire, appeared in 1988, coinciding with the passing of a hurricane (BDB); 1 dead bird, Groot Davelaar, 19 Jan 1992 (RM). Bonaire Rather common breeding resident. The numbers fluctuate in relation to the amount of rain. Recently food shortage has been alleviated by food supplied by people during dry years. About 400 wild birds counted in 1987 (FCL), 350–400 in 1997, 1998 and 2002 (Ligon 2006). It has been suggested that 4 times this number could be found in captivity (FCL). Capturing young as cage-birds may imply a risk of future population collapse in this long-lived species. Five specimens 1892 (AMNH); 3 specimens 1930 (RMNH); 4 specimens, 1929, 1951, 1969 (2) (USNM); 9 specimens, 1948, 1951 (3), 1952, 1956, 1978 (2), sine die (ZMA). Taxonomy Monotypic.

CUCULIDAE

Yellow-billed Cuckoo Coccyzus americanus

  • Du: Geelsnavelkoekoek Ar: Cucu pico hel Cu, Bo: Kuku pik hel

  • Range Temperate North America, from SE Canada south through the USA, Mexico and the West Indies. Winters in South America, E of Andes, south to N Argentina, avoiding Amazonia.

  • Habitat Open woodland, scrub, forest, parks, swamps and riparian woodland.

  • Status Regular non-breeding visitor in small numbers, but may be abundant from mid Oct to early Nov (Voous 1983, 1985). During autumn migration most birds arrive in emaciated condition. Aruba Two specimens 1908 (FMNH); 8 specimens, 1967, 1971, 1972, 1973 (2), 1974, sine die (2) (ZMA). Curaçao Thirteen specimens, 1951 (6), 1954 (2), 1956, 1991 (2), 1996, 2005 (ZMA). Bonaire Twenty six specimens, 1959, 1976, 1977 (4), 1978 (2), 1979 (14), 1983, sine die (3) (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Mangrove Cuckoo Coccyzus minor

  • Du: Mangrovekoekoek Ar: Cucu mangel Cu, Bo: Kuku di mangel

  • Range Pacific, Gulf and Caribbean coast of Middle America, Florida, the West Indies, and coast of N South America from E Colombia eastward to the Amazon estuary in Brazil. Rare in N Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Deciduous and secondary forest, mangroves and dry scrub.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. Single record, female, 22 Apr 1908 (Voous 1957). One specimen 1908 (FMNH).

  • Curaçao Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Female, Santa Cruz, 21 Apr 1930 (Rutten 1931); female, Blauw, 19 Jan 1952 (Voous 1957); 1 bird Willemstad, 21 Apr 1958 (P.A. van der Werf, photo examined by KHV); 1 male, Spaanse Water, 25 Jan 1991 (AOD). One specimen 1930 (RMNH); 2 specimens, 1952, 1991 (ZMA). Bonaire Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Female, Antriol, 25 Mar 1952 (Voous 1957); 1 bird, Lac, 4 Sep 1960 (J. Rooth); 1 bird, Pekelmeer, 3 May 1961 (C.R. Mason); 1 bird, Lake Goto, 4 May 1961 (M.H. Hundley); 1 bird, Lac, 5 May, 1961 (M.H. Hundley and others); 1 female, Kralendijk, 7 Mar 1979 (FCL); C. Jansen observed 2 individuals, 12 Oct 1985 (FCL). Two specimens, 1952, 1979 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

  • Note An elusive, not very noticable bird which may be more common than the scarce observations indicate.

Grey-capped Cuckoo Coccyzus lansbergi

  • Du: Grijskopkoekoek Ar: Cucu cabes gris Cu, Bo: Kuku kabes gris

  • Range N Colombia, SW Ecuador, and NW Peru. Rare in NW Venezuela where the records are thought to pertain to migrants (rather than local breeders) from farther west in South America (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Deciduous forest, dense undergrowth.

  • Status Aruba and Curaçao No records. Bonaire Casual visitor. One record of a wounded female bird, Nikiboko, 14 Oct 1981 (FCL, photo examined by KHV, specimen in ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Greater Ani Crotophaga major

  • Du: Grote Ani Ar: Chuchubi preto mayor Cu, Bo: Chuchubi pretu mayó

  • Range From E Panama south through South America, primarily E of Andes, as far as N Argentina. Fairly common from late Apr to Nov in Venezuela, though recorded year-round (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Flooded tropical evergreen forest, second growth near water, lakes, swamps, mangroves.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. One record: Two birds, Spanish Lagoon, 13 Mar 2005 (Mlodinow 2006). Curaçao and Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Groove-billed Ani Crotophaga sulcirostris

  • Du: Groefsnavelani Ar: Chuchubi preto, Cassilia Cu, Bo: Chuchubi pretu

  • Range From SE USA and Mexico, south through Central America to W South America as far as N Chile and NW Argentina and in the north as far east as Guyana.

  • Habitat All kinds of thorn scrub, areas of scrubby vegetation and weedy grassy areas with some brush, pastures (often associated with grazing cattle and sheep), open woodland.

  • Status Rather common breeding resident. Found in highly variable numbers depending on the amount of rain (food). Aruba One specimen 1951 (ZMA). Curaçao Two specimens 1892 (AMNH); 2 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 2 specimens 1930 (RMNH); 1 specimen sine die (USNM); 16 specimens, 1951 (10), 1952 (2), 1954 (2), 1955, 1991 (ZMA). Bonaire Two specimens 1930 (RMNH); 8 specimens, 1951 (6), 1979, 1981 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Guira Cuckoo Guira guira

  • Du: Guirakoekoek Ar: Cucu guira Cu, Bo: Kuku guira

  • Range Eastern South America, from the Amazon estuary south to Uruguay and N and E Argentina. Unrecorded in Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Scrub, open woodland, pastures.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. One record, Caracas Bay, 12 Jun 1954 (FHA, see Voous 1957). Possibly an escaped cage-bird, but no abrasion of tips of wing and tail quills noticeable. One specimen 1954 (ZMA). Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

TYTONIDAE

Barn Owl Tyto alba

  • Du: Kerkuil Ar, Cu, Bo: Palabrua

  • Range Cosmopolitan, mainly south of 55° N.

  • Habitat Open country, farmland, cities.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Scarce breeding resident. During a study in 1987 and 1989 a total of 15 nestsites were recorded, 16 pair roosts and 11 other regular roosts. The total population was estimated at 75 adult birds (Debrot et al. 2001). One specimen 1892 (AMNH); 1 specimen 1930 (RMNH); 22 specimens, 1951 (3), 1952, 1954 (2), 1955 (2), 1956, 1957 (2), 1977, 1994 (2), 2000 (2), 2003 (4), sine die (2) (ZMA). Bonaire Scarce breeding resident. Frequently seen and even photographed. Mostly recorded as traffic victim. Large variation recorded in dietary composition between roosts (Flikweert et al. 2007). Number of birds tentatively put at 20 to 40 (G. van Hoorn in litt., 17 Mar 2003). First indication of nesting on the island was a juvenile with down still on the head observed some time during the 1990s (FCL, photo examined). Nesting was confirmed by the find of a downy chick at Ceru Largu, 4 Feb 2003 (M. Flikweert, G. van Hoorn, photo examined). Three specimens: remains of young male found in Ceru Domi formation near Rooi Sangu, 16 Dec 1998 (J.A. de Freitas); 1 mummified skeleton near Nauati, Ceru Largu, 24 Sep 2000 (J.A. de Freitas); 1 decayed carcass (traffic victim), Kaminda Tras di Montaña, 15 Jan 2001 (J. Felida and J.A. de Freitas) (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu: the endemic ssp T. a. bargei. Bo: ssp unknown, but most likely not bargei. See Prins et al. 2003.

STRIGIDAE

Burrowing Owl Athene cunicularia

  • Du: Holenuil Ar, Cu, Bo: Choco

  • Range From SW Canada and NW USA south through W USA to N Mexico, Florida, the West Indies and almost the whole of South America except the Amazonian basin. In winter, northernmost populations migrate southward as far as S Mexico.

  • Habitat Grassland, savannas, desert, farmland.

  • Status Aruba Rather scarce breeding resident. Size of breeding population estimated at 30 breeding pairs in 1977 (CJH). Recent counts suggest an increase in numbers to about 100 breeding pairs in 1992 (D.J. Boerwinkel). Regularly found breeding on the Tierra del Sol golfcourse (JHR, SGM). Five specimens 1908 (FMNH); 9 specimens, 1951 (2), 1952, 1955, 1963, 1973, 1974, 1977, sine die (ZMA). Curaçao Unconfirmed record of single bird at limestone terrace near Hato airport, 1977 (T.J. Kerklaan, see Voous 1983). Bonaire Two unconfirmed sight records, Ceru Largu, 2003 (JCL).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar: the endemic ssp A. c. arubensis.

STEATORNITHIDAE

Oilbird Steatornis caripensis

  • Du: Vetvogel Ar: Parha zeta Cu, Bo: Para zeta

  • Range From Colombia (or possibly Panama) east to Venezuela, Trinidad and the Guianas; also in the Andes locally south to Bolivia. Widespread isolated colonies through much of Venezuela; known to disperse (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Nocturnal habits. Roosting and nesting in caves, foraging on oily fruit in evergreen forest at night.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. One record, young female, Brazil, end of Apr beginning of May 1976, died the same day (L. Verheyen, Mrs V. Rooze). One specimen 1976 (ZMA). Curaçao and Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

CAPRIMULGIDAE

Lesser Nighthawk Chordeiles acutipennis

  • Du: Texasnachtzwaluw Ar: Tapa camina menor Cu, Bo: Tapa kaminda menor

  • Range From SW USA south through Middle America to tropical South America, including Trinidad and Tobago, as far as S Peru, N Bolivia, Paraguay and S Brazil. Uncommon to fairly common in Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Open country, desert regions, scrub, savannas, cultivated areas, woodland, mangroves.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. One sight record in fair daylight, possibly a female, Kintjan Hill, 18.45 hrs, 26 May 1977 (KHV). Bonaire Casual visitor. One record at dusk, Kralendijk, 22 Oct 1979 (KHV, FCL).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu and Bo: ssp unknown, but most likely C. a. acutipennis from N South America.

Common Nighthawk Chordeiles minor

  • Du: Amerikaanse Nachtzwaluw Ar: Tapa camina amerikano Cu, Bo: Tapa kaminda merikano

  • Range From subarctic Canada south through the USA and Middle America as far as Panama. Winters in South America, E of Andes, as far as N Argentina. Considered uncommon or rare non-breeding visitor to Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Open savannas and grassland, pastures, golfcourses, towns. Frequently nesting on flat roofs of buildings. Status Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. None of the characteristic sounds produced during courtship have been reported from the 3 islands. Aruba One bird photographed, Santa Cruz, autumn 1977 (AK, photo examined by KHV, see Reuter 1999); a small flock was seen and 1 bird caught, Oranjestad, 28 Oct 1978 (EJ). Curaçao Small flocks often seen between Sep and Jan. Sometimes from bright daylight to dusk (FHA, HJK, P.A. van der Werf and others). One specimen 1955 (ZMA). Bonaire One traffic victim, Playa Frans, 2 Nov 1982 (FCL); 1 bird caught and subsequently released, Trans World Radiostation, 29 Apr 1985 (FCL); 2–6 birds, Kralendijk, 8–15 Nov 1985 (FCL); 4 birds, Kralendijk, 13 Feb 1986 (FCL); 1 bird observed near tenniscourts, Harbour Village Marina, 14 Jun 2000 (Ligon 2006). One specimen 1982 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: C. m. minor from Canada, C and E USA, but other sspp cannot be excluded.

  • Note Separation from Antillean Nighthawk in the field exceptionally challenging (SGM in litt).

Antillean Nighthawk Chorieiles gundlachii

  • Du: Antilliaanse Nachtzwaluw Ar: Tapa camina antiano Cu, Bo: Tapa kaminda antiano

  • Range Southern Florida, Bahamas and Greater Antilles. Wintering grounds unknown, presumably in South America. Rare migrant in Lesser Antilles (Raffaele et al. 1998) and unrecorded in Venezuela (Hilty 2003). Habitat Arid open country.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. One male collected, Malpais, 19 Apr 1955 (FHA); 1 male collected, Westpunt, 17 Sep 1955 (HJK). Two specimens 1955 (ZMA). Bonaire No records. Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu: ssp cannot be identified with certainty.

Chuck-Will's Widow Caprimulgus carolinensis

  • Du: Chuck Will's Widow Ar: Tapa camina viuda Cu, Bo: Tapa kaminda biuda

  • Range Eastern and SE USA. In winter along Gulf coast from SE Texas and Louisiana south through Middle America to N South America and the West Indies. Only 2 records from Venezuela (Hilty 2003). Vagrant in the Lesser Antilles (Raffaele et al. 1998).

  • Habitat Deciduous forest, pine-oak woodland, also open country and suburban areas.

  • Status Casual visitor. Aruba One traffic casualty, Oranjestad, 11 Dec 1979 (EJ). One specimen 1979 (ZMA). Curaçao One bird flushed by day, Santa Maria, 16 Oct 1966 and (probably the same bird) 21 Oct 1966 (HJK). Bonaire One bird, Salt Company headquarters, 26 Nov 1981 (FCL); 1 male, boulevard, Kralendijk, 27 Jul 1991 (EJ). Two specimens, 1981, 1991 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

White-tailed Nightjar Caprimulgus cayennensis

  • Du: Witstaartnachtzwaluw Ar: Tapa camina Cu: Bati-bati, Para karpinté, Tapa kaminda Bo: Palabrua

  • Range From Costa Rica and Lesser Antilles south to N South America. There from Colombia east to the Guianas, south to N Ecuador and N Brazil.

  • Habitat Open grassland and savannas with scattered scrub, grassy hillsides.

  • Status Locally rather common breeding resident, often overlooked owing to its elusive behaviour. Mostly seen at dusk or during the night. Aruba Two specimens, 1951, 1952 (ZMA). Curaçao Five specimens, 1892 (2), 1896 (3) (AMNH); 2 specimens, 1900 (type of C. c. insularis), 1917 (USNM); 11 specimens, 1951 (2), 1952 (5), 1954, 1955, 1956 (2) (ZMA). Bonaire One female on nest with two pinkish eggs, entrance to Washington-Slagbaai National Park, 30 Apr 2000 (JCL); in same nest 2 feathered young, 19 May 2000 (JCL); 1 female, same locality (possibly same bird) on nest with 2 eggs, 21 Jul 2000 (JCL, J. Lanier, B. Steffy); female showing broken-wing display and young discovered nearby, same locality, 19 June 2001, was the only evidence of nesting during this dry year (JCL) (all records in Ligon 2006). One specimen 1892 (AMNH); 4 specimens 2004 (CU); 3 specimens, 1967, 1970, 1979 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: C. c. insularis, also found in NE Colombia, NW Venezuela and Margarita Island.

APODIDAE

Black Swift Cypseloides niger

  • Du: Zwarte Gierzwaluw Ar: Veloz preto Cu, Bo: Veloz pretu

  • Range W North America, from SE Alaska south through the SW USA, Mexico and Central America as far as Panama; the West Indies, including Lesser Antilles. North American populations winter south to Central and South America. Unrecorded in Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Open en forested highlands, seacoasts.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. One sight record of 6 birds, Christoffel National Park, 28 May 1991 (RM). Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Cu: ssp unknown.

Chimney Swift Chaetura pelagica

  • Du: Schoorsteengierzwaluw Ar, Cu, Bo: Veloz di chimenea

  • Range North America, mostly E of the Rocky Mountains, from S Canada to Gulf Coast. Winters in E Ecuador, Peru, NW Brazil and N Chile. Status in Venezuela uncertain, but may be common southbound migrant (Oct–Nov) in Andean passes; unrecorded during spring (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Open country, woodland and around human habitations. Nests and roosts primarily in chimneys.

  • Status Aruba In recent years non-breeding visitors are seen regularly in small numbers in late Oct and Nov (TDK). Curaçao Casual visitor. One bird, Klein Hofje, 20 Oct 1991 (RM); around 10 birds, Klein Hofje, 27 Oct 1994 (BDB). Bonaire Casual visitor. An observation of 1 bird, Slagbaai Plantation, 28 Oct 1979 (FCL, KHV); 1 bird, Slagbaai Plantation, 24 Oct 1982 (FCL).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

  • Note This species is nearly identical to C. chapmani Chapman's Swift, a rare resident in Venezuela, and difficult to separate from C. vauxi Vaux's Swift, which is fairly common resident in mountains of northernmost Venezuela.

TROCHILIDAE

Rufous-breasted Hermit Glaucis hirsutus

  • Du: Roodborstheremietkolibrie Ar: Blenchi pecho còrá Cu, Bo: Blenchi pechu kòrá

  • Range From C and E Panama to tropical and subtropical South America, primarily E of Andes. Common in Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Tropical lowland evergreen forest, secondary forest, shrubbery along forest streams and mangroves.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. One individual caught in exhausted condition, Soto, 26 Oct 1977 (bird examined by KHV). Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu: G. h. hirsutus from the northern mainland of South America.

White-necked Jacobin Florisuga mellivora

  • Du: Witnekkolibrie Ar: Blenchi nèk bianco Cu, Bo: Blenchi nèk blanku

  • Range On the Gulf-Caribbean slope from S Mexico south through Central America to tropical South America, primarily E of Andes; also Trinidad and Tobago. Uncommon in Venezuela (Hilty 2003). Habitat Humid forest, woodland, coffee and tea plantations.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. Immature male, 24 Apr 1908 (J.F. Ferry, see Voous 1983). One specimen 1908 (FMNH). Curaçao Casual visitor. One adult male, Julianadorp, 4 Jun 1958 (Mrs Sipma, colour-film examined by KHV); probably same bird, same locality, Nov 1958 (FHA). Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu: most likely F. m. mellivora from the mainland of South America (Voous 1957).

Ruby Topaz Chrysolampis mosquitus

  • Du: Muskietkolibrie Ar, Cu, Bo: Dòrnasol, Blenchi-dornasol (male), Blenchi-hudiu (female)

  • Range From Colombia eastward to the Guianas, including off-lying islands, and south to SE Brazil and E Bolivia.

  • Habitat Deciduous forest, arid scrub, gardens, cultivated areas, savannas, mangroves.

  • Status Common breeding resident present throughout the year. Locally the numbers fluctuate, probably dependent on the occurrence of flowering plants. Occasionally observed far out at sea but migration between the islands or towards the mainland has not been proven. Nests with eggs recorded Jan–Apr and Sep–Nov. Aruba Three specimens 1892 (AMNH); 8 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 7 specimens, 1951 (5), 1952, 1973 (ZMA). Curaçao Eight specimens 1892 (AMNH); 1 specimen 1908 (FMNH); 20 specimens, 1892 (5), 1895 (12), 1900, sine die (2) (USNM); 18 specimens, 1951 (14), 1952, 1954, 1955, sine die (ZMA). Bonaire Three specimens, 1892, sine die (2) (AMNH); 7 specimens, 1908 (6), 1909 (FMNH); 4 specimens 1969 (USNM); 17 specimens, 1951 (15), 1980, sine die (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Blue-tailed Emerald Chlorostilbon mellisugus

  • Du: Blauwstaartsmaragdkolibrie Ar, Cu, Bo: Blenchi bèrdè, Blenchi

  • Range From W Colombia east to Venezuela, including some off-lying islands, the Guianas, and N Brazil. West of Andes to W Ecuador and E of Andes to E Peru, E Bolivia and W Brazil.

  • Habitat Forest edge, savannas, arid scrub, cultivated areas, plantations, town gardens.

  • Status Common breeding resident present throughout the year. Numbers fluctuate, perhaps dependent on variation in abundance of flowering plants. Nests with eggs recorded in Feb, Mar, May, Jun, Oct and Dec, apparently breeding throughout the year (Voous 1983). Aruba Two specimens, 1892, sine die (AMNH); 7 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 6 specimens, 1951 (2), 1952, 1974, 1977, 1989 (ZMA). Curaçao Four specimens 1892 (AMNH); 14 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 11 specimens, 1892 (6), 1895 (2), 1900, 1929, sine die (USNM); 21 specimens, 1951 (12), 1952 (2), 1954 (2), 1994 (2), 1996, sine die (2) (ZMA). Bonaire Two specimens sine die (AMNH); 3 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 4 specimens, 1929 (3), 1969 (USNM); 8 specimens, 1951 (7), 1970 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: C. m. caribaeus, occurring in these islands and in Trinidad, Margarita Island and NE Venezuela.

ALCEDINIDAE

Amazon Kingfisher Chloroceryle amazona

  • Du: Amazoneijsvogel Ar: Cabez grandi bèrdè Cu, Bo: Kabes grandi bèrdè

  • Range From S Mexico south through Central America to South America, E of Andes as far as N Argentina. Common in Venezuela, with dispersing birds found mostly Jul to Feb (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Rivers, ponds, lakes, wooded streams.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. One female, Savaneta, mid Aug 1982 (TDK, DFM). Curaçao and Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Ringed Kingfisher Megaceryle torquata

  • Du: Amerikaanse Reuzenijsvogel Ar: Cabez grandi barica còrá Cu, Bo: Kabes grandi barika kòrá

  • Range From S Texas in the USA south through Middle America to South America (primarily E of Andes) as far as Tierra del Fuego; Lesser Antilles. Common in Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Rivers, lakes, streams, mangroves, coastal lagoons.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. One bird (possibly juvenile male), Bubali, 28 Apr 1991 (GJR); 1 adult female, Bubali, 12 Jul–29 Aug 1991 (DFM). Curaçao Casual visitor. One bird, Santa Cruz, 11 May 1991 (GJR). Bonaire No records. Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu: ssp unidentified, but most likely M. t. torquata from S North America and large part of South America.

Belted Kingfisher Megaceryle alcyon

  • Du: Bandijsvogel Ar: Cabez grandi Cu, Bo: Kabes grandi

  • Range Whole of North America, northward approximately to 60° N. In winter south of the breeding range through Middle America, to N South America from N Colombia east through the coastal lowlands of Venezuela (there uncommon from Oct–Apr, Hilty 2003) and Guyana, including off-lying islands, Bermuda, the West Indies and the Galapagos Islands.

  • Habitat Lakes, streams, wooded rivers. In winter also rocky seacoasts.

  • Status Regular non-breeding visitor in small numbers to all 3 islands. Recorded between 11 Sep–4 May, one summer record. Curaçao One bird, 25 Jul 1954 (P.A. van der Werf). Five specimens, 1951, 1954 (2), 1957, 2005 (ZMA). Bonaire One specimen 1983 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic. Syn. Ceryle alcyon.

PICIDAE

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker Sphyrapicus varius

  • Du: Geelbuiksapspecht Ar: Parha carpinté barica hel Cu, Bo: Para karpinté barika hel

  • Range Boreal North America. In winter from E and C USA, south through Middle America as far as Panama; Greater Antilles. Vagrant to Lesser Antilles. Occasional in extreme NW Colombia (Restall et al. 2006).

  • Habitat Deciduous or mixed coniferous forest. In winter also forest edge, open woodland and suburban areas. Status Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Nine older records from the 3 islands, 31 Oct–15 Jan, mostly of juveniles in first-winter plumage. Some observations of birds remaining on the islands for longer periods of time (Voous 1983). Aruba One adult male, Ceroe Colorado, Mar–Jun 1999 (EH. Bonset, colour-photo examined); TDK claims (in litt. 9 Jun 2002) observations in several years at Savaneta. Curaçao One individual stayed 31 Oct–16 Nov 1963 (HJK). One specimen 1963 (ZMA). Bonaire One bird stayed from 4–12 Dec 1976 (FCL); 1 bird, backyard near Divi Flamingo dive entrance, 23–24 Jan 2003 (Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

TYRANNIDAE

Caribbean Elaenia Elaenia martinica

  • Du: Witbuikelenia Ar: Elenia caribe Cu: Whimpie Bo: Chonchorogai

  • Range Local in the West Indies and islands off SE Mexico. Unrecorded in Venezuela (Hilty 2003), but has a tendency to wander as evidenced by records from Florida (ABA 2002) and Trinidad (Raffaele et al. 1998).

  • Habitat Woodland, forest, scrub, mangroves.

  • Status Aruba Formerly very scarce breeding resident, now likely occurring only as a vagrant. Last specimen collected at Fontein, 29 Jun 1930 by L.M.R. Rutten and others. Several unconfirmed records, 1971–1979 (EJ and others), possibly still occurring around Arikok National Park and Jamanota (Voous 1983). One bird, Arikok, 6 Dec 1999 (H. Farber); 1 bird, Spanish Lagoon, 30 Mar 2004 (SGM, observation checked by him against specimens in FMNH). Three specimens 1908 (FMNH); 1 specimen 1930 (RMNH). Curaçao Rather scarce breeding resident. Three specimens, 1892 (2), 1896 (AMNH); 1 specimen 1908 (FMNH); 2 specimens, 1895, 1917 (USNM); 12 specimens, 1951 (8), 1952 (2), 1961 (2) (ZMA). Bonaire Rather scarce breeding resident, more numerous than on Curaçao (Voous 1957). Three specimens, 1908 (2), 1909 (FMNH); 2 specimens 1930 (RMNH); 6 specimens, 1929, 1969 (5) (USNM); 11 specimens, 1951 (6), 1961 (2), 1977 (3) (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: E. m. riisii, also occurring in the Virgin Islands and Antigua.

Small-billed Elaenia Elaenia parvirostris

  • Du: Kortsnavelelenia Ar: Elenia pico chikito Cu, Bo: Elenia pik chikí

  • Range Central South America, from E Bolivia, Paraguay, extreme S Brazil, Uruguay and C Argentina south to Buenos Aires. Migrates north in winter reaching northernmost South America. Generally uncommon in Venezuela from early Apr to late Sep (Hilty 2003). Only two records from Trinidad and Tobago (Kenefick et al. 2007).

  • Habitat Riverine forest, open woodland, forest edge. In winter also gardens.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. One record, 6 May 1908 (Voous 1965b, 1983). One specimen 1908 (FMNH). Curaçao and Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Lesser Elaenia Elaenia chiriquensis

  • Du: Kleine Elenia Ar: Elenia chikito Cu, Bo: Elenia chikí

  • Range From SW Costa Rica south to tropical South America E of Andes, but not in upper Amazonian region. Many populations migratory, but local, uncommon population in Venezuela largely resident (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Scrub, open woodland, savannas, cultivated area.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. Bullenbaai, 27 Oct 1951 (KHV); unconfirmed sight record of single bird, Groot Sint Joris, 18 Jun 1961 (KHV). One specimen 1951 (ZMA). Bonaire Casual visitor. Fontein, 6 Nov 1951 (KHV); unconfirmed sight records near Goto (2), 4 May 1972 (M.H. Hundley and others), near airport, 18 May 1977 (KHV), at Salifia Tarn, 19 May 1977 (KHV) and at Fontein, 19 Oct 1979 (KHV). One specimen 1951 (ZMA)

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu, Bo: E. c. albivertex from NW and NC South America and Trinidad.

  • Note Confusion with other species of Elaenia not excluded for any of the sight records (Voous 1983).

Northern Scrub Flycatcher Sublegatus arenarum

  • Du: Noordelijke Struikvliegenpikker Ar: Parha bobo Cu: Para Bobo Bo: Chonchorogai

  • Range From SW Costa Rica and Panama to NE Colombia, N and C Venezuela, including off-lying islands, Guianas and N and C Amazonian Brazil.

  • Habitat Scrub, open woodland, savannas, mangroves.

  • Status Common breeding resident. Aruba Not as numerous as in the other islands owing to scarcity of suitable habitat (Voous 1983). One specimen 1892 (AMNH); 4 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 6 specimens, 1951(2), 1952 (3), 1961 (ZMA). Curaçao Two specimens 1892 (AMNH); 2 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 15 specimens, 1948, 1951 (10), 1952 (2), 1961 (2) (ZMA). Bonaire Two specimens 1892 (AMNH); 14 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 4 specimens 1930 (RMNH); 10 specimens 1969 (USNM); 13 specimens, 1951 (11), 1952, 1961 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: the endemic S. a. pollens. Syn. Sublegatus modestus.

Olive-sided Flycatcher Contopus cooperi

  • Du: Sparrenpiewie Ar, Cu, Bo: Pibi canades

  • Range Boreal North America and W USA. Winters in Middle America and NW South America. Uncommon non-breeding visitor to Venezuela, primarily mid-Oct to mid-Apr (Hilty 2003). Habitat Open woodland, subalpine coniferous forest. In winter all types of forest.

  • Status Aruba and Curaçao No records. Bonaire Casual visitor. Two records: Fontein, 4 May 1961 (Hundley & Mason 1962); Dos Pos, 5 May 2001 (Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic. Syn. Contopus borealis; Nuttallornis borealis.

Eastern Wood Pewee Contopus virens

  • Du: Oostelijke Bospiewie Ar: Pibi di este Cu, Bo: Pibi di ost

  • Range Eastern North America, from S Manitoba and S Quebec in Canada south through the USA to S Texas, N Gulf coast and C Florida. Winters in NW South America. Locally fairly common migrant and winter resident in Venezuela, primarily from mid-Sep to late Apr (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Deciduous forest and mixed deciduous-coniferous forest, forest edge, open woodland. In winter all types of open forest.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. One bird, Ceroe Colorado, 4 Apr 1959 (H.C. Miller). Curaçao No records. Bonaire Casual visitor. Three records: near Pekelmeer, 22 Oct 1979 (FCL, KHV); Pos Mangel, 4 May 1980 (M.-L. Goodwin, FCL); Hato, N Kralendijk, 27 Sep 2002 (Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

  • Note When no song is heard, it is virtually impossible to separate the Eastern Wood Pewee in the field from Western Wood Pewee C. sordiulus which is also known as a regular winter visitor to Venezuela (Hilty 2003). Tentatively, all the above records have been assigned to the Eastern Wood Pewee.

Vermilion Flycatcher Pyocephalus rubinus

  • Du: Rode Tiran Ar: Pímpiri còrá Cu, Bo: Pímpiri kòrá

  • Range From SW USA through Middle America to Nicaragua; from N Colombia east to Surinam and NC Brazil; W of Andes south to N Chile; also SE Peru and Bolivia south to Uruguay and NC Argentina; Galapagos Islands. Southernmost populations migrate northward in winter, but probably not beyond S Colombia and S Venezuela (Hilty 2003). Common resident in N Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Arid scrub, savannas, farmland, riparian woodland.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. One immature male, Ceroe Colorado, autumn 1957 (H.C. Miller, colour-slide examined by KHV). Curaçao and Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar: most likely P. r. saturatus from N South America.

Cattle Tyrant Machetornis rixosa

  • Du: Veetiran Ar, Cu, Bo: Pímpiri vakero

  • Range NW South America and from Bolivia and S Brazil south to N Argentina. Southernmost populations migrate northward in winter. Common resident in N Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Agricultural regions, pastures, bushy savannas.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. Single bird, sheep-pen at Savaneta, 5 Apr 2002–early Jun 2003 (TDK, colour-photos examined). Curaçao and Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar: ssp unidentified.

Streaked Flycatcher Myiodynastes maculatus

  • Du: Gestreepte Tiran Ar, Cu, Bo: Pímpiri strepiá

  • Range From the Mexican Gulf coast south through Middle America and South America to NW Peru and C Argentina. Fairly common resident in N Venezuela, with migrants from south also occurring, mostly in S Venezuela from Mar through Aug (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Forest edge, secondary forest, riverine forest, mangroves.

  • Status Aruba and Curaçao No records. Bonaire Casual visitor. One bird near Sorobon Beach Resort, 25 Sep 1989 (M.A. Anderson, colour-photo examined by KHV and R. Restall).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Bo: M. m. insolens from Middle America.

Tropical Kingbird Tyrannus melancholicus

  • Du: Tropische Koningstiran Ar, Cu, Bo: Pimpiri hel, Pimpiri

  • Range From SW USA south through Middle America and South America W of Andes to C Peru and E of Andes to C Argentina. Southernmost populations migrate northward in winter and northernmost populations southward. Peak numbers in Venezuela occur from Mar to Aug owing to migrants from the south, but the species is common throughout the year (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Thorn scrub, forest edge, open woodland, savannas, mangroves.

  • Status Scarce breeding resident in varying numbers. Voous (1983) surmised that these might be augmented during migration. Aruba One specimen of T. m. satrapa 1908 (FMNH). Curaçao One specimen of T. m. satrapa 1908 (FMNH); 10 specimens of T. m. satrapa, 1951 (6), 1952, 1954 (2), 1955 (ZMA). Bonaire Not breeding regularly, seems to be dependent on freshwater ponds. One T. m. melancholicus observed, Cai, 22 May 1979 (FCL, colour-slide examined by KHV); 2 birds at freshwater pond near entrance Washington-Slagbaai National Park, 13 Jul 2000 (JCL, SS); 1 bird, Hato, N Kralendijk, 16 Jul 2001 (Ligon 2006). One specimen of T. m. satrapa 1951 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: the locally breeding T. m. satrapa. Single record of nominate melancholicus from tropical South America.

Plate 39.

Striated Heron Butorides striata. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p39_137.eps

Plate 40.

Reddish Egret Egretta rufescens. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p40_137.eps

Plate 41.

Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p41_137.eps

Plate 42.

Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p42_137.eps

Plate 43.

Tricolored Heron/Louisiana Heron Egretta tricolor. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p43_137.eps

Plate 44.

Snowy Egret Egretta thula. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p44_137.eps

Plate 45.

Crested Caracara Caracara cheriway. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p45_137.eps

Plate 46.

Brown Pelican Pelecanus occidentalis. (Photo S. Mlodinow)

p46_137.eps

Plate 47.

White-tailed Hawk Buteo albicaudatus. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p47_137.eps

Plate 48.

Crested Caracara Caracara cheriway. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p48_137.eps

Plate 49.

American Kestrel Falco sparverius. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p49_137.eps

Plate 50.

Sora Rail Porzana Carolina. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p50_137.eps

Plate 51.

Purple Gallinule Porphyrio martinica. (Photo S. Mlodinow)

p51_137.eps

Plate 52.

Caribbean Coot Fulica caribaea. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p52_137.eps

Plate 53.

American Golden Plover Pluvialis dominica. (Photo S. Mlodinow)

p53_137.eps

Plate 54.

Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p54_137.eps

Plate 55.

Pectoral Sandpiper Calidris melanotos. (Photo S. Mlodinow)

p55_137.eps

Plate 56.

Laughing Gull Larus atricilla. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p56_137.eps

Plate 57.

Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa flavipes (left)/Stilt-Sandpiper Calidris himantopus (right). (Photo S. Mlodinow)

p57_137.eps

Plate 58.

Short-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus griseus. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p58_137.eps

Plate 59.

Sandwich Tern Sterna sandvicensis. (Photo T. Koppejan)

p59_137.eps

Plate 60.

Royal Tern Sterna maxima. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p60_137.eps

Plate 61.

Least Tern Sterna antillarum. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p61_137.eps

Plate 62.

Scaly-naped Pigeon Columba squamosa. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p62_137.eps

Plate 63.

Bare-eyed Pigeon Columba corensis. (Photo S. Mlodinow)

p63_137.eps

Fork-tailed Flycatcher Tyrannus savana

  • Du: Vorkstaartkoningstiran Ar: Tirano rabo fòrki Cu, Bo: Pímipiri rab'i souchi

  • Range Locally from S Mexico south to S Argentina; Falkland Islands. Southernmost population migrates north-ward in winter. Numbers peak in Venezuela from early Mar to mid-Oct, mostly due to austral migrant T. s. savana (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Open scrub, pastures with scattered bushes and trees, farmland.

  • Status Irregular non-breeding visitor in varying numbers, more numerous in years with good rains (Voous 1983). Recorded mainly Aug–Oct. Aruba One or 2 birds, San Nicolas Bay keys, 27 May–7 Jun 1987 (RVH); 1 bird, Tierra del Sol, 30 March 2004 (SGM and CB in litt). Curaçao Seven specimens of T. s. savana, 1951, 1955 (4), 1956, sine die (ZMA); 1 specimen of T. s. monachus 1951 (see Voous 1957, ZMA). Several reliable yet undocumented sightings since 1989 (AOD). Bonaire Ligon (2006) reports 10 sight records since 2000. Contrary to Voous (1983) who stated that limits of occurrence are May–Dec, 1 of these in Jan, 1 in Mar and 2 in Apr.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu: T. s. savana from S South America and T. s. monachus from N South America. Ar, Bo: ssp unidentified. Syn. Muscivora tyrannus.

Eastern Kingbird Tyrannus tyrannus

  • Du: Koningstiran Ar: Tirano cabez preto Cu, Bo: Tirano kabes pretu

  • Range Boreal and temperate Canada and C and E USA. Winters in South America from Colombia, Ecuador and W Amazonia south to E Peru, Bolivia and N Argentina. Rare passage migrant in Venezuela with fewer than ten records (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Open country with scattered shrub and trees, farmland, pastures.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. Bubali, 1 bird, 5 Apr 1978 and 2 birds, 7 Apr 1978 (EJ, colour-slides examined by KHV). Curaçao No records. Bonaire Casual visitor. One bird, Pos Mangel, 15–17 Oct 1977 (FCL); 2 birds, Witte Pan, 12 May 1982 (FCL); 2 birds, Playa Tarn, 2 Oct 1982 (FCL).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Grey Kingbird Tyrannus dominicensis

  • Du: Grijze Koningstiran Ar, Cu, Bo: Pímpiri gris, Pímpiri, Pimpiri

  • Range The West Indies; Atlantic and Gulf coast of SE USA; locally in NC Venezuela, including off-lying islands. Winters from Panama to Colombia and Venezuela.

  • Habitat Open thorn scrub with scattered trees, coastal regions, savannas, mangroves.

  • Status Breeding resident on Curaçao and Bonaire. A sudden increase in numbers in autumn and spring is tentatively attributed to migrants from other parts of the West Indies (Voous 1983). Aruba Irregular non-breeding visitor, sometimes in rather large numbers. Breeding suspected, but not confirmed, Spanish Lagoon, Aug 1997 (DFM); regularly seen there, also what seemed mated pairs (SGM in litt). Three specimens 1908 (FMNH).

  • Curaçao Four specimens 1892 (AMNH); 6 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 1 specimen sine die (USNM); 15 specimens, 1951 (10), 1952 (3), 1954, 1977 (ZMA). Bonaire One specimen 1892 (AMNH); 7 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 3 specimens 1930 (RMNH); 4 specimens 1969 (USNM); 12 specimens, 1951 (10), 1978, 1981 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: T. d. dominicensis breeding locally and occurring in the Greater Antilles, North and South America.

Brown-crested Flycatcher Myiarchus tyrannulus

  • Du: Cayennetiran Ar, Cu: Tirano grandi Bo: Chonchorogai grandi

  • Range From SW USA and W Mexico south through Central America to N Colombia, Venezuela, including off-lying islands, the Guianas, Brazil (except upper Amazon basin) as far south as N Argentina.

  • Habitat Arid regions, open woodland, scrub, mangroves.

  • Status Aruba Rather scarce breeding resident. Several pairs observed at Spanish Lagoon and Tierra del Sol, 26 Mar-3 Apr 2004 (SGM and CB in litt.); also several pairs observed at Spanish Lagoon and Frenchman's Pass from 12–18 Mar 2005 (SGM and CB in litt.). One specimen 1892 (AMNH); 3 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 2 specimens, 1951, 1952 (ZMA). Curaçao Rather common breeding resident. Eleven specimens, 1892 (3), 1896, 1968 (7) (AMNH); 2 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 23 specimens, 1951 (20), 1952, 1953, 1961 (ZMA). Bonaire Rather common breeding resident. One specimen 1892 (AMNH); 1 specimen 1908 (FMNH); 2 specimens 1930 (RMNH); 5 specimens 1969 (USNM); 6 specimens, 1951 (4), 1977, 1978 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: M. t. tyrannulus of N South America.

VIREONIDAE

Yellow-throated Vireo Vireo flavifrons

  • Du: Geelborstvireo Ar: Vireo pecho hel Cu, Bo: Vireo pechu hel

  • Range North America, E of Rockies, from S Canada through the USA to C Texas and C Florida. Winters from SE Mexico and both slopes of Central America to C Colombia and N Venezuela, where uncommon, and from southern Florida through the West Indies.

  • Habitat Open deciduous forest, woodland, riparian woodland.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. One female, Muizenberg, 21 Mar 1957 (HJK). One specimen 1957 (ZMA). Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Philadelphia Vireo Vireo philadelphicus

  • Du: Philadelphia Vireo Ar, Cu, Bo: Vireo Philadelphia

  • Range Boreal North America, E of Rockies. Winters from SE Mexico south to Panama. Casual in Colombia (Hilty & Brown 1986).

  • Habitat Open woodland, forest edge, second growth, thickets.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. One bird, Spanish Lagoon, 13 Jan 2002 (Wells & Childs Wells 2004); 1 bird, Spanish Lagoon, 18 Mar 2005 (Mlodinow 2006). Curaçao Casual visitor. One bird, Malpais, 1 Apr 2000 (Wells & Childs Wells 2001). Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus

  • Du: Roodoogvireo Ar: Vireo wowo còrá Cu, Bo: Vireo wowo kòrá

  • Range Nominate race breeds from boreal Canada south to NW USA and then southeast to Texas and Florida; V. o. olivaceus winters primarily in South America south to NW Peru and N Argentina. V. o. vividior and chivi breed in South America from Colombia and Venezuela south to NW Peru and C Argentina, with southernmost populations migratory. In Venezuela, olivaceus is a common transient and uncommon to fairly common winter visitor (early Sep to mid-Apr), while vividior is a common resident. V. o. chivi is an uncommon non-breeding visitor to S Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Deciduous and mixed forest, second growth and riparian woodland. In winter also mangroves, gardens and plantations.

  • Status Surprisingly rare in our region. Aruba Casual visitor. Single record, Spanish Lagoon, 13 Mar 2005 (Mlodinow 2006). Curaçao Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Five records: male, Santa Barbara, 7 Oct 1951 (KHV); female, Hato, 23 Nov 1978 (FCL); Seru Bosman, Christoffel National Park, 28 Feb 1979 (J.E. Winkelman); 2 birds, Christoffel National Park, 23 Nov 1991; 2 birds, near the coast at Amphibian Cross, 28 Nov 1991 (RM). Two specimens, 1951, 1978 (ZMA). Bonaire Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Five records: 2 birds, Kralendijk, 9–25 Oct 1977 (FCL); Kralendijk, 17–18 Sep 1979 (FCL); Kralendijk, 29 Oct 1979 (KHV); Put Bronswinkel, 18 Oct 1980 (FCL); 1 bird found dead, Hato, N Kralendijk, 13 Sep 2002 (Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar and Bo: unidentified, Cu: V. o. olivaceus from North America.

Black-whiskered Vireo Vireo altiloquus

  • Du: Baardvireo Ar: Vireo patiya preto Cu, Bo: Vireo patia pretu

  • Range Coast of S Florida and throughout the West Indies. Winters in N South America as far as NE Peru, C Brazil and the Guianas.

  • Habitat Secondary forest, thorn scrub, open woodland, fruit plantations, mangroves, beaches. Status Scarce breeding resident. Aruba Occurs almost exclusively at Spanish Lagoon. One specimen of V. a. bonairensis 1951 (ZMA); 1 specimen of V. a. altiloquus, Ceroe Colorado, mid-Oct 1978 (ZMA). Curaçao Common on mount Sint Christoffel, Christoffel National Park (AOD) and wooded areas of Klein St. Joris (J. and A. Wells 2003). Eight specimens, 1951 (3), 1952 (3), 1954, 1955 (ZMA). Bonaire Sight record of V. a. barbatulus, Fontein, 8 Oct 1979; sight record of V. a. altiloquus at pool near Pos Mangel, 13 Oct 1979, possible sight record of V. a. barbadensis, Put Bronswinkel, 13 Oct 1979 (Voous 1983). One specimen of V a. bonairensis 1909 (FMNH); 2 specimens of V. a. bonairensis, 1951, 1955 (ZMA); 1 specimen of V. a. barbatulus, 5 Nov 1951 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: V. a. bonairensis, described for Bo and also occurring in Los Roques and Margarita Island, off Venezuela, breeding; Ar also nominate altiloquus from the Greater Antilles; Bo also nominate altiloquus, V. a. barbatulus from Florida and Cuba and possibly V. a. barbadensis from Barbados and St. Croix, on migration.

CORVIDAE

House Crow Corvus splendens

  • Du: Huiskraai Ar: Cao doméstico Cu, Bo: Kao doméstiko

  • Range Southern Asia, from coastal Iran east to Thailand, including Laccadive and Maldive Islands. Has a proclivity for riding ships to ports far and near, occasionally leading to establishment of populations at ports, mainly in the Middle East, East Africa and Australasia, but also elsewhere.

  • Habitat Towns, cities, harbours, near human habitation.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. Two adult birds, near Saliña and Schottegat harbour, last week of Apr-27 Aug 2002 (AOD, photos examined). Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu: ssp unknown.

BOMBYCILLIDAE

Cedar Waxwing Bombycilla ceirorum

  • Du: Cederpestvogel Ar: Parha di cedro Cu, Bo: Para di seder

  • Range Boreal and temperate North America. Winters in southern part of breeding range, south through Middle America to Panama and in the West Indies. One record in Venezuela (Hilty 2003) and no records from Trinidad and Tobago (Kenefick et al. 2007).

  • Habitat Open woodland, forest edge, parks, orchards, towns.

  • Satus Aruba Casual visitor. One male found dead, Oranjestad, 22 Feb 1979 (AK). One specimen 1979 (ZMA). Curaçao and Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

HIRUNDINIDAE

Collared Sand Martin/Bank Swallow Riparia riparia

  • Du: Oeverzwaluw Ar: Swalchi ribera Cu, Bo: Souchi ribera

  • Range North America, Europe and N Asia. Migrates in winter to the Southern Hemisphere south to the Tropic of Capricorn. Abundant autumn migrant in Venezuela during Sep and Oct. Present in small numbers to early May. Northbound migration less evident, primarly early Apr to early May (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Open and partly open areas, primarily near water with vertical banks for burrowing nestholes. Outside the breeding season wetlands and open agricultural areas.

  • Status Non-breeding visitor in varying numbers. Rather common in autumn (3 Sep-27 Nov), more numerous in some years than in others, possibly overlooked (Voous 1983). Rare in spring (12 Apr-7 May). Aruba One specimen sine die (ZMA). Curaçao Spring records since 1983: Klein Hofje, 16 Apr 1992 (BDB); same locality, 1 and 7 May 1994 (BDB); Klein Hofje, 27 Apr 1997 (DMCP). Two specimens, 1951, 1952 (ZMA). Bonaire Only spring record, Lake Goto, 24 Apr 2001 (Ligon 2006). Two specimens 1984 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: R. r. riparia from North America.

White-winged Swallow Tachycineta albiventer

  • Du: Witbuikzwaluw Ar: Swalchi barica bianco Cu, Bo: Souchi barika blanku

  • Range South America, primarily E of Andes south to N Argentina. Southernmost population migrates northward. Common resident in Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Larger rivers and lakes, sandy beaches, mangroves.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. One sight record at freshwater pool near Malpais, early summer 1967 (Th.P. Beerlage). Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Chilean Swallow Tachycineta meyeni

  • Du: Chileense Zwaluw Ar: Swalchi chileno Cu, Bo: Souchi chileno

  • Range Southern part of South America, from N Chile and C Argentina south to Strait of Magellan and Tierra del Fuego. Southernmost population migrates north, but no records from either Venezuela (Hilty 2003) nor Trinidad and Tobago (Kenefick et al. 2007).

  • Habitat Rivers, lakes, reservoirs, marshes, coastal areas.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. Sight record of 2 birds, Malpais, 15 May 1977 (B.H.M. de Jong, I. Kristensen, KHV). Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Monotypic. Syn. Tachycineta leucopyga.

Purple Martin Progne subis

  • Du: Purperzwaluw Ar: Swalchi azul Cu, Bo: Souchi grandi blou

  • Range From S Canada south through the USA to C Mexico. Winter range imperfectly known, but appears to lie mostly within Amazon Basin (AOU 1998). Considered locally abundant spring and autumn migrant in Venezuela (Hilty 2003) but unrecorded on Trinidad and Tobago (Kenefick et al. 2007).

  • Habitat Open areas, especially near water, farmlands, towns.

  • Status Rarely recorded passage migrant which may occur more regularly. Females and immatures are difficult to separate from Cuban Martin, P. cryptoleuca, and Caribbean Martin, P. dominicensis. Adult males are typically inseparable in field from Cuban Martin (Raffaele et al. 1998). Aruba Casual visitor. Single record immature bird, caught and photographed, Bubali, 24 Sep 1978 (EJ, photos examined by E. Eisenmann, A.R. Phillips and KHV). Curaçao Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. About 12 birds, Willemstad, 2–3 May 1961; 2 birds, 3 May 1962 (both records M.H. Hundley and members of Florida Audubon Society); 1 female, water purification plant, 27 Sep 1998 (BDB). One specimen of nominate subis 1955 (ZMA). Bonaire Casual visitor. A few birds recorded 5 May 1961 and 4 May 1962 (M.H. Hundley and members of Florida Audubon Society).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: Progne s. subis from N and E North America, but occurrence of other ssp cannot be excluded.

Cuban Martin Progne cryptoleuca

  • Du: Cubaanse Purperzwaluw Ar: Swalchi grandi cubano Cu, Bo: Souchi grandi cubano

  • Range Cuba, including some small nearby islands. Thought to winter in South America. No records from Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Cities, towns and rural areas.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. Adult female and juvenile female, Malpais, 8 Sep 1955 (FHA); male, Malpais, 6 Oct 1955 (HJK); female, Malpais, 30 Sep 1956 (FHA). Three specimens, 1955 (2), 1956 (ZMA). Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Caribbean Martin Progne dominicensis

  • Du: Caribische Purperzwaluw Ar: Swalchi grandi caribense Cu, Bo: Souchi grandi caribense

  • Range Greater and Lesser Antilles, except Cuba. Also common breeder on Trinidad. Thought to winter (Oct–Dec) in South America (Raffaele et al. 1998). Several sight records from Venezuela, but its occurrence there is still considered hypothetical (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Towns, open and partly open areas, especially near water, seacoasts.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. First record adult male, Oranjestad, roosting on a roof, 16 Jan 2002 (Wells & Childs Wells 2005); adult male, Bucuti Beach Resort, Eagle Beach, 3 Apr 2004 (SGM and CB). Curaçao Irregular nonbreeding visitor, possibly not present every year, but may be overlooked most of the time (Voous 1983). Passing on migration in May and Sep–Oct. Two specimens 1955 (ZMA). Bonaire Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Five records. First, 7 May 1966 (M.H. Hundley and members of Florida Audubon Society); most recent, 4 individuals over Plaza Hotel, 10 Oct 2005 (J. Holmes in Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Brown-chested Martin Progne tapera

  • Du: Bruinborstzwaluw Ar: Swalchi pecho brùin Cu, Bo: Souchi grandi pechu brùin

  • Range South America, E of Andes, from Caribbean coast (including Trinidad) south to C Argentina, except most of Amazonian region. Southernmost populations migrate north, with stragglers having reached Massachusetts and New Jersey, USA (ABA 2002). P. t. tapera resident in small numbers in Venezuela, but migrant P. t. fusca from south somewhat more numerous, late Mar to early Oct (Hilty 2003). No records from Trinidad and Tobago (Kenefick et al. 2007).

  • Habitat Open woodland and savannas, often near water.

  • Status Aruba Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Sight record of group of 25 birds, near Oranjestad, Sep 1993 (DFM, TDK); 1 bird, Frenchman's Pass, Aug 1994 (DFM, TDK); 1 bird, Bubali, 19 Aug 1998 (DFM, TDK); 1 bird, Pos Chiquito, 29 Aug 1998 (DFM, TDK). Curaçao and Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar: ssp unidentified; migrants of southern P. t. fusca as well as northern nominate tapera may occur.

Southern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx ruficollis

  • Du: Zuid-Amerikaanse Ruwvleugelzwaluw Ar: Swalchi di sùit Cu, Bo: Souchi di sùit Range From W Costa Rica and Panama W of Andes to NW Peru and E of Andes to N Argentina. Common in Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Open and partly open areas, especially near water, pastures, farmland.

  • Status Casual visitor. Aruba One (possibly 2) birds, Bubali, 21 Feb 1993 (D.W. Finch). Curaçao One bird, 16 Sep 1997 (BDB); 1 bird, Klein Hofje, 29 Oct 1998 (BDB). Bonaire Three birds, Kralendijk, 23 Oct 1979 (KHV); 2 birds, Kralendijk, 15 Feb-mid-Mar1986 (FCL and others); elsewhere on the island c. 35 birds, Feb and Mar 1986 (FCL).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: ssp unidentified, most likely S. r. ruficollis from N South America.

Barn Swallow Hirunio rustica

  • Du: Boerenzwaluw Ar: Swalchi Cu, Bo: Swalchi campesino, Souchi kampesino

  • Range Breeds in the Northern Hemisphere and migrates in winter mainly south of Tropic of Cancer well into the Southern Hemisphere. Common in Venezuela, predominantly from early Sep to late Apr (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Open country, near water, farmland, villages and small towns.

  • Status Regular non-breeding visitor during migration, numerous during Sep-Oct, much less frequent during spring passage in Apr. Small numbers are present also in the rest of the year. Aruba Four specimens, 1973, sine die (3) (ZMA). Curaçao Recorded in autumn also at Klein Curaçao. Fourteen specimens, 1951 (4), 1952, 1955 (2), 1994 (6), 2005 (ZMA). Bonaire About 100 birds at Salt Works Pekelmeer, 16 Aug 1992 (LS). Seven specimens, 1978 (2), 1979 (2), 1983,1984, sine die (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: H. r. erythrogaster from North America and Mexico.

Cliff Swallow Petrochelidon pyrrhonota

  • Du: Amerikaanse Klifzwaluw Ar: Swalchi baranca Cu, Bo: Souchi baranka

  • Range North America, from Alaska to Mexico. Winters in South America E of Andes from Paraguay and C and SE Brazil south to C Argentina. In Venezuela, common southbound migrant, mainly Aug-Oct, but only one spring record (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Open country, usually near water, towns, also mountainous areas.

  • Status Regular non-breeding visitor in small numbers, mainly in autumn, Sep–Nov, rare in spring (Voous 1983). Much less numerous than H. rustica. Records since 1983 given below. Aruba One bird, Bubali, 24 Aug 1984 (DFM, TDK); 1 bird Bubali on 6, 23, 25 Mar and 18, 19 Sep 1988 (RVH); 5 birds, Bubali, 26 Aug 1991 (DFM, TDK); 5 birds, Savaneta, 3–16 Aug 2003 (DFM, TDK). Curaçao Observations at Klein Hofje: 2 birds 22 Aug 1992 and 2 birds 24 Aug 1992 (LS); 1 bird, 17 Apr 1994 (BDB); 1 bird, 20 Apr 1996 (BDB); 1 bird, 23 Apr 1996 (LS); 1 bird, 14 May 2000 (BDB). One specimen of nominate pyrrhonota 1951 (ZMA). Bonaire One bird found dead on road, Zuidweg, 22 Oct 1984 (FCL); 3 birds, Slagbaai, 24 Oct 1997 (Ligon 2006), 5 birds, Sand Dollar Dive Shop, 18 Nov 1997 (Ligon 2006); 5 birds flying with Barn Swallows near Cargill Salt Company, 6 Nov 2002 (O. Ottema in Ligon 2006); 1 bird on pier of Bonaire Dive and Adventure, 17 Feb 2003 (Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: P. p. pyrrhonota from North America, but other ssp cannot be excluded. Syn. Hirundo pyrrhonota.

Cave Swallow Petrochelidon fulva

  • Du: Holenzwaluw Ar: Swalchi cueba Cu, Bo: Souchi kueba

  • Range From SC USA to S Mexico; Greater Antilles, where resident. Wintering range poorly known, but seemingly largely within Mexico, but recorded occasionally south to Panama (AOU 1998).

  • Habitat Cultivated areas, especially near water, towns, rocky ravines, coastal cliffs.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. One immature, Bullenbaai, 6 Oct 1952 (FHA). One specimen of ssp pallida 1952 (ZMA). Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu: P. f. pallida from S and C USA and N Mexico. Syn. Hirunio fulva.

MIMIDAE

Tropical Mockingbird Mimus gilvus

  • Du: Tropische Spotlijster Ar, Cu, Bo: Chuchubi

  • Range Tropical Middle America from S Mexico to Honduras, N South America and Lesser Antilles from Guadeloupe southward.

  • Habitat Open areas, thorn scrub, gardens, parks and towns.

  • Status Common breeding resident. Aruba One specimen 1892 (AMNH); 1 specimen 1940 (ANSP); 9 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 2 specimens 1930 (RMNH); 1 specimen 1929 (USNM); 8 specimens, 1951 (5), 1952 (2), 1961 (ZMA). Curaçao Five specimens, 1892 (4), 1896 (AMNH); 9 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 3 specimens, 1930 (2), 1936 (RMNH); 6 specimens, 1884 (2 cotypes of M. g. rostratus), 1892 (2), 1895, sine die (USNM); 21 specimens, 1948, 1951 (10), 1952 (4), 1954, 1955 (2), 1991, 1994, 1997 (ZMA). Bonaire One specimen (AMNH); 11 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 2 specimens 1930 (RMNH); 6 specimens, 1929, 1969 (5) (USNM); 9 specimens, 1951 (7), 1952, 1961 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: M. g. rostratus, occurring on these islands and on Orchila, Blanquilla and Tortuga.

Brown Thrasher Toxostoma rufum

  • Du: Rosse Spotlijster Ar: Chuchubi barica marcá Cu, Bo: Chuchubi barika marká

  • Range From S Canada south through the USA, E of Rockies, to EC Texas, the Gulf coast and Florida. Winters in the southern part of the breeding range. Unrecorded in the West Indies south of Cuba (Raffaele et al .1998) and in Central American south of C Mexico (AOU 1998). The Curaçao record is, therefore, the southernmost record by more than 800 km.

  • Habitat Thickets, undergrowth of forest, woodland, shrubby areas.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. Male, Oil refinery, 2 Oct 1957 (FHA). One specimen 1957 (ZMA). Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu: T. r. rufum from E North America.

Pearly-eyed Thrasher Margarops fuscatus

  • Du: Witoogspotlijster Ar, Cu, Bo: Palabrua Boka Duru, Chuchubi spañ, Chuchubi Wowo Blanku

  • Range Throughout the Lesser Antilles; also the islands of Bonaire and formerly Isla Horquilla in Los Hermanos off Venezuela.

  • Habitat Thickets, forest, woodland and urban areas.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. One sight record, Rio Canario (FHA). Bonaire Rather common breeding resident. Six specimens, 1892 (5), 1951 (AMNH); 2 specimens 1930 (RMNH); 7 specimens, 1947, 1969 (6) (USNM); 11 specimens, 1951 (7), 1952, 1961 (2), 1978 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu and Bo: the endemic M. f. bonairensis which occurred also on Los Hermanos.

STURNIDAE

European Starling Sturnus vulgaris

  • Du: Spreeuw Ar, Cu, Bo: Chuchubi oropeo

  • Range Europe and W and C Asia. Introduced in many parts of the world and also in the USA were it breeds from boreal North America south all over the USA. Reached Jamaica by 1903. Also established on Cuba. All populations winter in the southern part of the breeding range, south to N Africa and SE Asia in the Old World and to C Mexico and through much of the Greater Antilles in the New World. Unrecorded in Venezuela (Hilty 2003). Nearest established populations on Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (AOU 1998).

  • Habitat Open woodland, woodland edge, towns and all kinds of cultivated countryside.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. Unconfirmed record of single bird, 3 Nov 1960 (J. Hilbrands); 2 birds in winter plumage, Bubali, 18 Nov 1977-2 Jan 1978 (EJ, J.H. van den Koppel, colour-slides examined by KHV). Curaçao No records. Bonaire Casual visitor. One record, between Playa Funchi and Wayacá, 10 Nov 1980 (FCL, colourslide examined by KHV).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar and Bo: S. v. vulgaris which has been introduced in North America.

TURDIDAE

Veery Catharus fuscescens

  • Du: Veery Ar, Cu, Bo: Chuchubi garganta hel

  • Range Southern Canada and N USA. Migrates in winter to SC Brazil and E Bolivia. Status in Venezuela not entirely clear but probably uncommon winter visitor from mid-Oct to mid-Apr (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Deciduous, swampy and mixed forest, wooded mountains, especially with thick undergrowth.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. Four records: Rio Canario, 14 Oct 1954 (FHA); Julianadorp, 25 Apr and 1 May 1960 (P.A. van der Werf); 1 bird ringed 6 May 1963 (P.A. van der Werf). One specimen 1954 (ZMA). Bonaire Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Five records: Put Bronswinkel, 22 Oct 1975 (FCL); Fontein, 1 Nov 1979 (FCL); Pos Mangel, 24 Oct 1997 (JCL); Hato, Oct 1998 (JCL); Washington-Slagbaai National Park, 12 Oct 2005 (J. Holmes in Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu, Bo: nominate C. f. fuscescens from E North America.

Grey-cheeked Thrush Catharus minimus

  • Du: Grijswangdwerglijster Ar, Cu, Bo: Chuchubi garganta pintá

  • Range Extreme NE Siberia, Alaska, and N Canada. Migrates in winter to NW South America south to NW Brazil and east to Guyana. Fairly common in Venezuela from mid-Oct to early May (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Coniferous and deciduous forest, shrubby areas.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. One female, Malpais, 11 May 1957 (FHA); 1 bird found dead, Julianadorp, 25 Apr 1960 (P.A. van der Werf). Two specimens, 1957, 1960 (ZMA). Bonaire Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Six records: Fontein, 16–17 and 22 Oct 1976 (FCL); adult, Fontein, 1 Nov 1979 (FCL); Pos Mangel, 3 Apr 1985 (FCL); Pos Mangel, 24 Oct 1997 (Ligon 2006); 3 birds, Put Bronswinkel, 14 Oct 2000 (Ligon 2006); Put Bronswinkel, 12 Oct 2005 (J. Holmes in Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu and most likely also Bo: C. m. minimus from NE North America.

Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus

  • Du: Dwerglijster Ar: Chuchubi wowo rant bianco Cu, Bo: Chuchubi wowo rant blanku

  • Range Most of subarctic Canada and W USA. Winters from C Mexico south to N Argentina and east to Guyana. Fairly common migrant and uncommon non-breeding resident in Venezuela, predominantly from late Oct to late Mar (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Damp coniferous and deciduous forest, second growth, woodland.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. One bird, Grote Knip, 23 Oct 1951 (KHV); 1 bird found dead, Willemstad, 23 Apr 1960 (B. de Jong). Two specimens of C. u. swainsoni, 1951, 1960 (ZMA). Bonaire Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Five or six records: unconfirmed, Fontein, 10–19 Apr 1977 (Voous 1983); Dos Pos, 13 Apr 1977 (FCL); Slagbaai, 28 Oct 1979 (FCL, KHV); Fontein, 1 Nov 1979 (FCL); Put Bronswinkel, 18 Oct 1980 (FCL); in garden at Kralendijk, 21 Oct 1982 (FCL).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu and most likely also Bo: C. u. swainsoni from boreal North America.

Wood Thrush Hylocichla mustelina

  • Du: Amerikaanse Boslijster Ar: Chuchubi barica pintá Cu, Bo: Chuchubi barika pintá

  • Range Extreme SE Canada and E USA. Winters from S Texas south through E Mexico and Central America into Colombia. One record from Guyana (AOU 1998), but none from Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Shaded deciduous forest, mixed woodland, parks and suburban gardens.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. One bird, Klein Sint Joris, 30 Oct 1951 (KHV). One specimen 1951 (ZMA). Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

MUSCICAPIDAE

Northern Wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe

  • Du: Tapuit Ar: Chuchubi ala preto Cu, Bo: Chuchubi ala pretu

  • Range Alaska, NW and NE Canada, Greenland, Iceland, boreal, temperate and subtropical Europe, NW Africa and Asia. All populations winter in tropical Africa. Unrecorded on continental South America, though there are several records from Mexico and the West Indies (AOU 1998).

  • Habitat Dry, rocky tundra, desert, steppe, pastures. In migration and winter also fields and meadows.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. One bird, Malpais, 4 Nov 1962 (P.A. van der Werf). Bonaire Casual visitor. One bird, Amboina plantation, 18 Dec 1975 (FCL, colour-photo examined by KHV).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu, Bo: ssp unidentified, but according to known migration routes most likely O. o. leucorhoa from NE Canada.

PASSERIDAE

House Sparrow Passer domesticus

  • Du: Huismus Ar: Parha di Joonchi Cu, Bo: Para di Jonchi

  • Range Originally a Palearctic species, but nowadays introduced in many temperate, subtropical and tropical areas all over the world.

  • Habitat Human habitations, farmland.

  • Status Aruba Rather common breeding resident. Oranjestad, Feb 1978 (R. Ruiter); 10–20 birds, Oranjestad, 16 Oct 1979 (FCL); 17 nests, 20 Jul 1980 (CJH); 1 male and 2 females, Tierra del Sol, several occasions in Mar 1997 (JHR); 10 birds, Savaneta, 3–16 Aug 2003 (DFM, TDK). Curaçao Rather common and widespread breeding resident. Introduced as cage-birds by J. Jonkhout from the Netherlands, escaped in 1953. More than 40 birds resident on Klein Curaçao, 2000–2005 (incl. observations from 2 and 9 Nov 2005, AOD). Bonaire Rather common breeding resident. Population increasing, considered to be inhabiting entire island (Ligon 2006). Early records: 6 birds, near airport, 7 Nov 1989 (FCL); several birds, same area, 1 Nov 1990 (FCL, GJR); 1 bird, 1000 Steps, 8 Dec 2000 (Ligon 2006); 1 bird, Boca Slagbaai, 13 Jan 2001 (Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu: P. d. domesticus introduced in 1953 from W Europe. Ar, Bo: ssp unidentified, but very likely also domesticus.

PLOCEIDAE

Village Weaver Ploceus cucullatus

  • Du: Grote Textorwever Ar, Cu, Bo: Flègtudó hel

  • Range Tropical Africa. Introduced into several Caribbean islands and Venezuela (Hilty 2003, Raffaele et al. 1998)

  • Habitat Rice fields, vegetation near open water, scrub and open woodlands, around human dwellings.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. One bird near the Americana Hotel, 7 Dec 1983 (M.A. Anderson, photo examined by KHV). Unknown if this was a local escapee or wanderer from Curaçao. Curaçao Breeding resident, population established from escaped or released cage-birds since 1982 or 1983 (Voous 1985). Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu: ssp unidentified.

Baya Weaver Ploceus philippinus

  • Du: Bayawever Ar, Cu, Bo: Flègtudó skur

  • Range Southern Asia, from SE Pakistan eastward to Sumatra, Indonesia.

  • Habitat Grassland, second growth, farmlands, reed-beds.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Breeding resident established from escaped cage-birds since early 1980s, making elaborate nests from palm fronds in gardens of the Cas Cora suburb of Willemstad (Brother Yvo Nijsten, AOD). Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu: ssp unidentified.

PARULIDAE

Golden-winged Warbler Vermivora chrysoptera

  • Du: Geelvleugelzanger Ar, Cu, Bo: Chipe ala di oro

  • Range North-eastern USA. Winters from S Mexico to C Colombia and N Venezuela, where uncommon from early Oct to late Mar (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Open deciduous woodland, second growth, bogs.

  • Status Aruba and Curaçao No records. Bonaire Casual visitor. One male, probably 1st year, Trans World Radio Building, 19 Oct 1983 (FCL, colour-slides examined by KHV).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Blue-winged Warbler Vermivora pinus

  • Du: Blauwvleugelzanger Ar, Cu, Bo: Chipe ala blou

  • Range Eastern USA. Winters from SE Mexico to NW Colombia. Only Venezuelan record is from Oct (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Second growth, scrubby fields, bogs.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. One adult, Palm Beach, 15 Nov 1991 (RM). Curaçao and Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Tennessee Warbler Vermivora peregrina

  • Du: Tennesseezanger Ar, Cu, Bo: Chipe tennessee

  • Range Northern North America. In winter from S Mexico to NW South America. Fairly common in Venezuela mid-Sep to mid-Apr (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Coniferous and deciduous woodland, alder and willow thickets.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. One male, Spanish Lagoon, 25 Mar 2003 (Mlodinow 2004). Curaçao Casual visitor Male aboard ship between Curaçao and Venezuela, 17 Nov 1954 (KHV). One specimen 1954 (ZMA). Bonaire Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Four records: Fontein, 15–19 Apr 1977 (FCL); Fontein, 12 Nov 1977 (Dr and Mrs Cavallaro); Lake Goto, 3 Nov 1981 (FCL); on side of road high over lake Goto, 15 May 2006 (S. Williams in Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Northern Parula Parula americana

  • Du: Brilparulazanger Ar, Cu, Bo: Chipe parula

  • Range Eastern North America, from SE Canada south through the USA to E Mexico. Winters in Middle America from E Mexico to Guatemala and from C Florida and the Bahamas south through the Greater Antilles to the N Lesser Antilles. Casual farther south, but less scarce in Aruba, Curaçao and Bonaire. Recorded only 3 times in Venezuela (Hilty 2003) and 5 times in Trinidad and Tobago (Hayes 2003).

  • Habitat Humid deciduous and coniferous woodland, riparian woodland, swamps.

  • Status Aruba Non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Recently apparently more numerous than in the past. One bird, rock formation near Casibari, 11 Dec 1996 (H. Farber); 1 bird, Ayo rock formation, 11 Dec 1997 (H. Farber); 3 birds, Bubali, 23–30 Mar 2003; 4 birds, Spanish Lagoon, 23 Mar 2003; 2 birds, mangroves at Pos Chiquito, 23 Mar 2003 (Mlodinow 2004); 3 birds, Bubali, 27 Mar 2004; 2 birds, Spanish Lagoon, 28 Mar 2004; 1 bird Pos Chiquito, 28 Mar 2004 (SGM and CB), 4 birds, Bubali, 6 birds Spanish Lagoon and 1 at Savaneta, 12–18 Mar 2005 (Mlodinow 2006). Curaçao Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Single birds, Jan 1957 and Mar 1957 (HJK); 31 Oct 1966 (P.A.W.J. de Wilde); near summit of mount Sint Christoffel, 10 and 12 Feb 1979 (J.E. Winkelman and W.J.R. de Wijs); Vrijgezellenbaai, 21 Oct and probably the same bird again on 23 Oct 1994 (BDB); 2-3 birds, Malpais, 1 Apr 2000 (Wells & Childs Wells 2001). Two specimens 1957 (ZMA). Bonaire Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Single birds, Apr 1964; Apr 1978; 23, 24 and 28 Oct 1979; 16 and 19 Oct 1981 (Voous 1983); near Sorobon road, 29 Nov 1989 (FCL); Put Bronswinkel, 24 Feb 1993 (D.W. Finch); 1 adult male, Dos Pos, 23 Mar 2004 (Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

  • Note Number of records remarkably large in comparison to scarcity in Venezuela and in Trinidad and Tobago.

Chestnut-sided Warbler Dendroica pensylvanica

  • Du: Roestflankzanger Ar: Chipe flanco castanõ Cu, Bo: Chipe banda koló kastanõ

  • Range Eastern North America, from S Canada to E USA. Winters in Central America. Approximately 10 records from Venezuela, late Oct to late Apr (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Second growth deciduous forest, brushy thickets.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. Three records: 19 Oct 1971 (EJ); Divi-Divi resort, Jan 1994 (J. Wells); 3 birds, Bubali, 12 Mar 2005 (SGM). Curaçao No records. Bonaire Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Ten or eleven records: Dos Pos, 12 Nov 1977 (FCL, Dr and Mrs Cavallaro); Kralendijk, 21 Nov 1982 (FCL); Pos Mangel, 8 Oct 1983 (FCL, J. van der Linden); along Tolo trail, 1 Oct 1997 (JCL, L. Sail in Ligon 2006); Pos Mangel, 4 Sep 2000 (Ligon 2006); Slagbaai, 25 Mar 2001 (J. and A. Wells); female, Andrea I dive location, 20 Apr 2001 (SS); possibly the same female at the same place, 21 Apr 2001 (JCL); bright adult male, Dos Pos, 24 Apr 2001 (JCL); male, Hato region, 12 Apr 2002 (JCL); female, near Boca di Diabel, 13 Apr 2002 (JCL, all records since 20 Apr 2001 in Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

  • Note Number of records on Bonaire remarkable in comparison to scarcity on other islands and in mainland South America.

Yellow Warbler Dendroica petechia

  • Du: Gele Zanger Ar: Parha di misa, Chibichibi hel Cu, Bo: Para di misa

  • Range From boreal North America south through the USA and Middle America to the coastal regions of N and NW South America and the West Indies. Winters from S USA to NW South America and in the West Indies.

  • Habitat Riparian woodland and thickets, mangroves, towns.

  • Status Common breeding resident. Aruba Three specimens 1892 (AMNH); 1 specimen 1940 (ANSP); 15 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 2 specimens 1930 (RMNH); 11 specimens, 1951 (3), 1952 (7), 1961 (ZMA). Curaçao Seventeen specimens, 1892 (13), 1896 (4) (AMNH); 2 specimens, 1911, 1922 (ANSP); 16 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 3 specimens 1930 (RMNH); 12 specimens, 1884 (2, cotypes of D. rufopileata), 1892 (4), 1895, 1929 (2), sine die (3) (USNM); 29 specimens, 1951 (20), 1952 (6), 1954 (2), 1955 (ZMA). Bonaire One specimen 1892 (AMNH); 14 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 3 specimens 1930 (RMNH); 6 specimens 1969 (USNM); 15 specimens, 1951 (10), 1961 (2), 1980 (3) (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: the endemic D. p. rufopileata, belonging to the subspecies group of D. p. petechia, widely distributed in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico. Migrants from North America, belonging to the subspecies group of D. p. aestiva have never been recorded from the islands.

Blackpoll Warbler Dendroica striata

  • Du: Zwartkopzanger Ar: Chipe pèchi preto Cu, Bo: Chipe pèchi pretu

  • Range Boreal North America. Winters in South America from Colombia, Venezuela and the Guianas primarily E of Andes south as far as NE Peru and Amazonian Brazil. Occurs in Venezuela from late Sep to mid-May, with apparent migratory periods from Sep through Nov and from Apr into May (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Coniferous forest, including stunted forest at northern limit of tree growth. In winter various types of woodland.

  • Status Regular non-breeding visitor in large numbers. Common during autumn migration, occasionally very numerous, recorded between 11 Sep (Curaçao) and 23 Nov (Aruba). Less abundant during spring migration between 23 Mar (1973, Curaçao, R.P.M. Bak, colour-slide examined by KHV) and 16 May (1974, Bonaire, FCL). Aruba Moulting bird, Bubali, 27 Mar 2004, may have wintered on the island (SGM and CB). One specimen 1954 (ZMA). Curaçao A small number of birds outside normal time range, Malpais, 8 Jan 1956 (HJK). Twenty specimens, 1951 (14), 1954, 1955, 1956, 1966, 1977, 2003 (ZMA). Bonaire Four specimens, 1959, 1968, 1977, 1979 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Bay-breasted Warbler Dendroica castanea

  • Du: Kastanjezanger Ar: Chipe barica castaño Cu, Bo: Chipe barika kastaño

  • Range Boreal Canada, E of Rockies, and NE USA. Winters from Costa Rica south to Colombia and NW Venezuela, including some off-lying islands. Fairly common in Venezuela from late Oct into late Apr (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Open coniferous and mixed forest, swampy areas.

  • Status Not easy to separate from the far more numerous Dendroica striata, which perhaps explains the surprisingly few records. Sight records have been considered acceptable only when the bay-coloured sides were observed. Aruba Casual visitor. One bird in thorn scrub near the mouth of Spanish Lagoon, 2 Nov 2007 (Mlodinow in press). Curaçao Casual visitor. One bird, 28 Oct 1951 (KHV); 1 bird, Suffisant, 14 Oct 1962 (HJK). Bonaire Casual visitor. Unconfirmed record Oct 1959 (J. Rooth); 1 male, between airport and Punt Vierkant, 14 Apr 1978 (FCL, B. Lüsse); 1 bird, same locality, 31 Oct 1981 (FCL, B. Lüsse). Two specimens, 1978, 1981 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Blackburnian Warbler Dendroica fusca

  • Du: Sparrenzanger Ar, Cu, Bo: Chipe Blackburn

  • Range SE Canada and NE USA. Winters from Panama to NW South America, from Colombia and Venezuela south in the Andes to C Peru and NW Bolivia. Common in N Venezuela from mid-Aug to late Apr (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Mature coniferous, mixed coniferous-deciduous forest and second growth.

  • Status Surprisingly rare. Aruba Casual visitor. One bird, 21 Nov 1971 (A.D. Heineman). Curaçao Casual visitor. One bird, Malpais, 4 Sep 1955 (HJK). One specimen 1955 (ZMA). Bonaire Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Eight records: Kralendijk, 30 Apr 1958 (Brother Odulfinus); 22 Apr 1975 (FCL); Kralendijk, 3 Nov 1979 (FCL, colour-slides examined by KHV); 15 Oct 1981 (FCL); Pos Mangel, 14 Oct 1983 (FCL); Pos Mangel, 2 May 1991 (GJR); male, Dos Pos, 23 Dec 2000 (JCL, D. Wille); immature male, Dos Pos, 26 May 2001 (Ligon 2006). One specimen 1958 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Magnolia Warbler Dendroica magnolia

  • Du: Magnoliazanger Ar, Cu, Bo: Chipe magnolia

  • Range Southern Canada and NE USA. Winters predominantly in Mexico and Central America south to Panama and in the Greater Antilles. There is only one Venezuelan record (Hilty 2003) and two records from Trinidad and Tobago (Kenefick et al. 2007).

  • Habitat Coniferous and mixed forest, forest edge, second growth. In winter various types of woodland, also tall weeds.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. One moulting bird, Spanish Lagoon, 28 Mar 2004 (SGM and CB) and one immature at Bubali, 27 Oct 2007 (SGM and CB). Curaçao Casual visitor. One bird, Christoffel National Park, 21 Nov 2003 (J.V. Wells and G. Phillips). Bonaire Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. One immature bird, Put Bronswinkel, 27 Feb 1993 (D.W. Finch, colour-photographs examined by KHV); female, Put Bronswinkel, 27 Feb 2001 (D. and E. Compton); male, Dos Pos, 12 Mar 2004 and probably the same bird in the same site, 23 Mar 2004 (JCL); 1 bird in winter plumage, Dos Pos, 28 Dec 2004 (JCL, T. Hunefeld, all records since 2000 in Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Cerulean Warbler Dendroica cerulea

  • Du: Azuurzanger Ar: Chipe blou garganta blanco Cu, Bo: Chipe blou garganta blanku

  • Range Eastern USA, where rapidly declining in numbers. Winters in South America from Colombia and NW Venezuela south along the eastern slope of the Andes to S Peru and N Bolivia. Uncommon to fairly common in Venezuela from early Oct to mid-Mar (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Mature deciduous forest.

  • Status Aruba and Curaçao No records. Bonaire Casual visitor. One female or immature bird found dead, Oct 1975 (FCL); 1 bird, Slagbaai plantation, 28 Oct 1979 (FCL, KHV); male in summer plumage, Kralendijk, 4 Apr 1987 (FCL). One specimen 1975 (ZMA)

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Cape May Warbler Dendroica tigrina

  • Du: Tijgerzanger Ar: Chipe Cabo May Cu, Bo: Chipe Kabo May

  • Range Central and SE Canada and NE USA. Winters in Florida, the West Indies and casually in N Colombia, N Venezuela and some off-lying islands.

  • Habitat Spruce forest and mixed forest, forest edge, woodland.

  • Status Birds in autumn plumage are hard to identify, hence there are almost exclusively spring records. Aruba Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Seven records: adult male, Frenchman's Pass, 2 Apr 1961 (A.Q. Pollock, C.T. Bennett); Rooi Lamoenchi, Jamanota, 26 Jan 1979 (J.E. Winkelman, W.J.R. de Wijs); Bubali, 24 Mar 2003 (SGM); 2 at Bubali, 12 Mar 2005; 2 at Savaneta, 13 Mar 2005; 4 at Spanish Lagoon, 13–18 Mar 2005; 2 at Eagle Beach, 14 Mar 2005 (Mlodinow 2006). Curaçao Casual visitor. One immature male, Piscadera Bay, 18 Apr 1964 (M.H. Hundley and others). Bonaire Casual visitor. Three records: Lima-Sorobon road, 27 Apr 1976 (FCL); Ceru Largu, 8 Jan 1977 (FCL); Ceru Largu, 28 Apr 1977 (FCL).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Black-throated Blue Warbler Dendroica caerulescens

  • Du: Blauwe Zwartkeelzanger Ar: Chipe blou garganta preto Cu, Bo: Chipe blou garganta pretu

  • Range South-eastern Canada and NE USA. Winters in the Bahamas and Greater Antilles. Only 3 records from Venezuela (Hilty 2003) and 2 from Trinidad and Tobago (Kenefick et al. 2007).

  • Habitat Deciduous and mixed forest, second growth.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. Three records: Ceroe Colorado, Sep 1973 (R. Stanley); male, Spanish Lagoon, 28 Mar and 2 Apr 2004 (SGM and CB); female, Spanish Lagoon, 15 Mar 2005 (Mlodinow 2006). Curaçao No records. Bonaire Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Male, Fontein, 13–21 Nov 1975 (FCL and others); male, Kralendijk, 25 Oct 1977 (FCL); male found dead, Nikiboko, 26 Oct 1977 (FCL); female, Dos Pos, 10 Apr 2001 (Ligon 2006); 2 females, Dos Pos, 24 Apr 2001 (Ligon 2006). One specimen 1977 (ZMA)

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar: ssp unidentified. Bo: D. c. caerulescens from N North America.

Yellow-rumped Warbler Dendroica coronata

  • Du: Geelstuitzanger Ar: Chipe corona di oro Cu, Bo: Chipe korona di oro

  • Range Boreal Canada, W and E USA and NC Mexico. Winters in much of USA, Middle America and the West Indies. One record of D. c. coronata and two records of D. c. auduboni from Venezuela, the auduboni records are the only ones from South America (Hilty 2003). Two records, subspecies not given, from Trinidad and Tobago (Kenefick et al. 2007).

  • Habitat Coniferous and mixed forest, woodland.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. Male, Bubali, 31 Mar 2001 (E. van Campen); male and female, Bubali, 20 Apr 2001 (E. van Campen, photos examined). Curaçao Casual visitor. One bird, Hato, Jan 1954 (HJK); 1 bird, Muizenberg, 17 Dec 1956 (HJK). One specimen 1956 (ZMA). Bonaire Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Five records: Dos Pos, Dec 1957 (LaBastille Bowes 1958); near Lake Goto, 4 Apr 1977, (FCL, Dr and Mrs Cavallaro); road to Sorobon, 29 Nov 1989 (FCL); Dos Pos, 16 Apr 1992 (GJR, colour-slide examined); male, Dos Pos, 24 Apr 2001 (Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Bo: ssp unidentified. Cu: D. c. coronata from C and E Canada.

Black-throated Green Warbler Dendroica virens

  • Du: Gele Zwartkeelzanger Ar, Cu, Bo: Chipe lomba bèrdè

  • Range Central and SE Canada and E USA. Winters in S Florida, the West Indies and Middle America. More than 20 records from Venezuela, mostly early Nov to late Feb (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Open coniferous and mixed forest, second growth, swamps.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. Two records: Ceroe Colorado, Oct 1976 (R. Stanley); male, Rooi Lamoenchi, Jamanota, 26 Jan 1979 (J.E. Winkelman, W.J.R. de Wijs). Curaçao Casual visitor. One bird, Klein Hofje, 21 Nov 1992 (BDB, A. Spaans). Bonaire Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. One male, 4 May 1962 (M. Hundley and members of Florida Audubon Society); 1 male, Lima, 27 Apr 1976 (FCL, colour-slides examined by KHV); 1 male, Kralendijk, 3 May 1976 (FCL); 1 bird, Pos Mangel, Apr 1999 (Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Prairie Warbler Dendroica Hscolor

  • Du: Prairiezanger Ar, Cu, Bo: Chipe pradera

  • Range Eastern USA. Winters in Florida, the West Indies and islands off the coast of SE Mexico. Unrecorded in Venezuela (Hilty 2003) and only one record from Trinidad and Tobago (Kenefick et al. 2007).

  • Habitat Second growth, scrub and mangroves.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. One bird, Lago Colony (Ceroe Colorado), 20 Nov 1955 (H.C. Miller); seen at Ceroe Colorado every year, mostly in Oct, from 1972 till 1978 (Mr and Mrs Stanley in Voous, 1983). Curaçao Casual visitor. One bird, Rooi Sanchie (Knip), 11 Apr 1979 (J.E. Winkelman). Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu: ssp unidentified.

Palm Warbler Dendroica palmarum

  • Du: Palmzanger Ar, Cu, Bo: Chipe di palma

  • Range Central and E Canada and NE USA. Winters along the Atlantic and Gulf coast of the S USA and Middle America south to Honduras and in the Greater Antilles. Only one record from Venezuela (D. p. palmarum) and none from Trinidad and Tobago (Hilty 2003, Kenefick et al. 2007).

  • Habitat Bogs, undergrowth near water and open areas with scattered trees.

  • Status Casual visitor. Aruba One bird, Ceroe Colorado, 4 Nov 1956 (H.C Miller); 1 bird, Bubali, 7 Dec 1997 (H. Farber). Curaçao One bird (possibly male), Muizenberg, 23 Feb 1957 (FHA, HJK); 1 female, Muizenberg, 9 Mar 1957 (FHA, HJK). Two specimens 1957 (ZMA). Bonaire One bird, Dos Pos, 29 Mar 2003 (JCL, L. Sweating, C. Hummer); 1 bird, Hato region, 30 Apr 2004 (both records in Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: the western ssp D. p. palmarum. H. Farber indicated that the bird he observed on Aruba showed the characters of the eastern ssp D. p. hypochrysea.

Black-and-white Warbler Mniotilta varia

  • Du: Bonte Zanger Ar: Chipe trepador Cu, Bo: Chipe kabes abou

  • Range Boreal Canada and E USA, E of Rockies. Winters along the Gulf coast, south through Middle America to NW South America; also in the West Indies. Uncommon to fairly common in N Venezuela early Sep to early Apr (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Deciduous and coniferous forest, woodland.

  • Status Non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Mostly recorded Sep-Mar. Aruba Three records in Voous (1983); immature male at Savaneta, 30 Mar 2004; 1 bird at Bubali, 1 at Savaneta, and 4 at Spanish Lagoon, 12–18 Mar 2005 (SGM and CB). Curaçao Nine records in Voous (1983); 1 bird, Christoffel National Park, 21 Apr 1992 (GJR). Three specimens, 1955 (2), 1957 (ZMA). Bonaire Fourteen records in Voous (1983), including 1 in summer, 20 Jun 1975 (FCL); 1 bird, Put Bronswinkel, 10 Feb 1990 (FCL).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

American Redstart Setophaga ruticilla

  • Du: Amerikaanse Roodstaart Ar: Rabo còrá americana Cu, Bo: Rabu kòrá

  • Range Boreal Canada and N and E USA. Winters in C Florida, the West Indies and south through Middle America to NW South America, from Colombia, Venezuela and the Guianas to the Pacific coast of Peru and NW Brazil.

    Fairly common in Venezuela, mostly from late Aug to early May (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Open deciduous and mixed woodland, riparian woodland, second growth.

  • Status Non-breeding visitor. The most common North American warbler in winter. Recorded from 8 Aug (Curaçao) until 16 May (Aruba), most numerous in Sept and Oct. Aruba One specimen 1972 (ZMA). Curaçao Fourteen specimens, 1951 (8), 1952 (3), 1954 (3) (ZMA). Bonaire One specimen 1951 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Prothonotary Warbler Protonotaria citrea

  • Du: Citroenzanger Ar, Cu, Bo: Chipe protonotario

  • Range Eastern USA. Winters from S Mexico south through Central America to coastal districts of NW South America, from Ecuador to Surinam, including off-lying islands; also in the Greater Antilles. Fairly common to common, late Sep to early Mar, in N Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Swampy woodland and forest, flooded riverine forest.

  • Status Non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Predominantly seen in autumn and winter. Twelve records for Aruba, 6 for Curaçao and over 20 for Bonaire. Observed between 22 Aug (Curaçao) and 31 May (Bonaire) (Voous 1983). Aruba One specimen 1977 (ZMA). Curaçao Three specimens, 1955 (2), 1957 (ZMA). Bonaire Record of individual staying more than 3 months near Put Bronswinkel, 10 Feb-31 May 1975 (FCL, A.L. Spaans).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Worm-eating Warbler Helmitheros vermivorum

  • Du: Streepkopzanger Ar: Chipe comedor di bichi Cu, Bo: Chipe komedó di bichi

  • Range Eastern USA. Winters in Middle America from S Mexico to C Panama and in Bermuda, the Bahamas, Greater Antilles and Cayman Islands. Two records from Venezuela (Hilty 2003) and none from Trinidad and Tobago (Kenefick et al. 2007).

  • Habitat Wooded hillsides and damp bushy ravines with dense undergrowth.

  • Status Aruba and Curaçao No records. Bonaire Casual visitor. One adult bird, in garden near Punt Vierkant, 23 Oct 1979 (FCL), 1 adult bird, Hofje Fontein, 2 Nov 1989 (FCL).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Ovenbird Seiurus aurocapilla

  • Du: Ovenvogel Ar: Chipe di fòrno Cu, Bo: Chipe di fòrnu

  • Range Boreal Canada and USA, E of Rockies. Winters in Florida, the West Indies, and in Middle America south to Panama. Fewer than ten records for Venezuela (Hilty 2003) and only 3 from Trinidad and Tobago (Kenefick et al. 2007).

  • Habitat Mature deciduous and mixed forest with dense undergrowth.

  • Status Non-breeding visitor, recorded between 30 Sep (Bonaire) and 23 May (Curaçao). Aruba Irregular nonbreeding visitor in small numbers. Three records in Voous (1983); 1 bird in garden at Catiri, Oranjestad, 17–25 Oct 1986 (R. Lemminga, colour-slides examined by KHV); Bubali, 23 Mar 2003 (Mlodinow 2004); Bubali, 27 Mar 2004 (SGM and CB); Bubali, 12 Mar 2005; Spanish Lagoon, 13 Mar 2005; Spanish Lagoon, 15 Mar 2005 (Mlodinow 2006). One specimen 1973 (ZMA). Curaçao Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Eight records in Voous (1983); Christoffel National Park, 20 and 23 May 1991 (GJR, colour-slide examined by KHV); Malpais, 1 Apr 2001 (Wells & Childs Wells 2001). Three specimens, 1955 (2), 1958 (ZMA). Bonaire Non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Fourteen records in Voous (1983); 1 bird, Dos Pos, 22 Oct 2002 (Ligon 2006). Two specimens, 1977, 1979 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: mainly S. a. aurocapilla from E North America, but one Curaçao specimen shows the characters of the western ssp cinereus.

  • Note Considering the status in nearby Venezuela, surprisingly regular non-breeding visitor, albeit in small numbers.

Northern Waterthrush Seiurus noveboracensis

  • Du: Noordse Waterlijster Ar, Cu, Bo: Chipe di suela nortenõ

  • Range Boreal North America. Winters in S Florida, the West Indies and from Middle America south to Ecuador and east to the Guianas, including off-lying islands.

  • Habitat Thickets and woodland near water, swamps, bogs.

  • Status Regular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Recorded between 31 Aug and 18 May. More common during wet winters. Occasionally observed as non-breeding summer visitor (Voous 1983). Curaçao Fifteen specimens, 1951 (10), 1952 (3), 1952 (2) (ZMA). Bonaire One specimen 1975 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Louisiana Waterthrush Seiurus motacilla

  • Du: Louisianawaterlijster Ar, Cu, Bo: Chipe di suela sureño

  • Range Eastern USA, excluding S coastal regions. Winters in the West Indies and from Middle America south to N Colombia, with at least 6 records from NW Venezuela. Unrecorded in Trinidad and Tobago (Kenefick et al 2007).

  • Habitat Forest and woodland with running streams and swamps.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. Sight record of one bird, Ceroe Colorado, 7 Oct 1956 (H.C Miller); 1 bird, Bubali, 29 Mar 2004 (SGM and CB); 1 bird, Bubali, 12 Mar 2005 (Mlodinow 2006). Curaçao Casual visitor. One bird, Willemstad, 8 Feb 1970 (Schore 1970); 1 bird, Klein Hofje, 29 Dec 1991 (RM). Bonaire Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. One bird found dead, Kralendijk, 3 Oct 1975 (FCL); 4 sight records: Dos Pos, 4 Oct 1976 (FCL); Fontein, 28 Dec 1976 (FCL); 3 Nov 1979 (FCL); 1 Mar 2000 (B. Rosensteil). One specimen 1975 (ZMA) Taxonomy Monotypic.

Kentucky Warbler Oporornis formosus

  • Du: Kentuckyzanger Ar, Cu, Bo: Chipe di Kentucky

  • Range Eastern USA, excluding S coastal regions. Winters in Middle America from S Mexico to Panama. Rare SE to NW Venezuela (Hilty 2003) and unrecorded in Trinidad and Tobago (Kenefick et al. 2007).

  • Habitat Humid deciduous forest with dense undergrowth, swamp edges and shady ravines.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. One bird, Paraguaná, 8–25 Sep 1977 (J.H. van den Koppel). Curaçao Casual visitor. One male, Wechi, 10 Oct 1984 (BDB). Bonaire Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Seven records: Fontein, 6-10 Oct 1974 (FCL, A.A. van den Boogaard); Fontein, 16-22 Oct 1976 (FCL); Fontein, 13 Oct 1977 (FCL, M.-L. Goodwin); Kralendijk, 28 Oct 1978 (FCL, B. Lüsse); Kralendijk, 20 and 24 Oct 1981(FCL); Put Bronswinkel, 9 Oct 1983 (FCL, B. Lüsse).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Connecticut Warbler Oporornis agilis

  • Du: Connecticutzanger Ar, Cu, Bo: Chipe di Connecticut

  • Range Southern C Canada and NC USA. Winters in South America, mostly E of Andes, but range poorly known (AOU 1998). In Venezuela, rare to uncommon migrant mostly from late Sep through late Oct and from late Apr to early May (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Spruce and tamarack bogs, open poplar woodland during breeding season. Dense broadleaf woodlands with heavy understory during migration and winter.

  • Status Aruba Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Four records: Ceroe Colorado, Oct 1957 (H.C. Miller); same locality, Oct 1958 (H.C. Miller); 16 Oct 1960 (J. Hilbrands); Voous (1983) mentions 1 other unspecified record. Curaçao Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Eight records: Klein Curaçao, 15 Oct 1950 (FHA); male, Julianadorp, 15 Oct 1951 (Mrs de Jong); male, Malpais, 9 Oct 1954 and female, same place, 10 Oct 1954 (HJK); male, Malpais, 9 Oct 1954 (FHA); CARMABI, Piscadera Bay, 11 Oct 1979 (BDB); Wechi, 15 Oct 1984 (BDB); Malpais, 13 Nov 1998 (BDB). Five specimens, 1950 (Klein Curaçao), 1951, 1954 (3) (ZMA). Bonaire Non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Voous (1983) mentions 18 records; since then 5 more: Kralendijk, 13 Oct 1983 (FCL); Put Bronswinkel, 15 Oct 1984 (FCL); Kralendijk, 13 Oct 1984 (FCL); in garden near Punt Vierkant, 2 Oct 1985 (FCL); 1 Oct 1997 (JCL, L. Sall in Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Mourning Warbler Oporornis philadelphia

  • Du: Grijskopzanger Ar, Cu, Bo: Chipe di luto

  • Range Boreal Canada, E of Rockies, and NE USA. Winters in Central America from S Nicaragua south to extreme NW South America. Locally fairly common in NW Venezuela from mid-Oct to at least mid-Mar (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Open woodland with dense undergrowth, often near marshes or bogs.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. Two unconfirmed records: Gran Tonel, 24 Oct 1974 (CJH); Brazil, 30 Oct-4 Nov 1978 (AK). Curaçao Casual visitor. One bird, Parera, 1 Nov 1951 (KHV); 1 bird, Wechi, 25 Nov 1984 (BDB). Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Common Yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas

  • Du: Gewone Maskerzanger Ar: Mascarita comun Cu, Bo: Maskarita komun

  • Range Boreal Canada and almost all over the USA. Winters throughout the southern part of the breeding range, Middle America, extreme NW South America and in the Bahamas and Greater Antilles. Recorded but once in Venezuela (Hilty 2003) and three times in Trinidad and Tobago (Kenefick et al. 2007).

  • Habitat Marshes, thickets near water, reed-beds, brushy pastures, old fields.

  • Status Surprising number of records in Aruba given scarcity in Venezuela, Curaçao, Bonaire, Trinidad and Tobago.

  • Aruba Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Nine records: male, Bubali, 26 Jan 1979 (EJ); 2 birds, Bubali, 7 Dec 1997 (H. Farber); male, Bubali, 6 Dec 2001 (H. Farber); 5 birds (among them 2 adult males), Bubali, 27 Mar 2004 (SGM and CB, video tape of male and female examined); 10 birds at Bubali, 1 at Bucuti Beach Resort, 1 at Spanish Lagoon and 1 at Tierra del Sol golfcourse, 12–18 Mar 2005 (Mlodinow 2006).

  • Curaçao Casual visitor. One male, Wechi, 18 Nov and 2 Dec 1984 (BDB, drawing examined by KHV). Bonaire Casual visitor. One male, Airport, 11 Jun 1995 (FCL). One specimen 1995 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: ssp unidentified. According to Voous (1983) the 1979 Aruban record may have belonged to the nominate G. t. trichas from E North America.

Hooded Warbler Wilsonia citrina

  • Du: Monnikszanger Ar: Chipe velo preto Cu, Bo: Chipe belo pretu

  • Range From SE Canada south through E USA. Winters on the Gulf-Caribbean slope of Middle America and in the Bahamas and Greater Antilles. Five records from Venezuela (Hilty 2003) and 2 from Trinidad (Kenefick et al 2007).

  • Habitat Mature and second growth deciduous forest with dense understory, especially along streams and ravines. Status Surprising number of records given scarcity in Venezuela and Trinidad and Tobago. Aruba Irregular nonbreeding visitor in small numbers. One bird, Bubali, 22 Apr 1977 (J.H. van den Koppel); 1 bird, Ceroe Colorado, Nov 1978 (R. Stanley); 1 female, Spanish Lagoon, 23 Mar 2003 (SGM); 1 male, Bubali, 24 and 30 Mar 2003 (SGM); 1 female, Spanish Lagoon, 28 Mar 2004 (SGM and CB); 1 bird Spanish Lagoon, 18 Mar 2005 (SGM). Curaçao No records. Bonaire Non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Voous (1983) mentions 13 records, including two cases of wintering (Put Bronswinkel, 23 Nov 1974-4 Apr 1975 and Fontein, 1 Nov 1976-11 Apr 1977); additional records (Ligon 2006): Dos Pos, 1 Mar 1997 (JCL); Dos Pos, 1 and 4 Apr 2001 (E. Mueller); male, Dos Pos, 3 Mar 2002 (JCL, C. Powell); same locality (perhaps same bird), 5 Mar 2002 (D. Canterbury and members of American Birding Association tour); male and female, Dos Pos, 11 Mar 2002 (JCL, C. Glendinning); male, Dos Pos, 4 Apr 2002 (JCL, D. Walter); male, Dos Pos, 13 Apr 2002 (JCL); Fontein, 28 Oct 2003 (JCL); male, near Dos Pos, 28 Dec 2004 (JCL, T. Hunefeld).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Canada Warbler Wilsonia canadensis

  • Du: Canadese Zanger Ar, Cu, Bo: Chipe canades

  • Range South-east Canada and NE USA. Winters in NW South America, from Venezuela to S Peru. Locally fairly common in Venezuela, mostly from late Oct to early Mar (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Deciduous and mixed forest with dense undergrowth and tall brush, especially near bogs and streams.

  • Status Aruba and Curaçao No records. Bonaire Casual visitor. Immature male found dead in garden at west coast, 23 Sep 1991 (Prins & Debrot 1996). One specimen 1991 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

ICTERIDAE

Troupial Icterus icterus

  • Du: Oranje Troepiaal Ar, Cu, Bo: Trupial, Trupial sabí

  • Range South America, from NE Colombia east to SW Guyana, including most of Venezuela and some off-lying islands, south through Brazil to SE Peru, Bolivia (E of Andes) and N Argentina.

  • Habitat Arid woodland, mangroves, gallery forest, open savannas, dry scrub, gardens, plantations.

  • Status Aruba Common breeding resident. Two specimens 1892 (AMNH); 2 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 3 specimens, 1930 (2), 1936 (RMNH); 1 specimen 1929 (USNM); 4 specimens, 1951 (2), 1952, 1961 (ZMA). Curaçao Common breeding resident. Two specimens 1930 (RMNH); 1 specimen sine die (USNM); 21 specimens, 1948, 1951 (12), 1952 (3), 1954 (2), 1977, 1995, 1997 (ZMA). Bonaire Rather common breeding resident. In 1973, 6 birds were introduced from Curaçao, in 1975 12 birds (FCL in Voous 1983). First breeding recorded Mar 1974. Numbers have increased since then and the species is now found all over the island. Three specimens, 1979, 1983, 1984 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: ssp I. i. ridgwayi, also occurring in N Colombia and NW Venezuela.

Orchard Oriole Icterus spurius

  • Du: Tuintroepiaal Ar, Cu, Bo: Trupial shouru

  • Range South C Canada, E USA and C Mexico. Winters from Middle America south to Colombia and NW Venezuela, where it occurs from Sep to Mar (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Open woodland, second growth, scrub, orchards.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. One female, Boka Santa Marta, 16 Jan 1995 (K. Job, drawings examined by KHV). Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu: ssp not known, but most likely the North American I. s. spurius.

Baltimore Oriole Icterus galbula

  • Du: Baltimoretroepiaal Ar, Cu, Bo: Trupial di Baltimore

  • Range Southern Canada, E of Rockies, and E USA. Winters in SE USA and from C Mexico south through Central America to NW Colombia and N Venezuela, where rare to uncommon, mainly early Jan to early Mar (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Open woodland, forest edge, plantations, agricultural areas, suburban areas with large trees.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. For an unspecified number of years appearing at Ceroe Colorado in Sep (R. Stanley in Voous 1983); single bird, 25 Nov 1971 (A.D. Heineman). Curaçao No records. Bonaire Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. One bird, 4 May 1962 (M.H. Hundley and members of Florida Audubon Society, FCL, colour-slides examined by KHV); male, Kralendijk, 21 Oct 1978 (FCL); male, Kralendijk, 31 Mar–21 Apri 1985 (FCL); first-year female, Hato, 16 Oct 2001; 1 bird, near Divi Flamingo dive centre, 28 Oct 2003 (Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Yellow Oriole Icterus nigrogularis

  • Du: Gele Troepiaal Ar: Gonzalito Cu, Bo: Trupial kachó

  • Range North-eastern South America from N Colombia east to the Amazon river delta in N Brazil, also Aruba, Curaçao, Bonaire, Margarita Island and Trinidad.

  • Habitat Deciduous woodland, scrub, arid thorn, mangroves, towns, gardens.

  • Status Aruba Scarce breeding resident. One specimen 1892 (AMNH); 8 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 1 specimen 1929 (USNM); 4 specimens, 1951 (3), 1961 (ZMA). Curaçao Common breeding resident. Five specimens 1892 (AMNH); 7 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 3 specimens, 1884 (type of I. n. curasoensis), 1917, sine die (USNM); 13 specimens, 1951 (7), 1952, 1954 (2), 1955 (2), 1995 (ZMA). Bonaire Rather common breeding resident, less common than Icterus icterus. Two specimens 1908 (FMNH); 1 specimen 1929 (USNM); 4 specimens, 1951 (2), 1980, 1988 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: the endemic I. n. curasoensis. According to Voous (1957) birds from Aruba resemble the nominate nigrogularis from continental South America in shape of bill, according to Beylevelt (1995) in intensity of the yellow tinge of the underparts.

Oriole-Blackbird Gymnomystax mexicanus

  • Du: Wielewaaltroepiaal Ar, Cu, Bo: Zenata mexicano

  • Range Northern South America from NE Colombia east through N Venezuela and the coastal Guianas, south through Amazonian Brazil to E Ecuador and NE Peru. Common in N Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Open areas with scattered trees, gallery woodland, grassland, savannas, marshes, islands in rivers.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. Single bird, Bubali, 27 and 29 May 1990 (GJR). Curaçao and Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Yellow-hooded Blackbird Chrysomus icterocephalus

  • Du: Geelkaptroepiaal Ar: Trupial preto kabez hel Cu, Bo: Trupial pretu kabes hel

  • Range Northern South America, from NW Colombia east through Venezuela and the Guianas to the mouth of the Amazon, south through Amazonian Brazil to SE Colombia and NE Peru. Fairly common in N Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Marshes, wet grassland and semi-open grassy areas.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. Single record at Malpais, 14 Aug 1971 (erroneously given as 15 Aug 1972 in Voous 1983) (RVH with R.P.M. Bak, W. Bokma and J. Smith). Bonaire Casual visitor. One male, Tera Cora, 18 Jan 1977 (FCL, R. Mercera); 1 male, Kralendijk, 9 Mar 1979 (Mr and Mrs A. Patunoff).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu and Bo: C. i. icterocephalus from N South America. Syn. Agelaius icterocephalus.

Shiny Cowbird Molothrus bonariensis

  • Du: Glanskoevogel Ar: Parha vakero lustroso Cu, Bo: Para vakero lustroso

  • Range From E Panama south through most of South America (excepting heavily forested regions) to C Chile and C Argentina; also most of the West Indies and Florida.

  • Habitat Grassland, pastures, open forest and clearings, farmland, arid lowland scrub.

  • Status Aruba Rather scarce recently established breeding resident, increasing in numbers. Three birds, Bubali, 21 Aug 1997 (TDK, colour-slides examined ); 1 bird, Bubali, Aug 1997 (T. White); 6 females and 3 males, Savaneta, 25 Aug 1998 (DFM, TDK); 70 birds seen roosting near Bucuti Beach Hotel, 29 Mar 2003 (SGM); up to 300 birds roosting there in late Oct 2007 (SGM); 15 birds at Bubali, 3–16 Aug 2003 (DFM). Curaçao Rather common recently established breeding resident. First record prior to 1985 (Brother Yvo Nijsten, colour-slides examined). Between 8 March and 12 May 1991 flocks of 8 to 22 adults and juveniles were observed at Soto, Girouette and Jan Sofat, localities separated by about 18 km. Present in Christoffel National Park in 2005 (AOD). It is unknown whether the species arrived by natural colonization or was introduced by aviculturalists (Debrot & Prins 1992). Twenty five specimens, 1991 (13), 1993, 1994 (5), 1996 (5), 1997 (ZMA). Bonaire Casual visitor. First record male and female, Kralendijk, 10 Aug 1983; 1 juvenile fed by Icterus nigrogularis, Kralendijk, end of 1983 (both records Brother Yvo Nijsten, colour-slides examined by KHV). No recent records (JCL in litt).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu: most likely M. b. venezuelensis from N Venezuela (Debrot & Prins 1992).

Carib Grackle Quiscalus lugubris

  • Du: Caribische Troepiaal Ar: Zenata caribeña Cu, Bo: Zenata karibeño

  • Range Lesser Antilles and N South America from E Colombia and N Venezuela along the coast, including off-lying islands and Trinidad, to the Amazon delta in Brazil. Expanding its range.

  • Habitat Open woodland, farmland, urban areas.

  • Status Aruba Rather common introduced breeding resident. Twelve birds imported from Maracay, Venezuela were released in 1981 by Mr E. Guardiola (Reuter 1999). Curaçao Rather scarce breeding resident. Five birds, Klein Hofje, 7 Sep 1991 (RM); 2 males and 1 female, Dokweg, 3 May 1997 (DMCP); 1 bird, Holiday Beach Hotel, 4 May 1997 (DMCP); 4 birds, Dok, 11 May 1997 (BDB); 1 bird mangrove Schottegat-east, 1 Dec 2001 (LS); breeding colony, Rif, Otrobanda, 2003–2005, Jan Sofat, 2006 (AOD); some were present in Willemstad, 3–12 May 2005 (LS). Bonaire Rather scarce breeding resident. Formerly a rare visitor (Voous 1983), but currently recorded throughout the southern part of the island. Early records: female, Salt Company, 7 Mar 1980 (FCL and others); male, near petrol station in Kralendijk, 23–24 Jun 1984 (FCL); male, Simon Bolivar, 18 Mar 1985 (FCL); male, Simon Bolivar, 13 May 1985 (FCL). Observed nesting in 1998 (SS in Ligon 2006); nesting near Blue Ribbon Rice Company, Kralendijk, Mar 2001 (Ligon 2006); at least 8 active nests near Rice Company, 29 Dec 2001 (JCL, J. and A. Watson, D. Preker in Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar: Q. I. lugubris from N Venezuela. Cu and Bo: unidentified, but most likely Q. I. lugubris.

Great-tailed Grackle Quiscalus mexicanus

  • Du: Langstaarttroepiaal Ar: Zenata rabo largo Cu, Bo: Zenata rabu largu

  • Range SW USA, Middle America and along the coast of NW South America, east to NW corner of Venezuela and south to N Peru.

  • Habitat Grassland, pastures, farmland, thickets, marshes, mangroves and towns.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. One bird, Bubali, 27 May 1990 (GJR); 1 male, Nov 1991 (RM, colour-slides examined by KHV). Curaçao Scarce breeding resident. Two adults and 5 juveniles, Zeelandia and Groot Davelaar, 23 Jul 1991 (RM); 5 birds, near the docks, 18 Apr 1992 (GJR); 1 male, near the docks, 3 and 5 May 1992 (GJR, colour-slides examined by KHV); 4 birds (probably 3 males and 1 female), near Dok, 4 May 1997 (BDB); 1 bird, near the docks, 31 Oct 1998 (BDB). 2–5 birds (all in female plumage), Schottegat, 23 Nov 2003 (J.V. Wells, G. Phillips); several females with nesting material in 2003 (AOD). Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu: ssp unidentified, but most likely Q. m. peruvianus from nearby areas in South America.

Greater Antillean Grackle Quiscalus niger

  • Du: Antilliaanse Troepiaal Ar, Cu, Bo: Zenata antiano

  • Range Greater Antilles.

  • Habitat Farmland, pastures, open scrub, mangroves, towns.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. One bird, Savaneta, 18–19 Sep 1999, appeared after the passing of a hurricane and was seen regularly among a group of Carib Grackles and Shiny Cowbirds flying around at Savaneta and Bubali at least until late December 2002 (TDK, DFM in litt). Curaçao and Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar: ssp unidentified.

Red-breasted Blackbird Sturnella militaris

  • Du: Zwartkopsoldatenspreeuw Ar: Chuchubi pecho còrá Cu, Bo: Chuchubi pechu kòrá

  • Range From SW Costa Rica to N South America, including some off-laying islands. Locally common in Venezuela.

  • Habitat Grassland, pastures, cultivated areas.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. One bird, Tierra del Sol, 28 Mar 2003 (Mlodinow 2004, photo examined by A. Jaramillo, TG. Prins, J.H. Reuter and C.S. Roselaar). Curaçao and Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Eastern Meadowlark Sturnella magna

  • Du: Witkaakweidespreeuw Ar: Chuchubi dashi preto Cu, Bo: Chuchubi dashi pretu

  • Range South-eastern Canada, E USA, most of Middle America and N South America from E Colombia east to the mouth of the Amazon and south to Amazonian Brazil. In the West Indies only in Cuba. The most northern populations migrate southwards in winter. Fairly common in Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Open grassland, pastures, farmland.

  • Status Aruba and Curaçao No records. Bonaire Casual visitor. One adult, Playa Pabau, Kralendijk, 2 Nov 1977 (Dr and Mrs Cavallaro).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Bo: ssp unidentified, but most likely S. m. meridionalis or S. m. paralios from N South America.

Bobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus

  • Du: Bobolink Ar: Parha di aňa Cu, Bo: Para di aña

  • Range Southern Canada and N USA. Winters in C South America from E Bolivia to N Argentina. Fairly common migrant from late Sep to early Nov and from early Apr to early May in Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Tall grass, flooded meadows, prairie, farmland, alfalfa and clover fields.

  • Status Regular non-breeding visitor, much more numerous in some years than in others. Notable decline in numbers in the last decade (AOD). Observed in flocks of up to more than 50 birds mainly from mid-Sep to mid-Nov and in spring between 25 Feb and 14 May (Voous 1983). Aruba One summer record, female, Bubali, 19 Aug 1998 (DFM). One specimen 1908 (FMNH); 2 specimens, 1974, 1979 (ZMA). Curaçao Four specimens 1954 (ZMA).

  • Bonaire Four specimens, 1951 (2), 1978, 1979 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

COEREBIDAE

Bananaquit Coereba flaveola

  • Du: Suikerdiefje Ar: Barica hel, Chibichibi Cu: Barika hel Bo: Bachi pretu

  • Range Tropical America. From S Mexico south through Central America and N South America W of Andes to NW Peru and E of Andes to NW Argentina, but absent from W and C Amazonia. Also in the Bahamas and the West Indies, except Cuba.

  • Habitat Woodland, second growth, scrub, mangroves, fruit plantations, towns.

  • Status Very common breeding resident. Aruba Two specimens 1892 (AMNH); 14 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 2 specimens 1930 (RMNH); 13 specimens, 1951 (5), 1952, 1961 (2), 1973 (3), 1974, 1977 (ZMA). Curaçao Eighteen specimens 1892 (AMNH); 12 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 2 specimens (RMNH); 4 specimens, 1892 (2), 1895, 1917 (USNM); 26 specimens, 1951 (17), 1952 (3), 1954, 1961 (3), 1964, 1982 (ZMA). Bonaire Three specimens 1892 (AMNH); 18 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 16 specimens, 1929 (2), 1969 (14) (USNM); 20 specimens, 1951 (holotype and 11 paratypes of C. f. bonairensis), 1952 (3 paratypes of C. f. bonairensis), 1961 (2), 1982 (2), 1985 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu: the endemic C. f. uropygialis. Bo: the endemic C. f. bonairensis.

EMBERIZIDAE

Rufous-collared Sparrow Zonotrichia capensis

  • Du: Roodkraaggors Ar, Cu, Bo: Chonchorogai

  • Range Highlands of Middle America, from S Mexico to Panama, and throughout South America, except the Amazonian region; mountains of Hispaniola. Southernmost populations migrate north in southern winter. Habitat Arid scrub, forest edge, gardens, parks, grassland, farmland.

  • Status Aruba Rather common breeding resident. One specimen 1892 (AMNH); 14 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 2 specimens 1930 (RMNH); 3 specimens 1951 (ZMA). Curaçao Common breeding resident. Three specimens, 1892 (2), sine die (AMNH); 21 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 2 specimens 1930 (RMNH); 2 specimens, 1895 (type of Z. c. insularis), 1917 (USNM); 27 specimens, 1951 (20), 1952 (4), 1954 (3) (ZMA). Bonaire In 1950s 3 birds were introduced from Curaçao (FCL). Last recorded, single bird, Belnem, outside Kralendijk, 19 May 1978 (FCL, B. Lüsse).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu: the endemic ssp Z. c. insularis.

White-throated Sparrow Zonotrichia albicollis

  • Du: Witkeelgors Ar: Chonchorogai garganta bianco Cu, Bo: Chonchorogai garganta blanku

  • Range Boreal Canada E of Rockies and NE USA. Winters in E and S USA and NE Mexico. Excluding a sight record from Puerto Rico, nearest record is more than 2500 km NE in Florida (AOU 1998).

  • Habitat Coniferous and mixed woodland, forest edge, bogs, scrub.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. One individual, captured out of a group of six birds by Pablo Hosé, Jan 1964, died later in captivity (HJK). One specimen 1964 (ZMA). Curaçao and Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Grasshopper Sparrow Ammodramus savannarum

  • Du: Sprinkhaangors Ar, Cu, Bo: Mòfi di sabana

  • Range Southern Canada and USA, except SW, locally in Middle America from S Mexico to Panama and in South America in W Colombia; also Jamaica, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. Northern populations winter in S USA, the N West Indies, and Middle America south to Costa Rica.

  • Habitat Prairie, weedy fields, savannas grassland, pastures, open scrub, rice plantations.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Very scarce breeding resident. Until 1983 known from 6 localities (including Hato, Ronde Klip, Noordkant and Malpais, Voous 1983). Only recent record from Koraal Tabak (J. and A. Wells 2003). One specimen 1892 (AMNH); 10 specimens, 1952 (8), 1954 (2) (ZMA). Bonaire Very scarce breeding resident. Until 1983 recorded from 8 localities (including Amboina and Kralendijk, Voous 1983). More recent records: Kralendijk, 1 Jun 1985; singing male Kralendijk, 9 Jul 1985; Kralendijk, 10 Mar 1986 (FCL); 1 Nov 1990 (FCL, GJR); 2 birds observed in deep grasslands on south side of Ceru Largu, 13 Dec 2002 (Ligon 2006); at least 4 pairs together with recently fledged young, Ceru Largu, 20 Jan 2004 (JCL, C. Powell, S. Hickson in Ligon 2006). Five specimens 1892 (AMNH); 1 specimen 1908 (FMNH); 2 specimens, 1951, 1977 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu and Bo: the endemic A. S. caribaeus.

Saffron Finch Sicalis flaveola

  • Du: Gewone Saffraangors Ar: Parha hel, Saffraanvink Cu: Saffraanvink Bo: Kanari

  • Range South America, W of Andes, W Ecuador and NW Peru and E of Andes N and E Colombia, N Venezuela, Trinidad, the Guianas and NE Brazil and south of the River Amazon from E Bolivia to C Argentina.

  • Habitat Pastures, second growth scrub, farmland, open woodland, towns.

  • Status Aruba Formerly not uncommon in suburb gardens of Oranjestad, Sep 1979 (AK). Apparently the species is no longer found on the island (SGM). Curaçao Common breeding resident, almost certainly escaped cage-birds. Since 1970 recorded at Saliña and other residential areas near Willemstad; also Malpais, Groot Piscadera, Julianadorp, and rural areas throughout the island. Two specimens, 1991, 1994 (ZMA). Bonaire Scarce breeding resident, probably escaped cage-birds. Since 1994 recorded near Divi Flamingo dive shop (K. Thorp); found nesting there on 7 Mar 2002 (Ligon 2006); about 10 birds in Seagrape Coccoloba uvifera tree at Kay Hulanda, May 2003 (G. van Hoorn). Numbers apparently increasing and spreading throughout the island, even to Washington-Slagbaai National Park through Rincon (JCL in litt).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: most likely S. f. flaveola from N South America.

Blue-black Grassquit Volatinia jacarina

  • Du: Jacarinagors Ar, Cu, Bo: Mòfi bachi blou

  • Range Middle and tropical South America from Mexico south to NW Chile and C Argentina; also Grenada in the Lesser Antilles. Fairly common along N coast of Venezuela (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Scrub, farmland, pastures, around towns and habitations.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. One male, caught and released, CARMABI, Piscadera Bay, 21–23 Sep 1966 (P.A.W.J. de Wilde, colour-slides examined by KHV). Bonaire Casual visitor. One male, Playa Grandi, 18 Mar 1976 (D.G. Anderson); possibly same bird captured in same place, 29 Jul 1976, died in aviary, 15 Jun 1979 (FCL). One specimen 1979 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu and Bo: ssp unidentified, most likely V. j. splendens from N South America.

Black-faced Grassquit Tiaris bicolor

  • Du: Maskergrondvink Ar, Cu, Bo: Moffi, Mòfi

  • Range Northern South America, NE and C Colombia, N Venezuela, including off-lying islands and throughout the West Indies, but not mainland Cuba and Cayman Islands.

  • Habitat Open grassy and bushy areas, arid scrub, roadsides, plantations, gardens.

  • Status Common breeding resident. Aruba Twenty specimens 1908 (FMNH); 2 specimens 1930 (RMNH); 7 specimens, 1951 (6), 1973 (ZMA). Curaçao Nine specimens, 1892 (5, including type of T. b. sharpei), 1896 (4) (AMNH); 23 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 3 specimens, 1930 (2), 1936 (RMNH); 23 specimens, 1951 (16), 1952, 1954 (2), 1955 (2), 1990, 1994 (ZMA). Bonaire Two specimens 1892 (AMNH); 11 specimens 1908 (FMNH); 4 specimens 1930 (RMNH); 1 specimen 1929 (USNM); 9 specimens 1951 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Ar, Cu, Bo: the endemic T. b. sharpei.

THRAUPIDAE

Swallow-Tanager Tersina viridis

  • Du: Zwaluwtangare Ar: Tanagra swalchi Cu, Bo: Tanagra souchi

  • Range East Panama and N South America (except Amazonia and NE Brazil) south to NE Peru, NE Bolivia, Paraguay and NE Argentina. Common in N Venezuela, mostly from Feb to late Jul (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Humid forest borders, gallery forest, lighter woodland, second growth and clearings with tall trees.

  • Status Aruba and Curaçao No records. Bonaire Casual visitor. Immature male, 4.8 km north of Kralendijk at Hilltop Apartments, 25 Feb 2008 (S. Williams, JCL in litt., colour-photo examined).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Bo: most likely T. v. occidentalis from N South America.

Red-legged Honeycreeper Cyanerpes cyaneus

  • Du: Blauwe Suikervogel Ar: Barica blou Cu, Bo: Barika blou

  • Range From C Mexico south through Central America to tropical South America. In the West Indies only on Cuba, where probably introduced (Raffaele et al. 1998). Locally common in Venezuela and some nomadic (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Secondary forest, humid forest edge, open woodland.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. Not recorded by Voous (1983), but 2 specimens in USNM, one collected Sep 1917, one without data. Bonaire Casual visitor. One immature male, Kralendijk, 16 Jan 1961 (Brother Arnoldo, HJK); 1 immature female, Lac Bay complex, Feb–Mar 2004, photographed 25 Mar (JCL, G. and K. Voslow in Ligon 2006). One specimen 1961 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu, Bo: ssp unidentified, most likely C. c. eximius from N Colombia and N Venezuela.

Summer Tanager Piranga rubra

  • Du: Zomertangare Ar: Tanagra ala preto Cu, Bo: Tanagra ala pretu

  • Range Southern USA and N Mexico. Winters from C Mexico to N and C South America, south to W Ecuador, N Peru, N Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil, east to the Guianas. Fairly common in Venezuela, predominantly mid Oct through Mar (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Deciduous forest, open and riparian woodland, pine and pine-oak woodland, swamps.

  • Status Surprisingly few records given status in Venezuela. Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. One bird, Julianadorp, autumn 1957 (J.G. de Jong, colour-slides examined by KHV); 1 male in red plumage, Seru Bientu (north-east of Lagun), 5 Apr 1979 (J.E. Winkelman). Bonaire Casual visitor. One immature male, Peaceful Canyon, 17 Apr 2003 (T. Ashbaugh, colour-photo examined); 1 female, Dos Pos, 18 Apr 2003 (Ligon 2006).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu, Bo: ssp unidentified, most likely P. r. rubra from SE USA.

Scarlet Tanager Piranga olivacea

  • Du: Zwartvleugeltangare Ar: Tanagra còrá Cu, Bo: Tanagra kòrá

  • Range South-east Canada and E USA. Winters from Panama and NW South America south to N Bolivia. Rare migrant in W Venezuela (Hilty 2003); unrecorded in Trinidad and Tobago (Kenefick et al. 2007).

  • Habitat Deciduous forest, woodland, parks.

  • Status Passage migrant, more often recorded in spring (Apr–May) than in autumn (Oct–Nov). Aruba Casual visitor. One bird, Oranjestad 3–10 Apr 1952 (Voous 1957); 1 bird, 11 Oct 1977 (AK). Curaçao Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Voous (1983) characterizes an unspecified number of observations, including some individuals photographed, as “numerous”. Documented records: male, Julianadorp, 24 Oct 1951 (KHV); male, Willemstad, 14 Apr 1952 (KHV); male, Nieuwpoort, 5 Apr 1963 (P.A. van der Werff); bird found dead, Christoffel National Park, 19 Apr 2002 (M. del Gomes). Five specimens, 1951, 1952, 1963, 1977, 2002 (ZMA). Bonaire Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Voous (1983) mentions an unspecified number of observations. Five more recent records: adult male in breeding plumage, Kralendijk, 17 Feb 1983 (FCL); 1 Apr 1998 (M. Kaiser); 2 Apr 1998 (E. Scholten); moulting male, Washington-Slagbaai National Park, 13 Jan 2001 (JCL, J. Lanier); male, Dos Pos, 3 and 10 Apr 2001 (all records since 1998 in Ligon 2006). One specimen 1980 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Western Tanager Piranga ludoviciana

  • Du: Louisianatangare Ar: Tanagra barica hel Cu, Bo: Tanagra barika hel

  • Range South-western Canada and W USA. Winters in Middle America south to Costa Rica. Unrecorded on continental South America, with vagrant records S to Cuba in Caribbean and to Panama in Central America (AOU 1998).

  • Habitat Open coniferous and mixed coniferous-deciduous forest.

  • Status Aruba and Curaçao No records. Bonaire Casual visitor. One male in breeding plumage, Playa Frans, 5 Jul 2001 (Wells & Childs Wells 2002). Far out-of-range and not during migration.

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

CARDINALIDAE

Dickcissel Spiza americana

  • Du: Dickcissel Ar: Arozero Cu, Bo: Para di aña dashi gris

  • Range South C Canada and EC USA, formerly also east of the Appalachians. Winters from W Mexico south through Central America to NW South America, from Colombia to the Guianas and Trinidad.

  • Habitat Grassland, meadows, savannas, farmland, brushy fields.

  • Status Non-breeding autumn visitor in varying numbers in Aruba and Curaçao. Not observed every year, but may be overlooked. Aruba One spring record, 24 Apr 1908 (J.F. Ferry). One specimen 1908 (FMNH). Curaçao Four specimens, 1954 (2), 1955 (2) (ZMA). Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Rose-breasted Grosbeak Pheucticus ludovicianus

  • Du: Roodborstkardinaal Ar: Pico grandi barica ros Cu, Bo: Pik grandi barika ros

  • Range Southern Canada, E of Rockies, and NC and NE USA. Winters from C Mexico south through Central America to N and E Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and EC Peru. Uncommon to fairly common in Venezuela from mid-Oct to mid-Apr, predominantly after Dec (Hilty 2003).

  • Habitat Open deciduous forest, woodland, second growth.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. Two males and 2 females, Jamanota, 19 Dec 1976 (AK). Curaçao and Bonaire Non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Voous (1983) mentions 13 observations in autumn (9 Oct–17 Nov) and 4 in spring (23 Mar–24 Apr). Curaçao Three additional records: female, Willemstad, 16 Nov 1992 (BDB); male, Willemstad, 3 Mar 2001 (Dr D. van der Giessen), male, Julianadorp, 23 and 26 Apr 2004 (M. and F. Bender). One specimen 1932 (RMNH); 3 specimens, 1963, 1977, sine die (ZMA). Bonaire Eight additional records: male, Flamingo Beach Hotel, 10 Jun 1977 (FCL, J. Hartog); male, Kralendijk, 20 Oct 1982; male and female, Dos Pos, 13 Nov 1982; male, Kralendijk, 14 Nov 1982; female, Dos Pos, 9 Nov 1987 (FCL); Hato region, 1 Oct 1995 (D. Gassart in Ligon 2006); female, Washington-Slagbaai National Park, 12 Nov 2002 (SS in Ligon 2006); male in winter plumage, near Ceru Largu, 11 Dec 2004 (Ligon 2006). One specimen 1977 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

Black-headed Grosbeak Pheucticus melanocephalus

  • Du: Zwartkopkardinaal Ar: Pico grandi kabez preto Cu, Bo: Pik grandi kabes pretu

  • Range South-western Canada, W and C USA, and W Mexico south to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Winters in SW USA and Mexico.

  • Habitat Deciduous forest, woodland, pine-oak, thickets, riparian woodland.

  • Status Aruba No records. Curaçao Casual visitor. One male, Bullenbaai, 17 Dec 1978 (J.E. Winkelman). Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Cu: ssp unidentified.

Blue Grosbeak Passerina caerulea

  • Du: Blauwe Bisschop Ar: Pico grandi blou Cu, Bo: Pik grandi blou

  • Range From the USA, except the N, south to C Costa Rica. Winters from Mexico south to C Panama.

  • Habitat Scrub, second growth, riparian thickets, farmland.

  • Status Aruba and Curaçao No records. Bonaire Casual visitor. One female, 14–20 Nov 1983 (J. Bax, FCL, colourslides examined by KHV).

  • Taxonomy Polytypic. Bo: ssp unidentified.

Indigo Bunting Passerina cyanea

  • Du: Indigogors Ar: Parha indigo Cu, Bo: Para indigo

  • Range Southern C and E Canada and E and SC USA. Winters in Middle America south to extreme NW South America and in the West Indies.

  • Habitat Edges of deciduous forest, open woodland, second growth, scrub, farmland.

  • Status Aruba Casual visitor. First record, likely immature female, Bubali, 12 Mar 2005 (Mlodinow 2006).

  • Curaçao Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers, between 7 Nov and 23 Apr, apparently more often recorded in spring (Voous 1983). Observed at Malpais (W. Bokma, E. van Campen) and Santa Cruz (J. Halabi). One specimen 1951 (ZMA). Bonaire Irregular non-breeding visitor in small numbers. Seven records: female Kralendijk, 5 Jan 1977 (FCL); 2 adults staying at the same spot from October 1980 at least to 26 Jan 1981 with 1 bird still present on 3 Feb 1981 (FCL); Fontein, 4 Apr 1981 (FCL); male moulting into summer plumage, Kralendijk, 4 Feb 1983 (FCL); Tolo Trail, 1 Oct 1997 (JCL); male in full summer plumage Sabadeco, 15 Apr 2002 (S. Burns); moulting male, Fontein, 28 Oct 2003 (JCL). One specimen 1977 (ZMA).

  • Taxonomy Monotypic.

ESCAPED CAGE-BIRDS
ANATIDAE

Orinoco Goose Neochen jubata

  • Du: Orinocogans Ar, Cu, Bo: Gans di Orinoko

  • Range N South America.

  • Aruba No records. Curaçao Two individuals Groot Kwartier and Klein Kwartier, Feb and Oct 2000 (G. van Buurt and M. Joubert). Bonaire No records.

PSITTACIDAE

Cockatiel Nymphicus hollandicus

  • Du: Valkparkiet Ar, Cu, Bo: Prikichi kinikini

  • Range Interior of Australia.

  • Aruba Partly albino near Savaneta on 2 occasions in 1998 (TDK and JHR). Curaçao and Bonaire No records.

Chestnut-fronted Macaw Ara severus

  • Du: Dwergara Ar, Cu, Bo: Ara enano

  • Range Eastern Panama and South America east to the Guianas and south to C Brazil and N Bolivia.

  • Aruba At least 3 birds near Savaneta, August 1996 (TDK); 2 birds almost daily flying over golfcourse Tierra del Sol, March 1997 (JHR). Curaçao Two birds, Arcturusweg, 29 Jul 1992; 2 birds, same place, 4 Aug 1992 (LS); 4 birds, early 1996 (BDB); 2 birds, Rigelweg, 25 Apr 1996; 2 birds, Jan Thiel, Apr 1999; 2 birds, Ceritu, 11 Dec 2000; 3 birds, Ceritu, 2 Nov2001 (LS). Bonaire No records.

Blue-crowned Parakeet Aratinga acuticaudata

  • Du: Blauwkoparatinga Ar: Prikichi kabez blou Cu, Bo: Prikichi kabes blou

  • Range Disjunct in South America. NE Colombia to NW Venezuela, including Margarita Island; NE Brazil; E Bolivia to N Argentina.

  • Aruba No records. Curaçao Flock of at least 10–12 birds, several places east of Schottegat, present for several years already, photographed Dec 2007 when eating fruit from Ziziphus spina-christi (G. van Buurt, colour-photo examined). Bonaire No records.

Red-lored Parrot Amazona autumnalis

  • Du: Geelwangamazone Ar: Lora cara hel Cu, Bo: Lora kara hel

  • Range Central America and N South America.

  • Aruba No records. Curaçao Occasionally recorded. Nest with 2 eggs at Groot Sint Joris, 31 May 1977 (Voous 1985). Bonaire No records.

  • Taxonomy The observed birds were allocated to A. a. salvini from N Nicaragua to SW Colombia and NW Venezuela.

Yellow-crowned Parrot Amazona ochrocephala

  • Du: Geelvoorhoofdamazone Ar: Lora skouder còrá Cu, Bo: Lora skouder kòrá

  • Range Mexico to N South America.

  • Aruba No records. Curaçao Two birds flying over Willemstad, 18 Oct 1994 (BDB); several birds, 2007 (G. van Buurt). Bonaire No records.

Orange-winged Parrot Amazona amazonica

  • Du: Oranjevleugelamazone Ar, Cu, Bo: Lora ala orafio

  • Range N South America.

  • Aruba Three birds, Ceroe Colorado, 24 Nov 1991 (DFM, colour-photo examined); 1 bird, Arashi beach, 20 Nov 2000 (T. Koppejan, colour-photo examined). Curaçao One bird, Malpais, 19 Dec 1992 (BDB); group of 20-30 birds, early 1996 (BDB); several birds, Emmastad, 2007 (G. van Buurt). Bonaire No records.

STURNIDAE

Hill Myna Gracula religiosa

  • Du: Grote Beo Ar, Cu, Bo: Beo

  • Range South-east Asia, from India east to Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia.

  • Aruba No records. Curaçao One bird, Dam Muizenberg, May 1997 (DMCP, colour-photo examined). Bonaire No records.

ESTRILDIDAE

Zebra Finch Taeniopygia guttata

  • Du: Zebravink Ar: Parha zebra Cu, Bo: Para zebra

  • Range Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia and interior Australia.

  • Aruba Single bird near Savaneta, August 1996 (TDK). Curaçao and Bonaire No records.

Plate 64.

Eared Dove Zenaida auriculata. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p64_137.eps

Plate 65.

Common Ground Dove Columbina passerina. (Photo S. Mlodinow)

p65_137.eps

Plate 66.

White-tipped Dove Leptotila verreauxi. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p66_137.eps

Plate 67.

Yellow-shouldered Parrot Amazona barbadensis. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p67_137.eps

Plate 68.

Brown-throated Parakeet Aratinga pertinax arubensis. (Photo S. Mlodinow)

p68_137.eps

Plate 69.

Brown-throated Parakeet Aratinga pertinax pertinax. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p69_137.eps

Plate 70.

Groove-billed Ani Crotophaga sulcirostris. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p70_137.eps

Plate 71.

Ruby Topaz Chrysolampis mosquitus. (Photo L. Pors)

p71_137.eps

Plate 72.

Burrowing Owl Athene cunicularia. (Photo S. Mlodinow)

p72_137.eps

Plate 73.

Burrowing Owl Athene cunicularia. (Photo S. Mlodinow)

p73_137.eps

Plate 74.

Blue-tailed Emerald (male) Chlorostilbon mellisugus. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p74_137.eps

Plate 75.

Blue-tailed Emerald (female) Chlorostilbon mellisugus. (Photo S. Mlodinow)

p75_137.eps

Plate 76.

Blue-tailed Emerald Chlorostilbon mellisugus. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p76_137.eps

Plate 77.

Bananaquit Coereba flaveola. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p77_137.eps

Plate 78.

Fork-tailed Flycatcher Tyrannus savana. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p78_137.eps

Plate 79.

Grey Kingbird Tyrannus dominicensis. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p79_137.eps

Plate 80.

Tropical Mockingbird Mimus gilvus. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p80_137.eps

Plate 81.

Northern Waterthrush Seiurus noveboracensis. (Photo S. Mlodinow)

p81_137.eps

Plate 82.

Pearly-eyed Thrasher Margarops fuscatus. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p82_137.eps

Plate 83.

Yellow Warbler Dendroica petechia. (Photo S. Mlodinow)

p83_137.eps

Plate 84.

Black-and-white Warbler Mniotilta varia. (Photo S. Mlodinow)

p84_137.eps

Plate 85.

Troupial Icterus icterus. (Photo S. Mlodinow)

p85_137.eps

Plate 86.

Troupial Icterus icterus. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p86_137.eps

Plate 87.

Yellow Oriole Icterus nigrogularis. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p87_137.eps

Plate 88.

Saffron Finch Sicalis flaveola. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p88_137.eps

Plate 89.

Shiny Cowbird Molothrus bonariensis. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p89_137.eps

Plate 90.

Carib Grackle Quiscalus lugubris. (Photo S. Mlodinow)

p90_137.eps

Plate 91.

Rufous-collared Sparrow Zonotrichia capensis. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p91_137.eps

Plate 92.

Swallow-Tanager Tersina viridis. (Photo S. Williams)

p92_137.eps

Plate 93.

Black-faced Grassquit (male) Tiaris bicolor. (Photo S. Mlodinow)

p93_137.eps

Plate 94.

Black-faced Grassquit (female) Tiaris bicolor. (Photo G. van Buurt)

p94_137.eps

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We are indebted to the late Professor Voous for his encouragement to produce this checklist and for his interest in our work during the last years of his life. We are grateful that he put all new information he obtained and collected since his retirement at our disposal. Without this source of data, the production of this book would not have been possible.

The information collected and presented here was primarily provided by a large number of field observers, both residents of the islands and visitors from abroad. We are grateful to the following persons: M. Aliabadian, M.A. Anderson, T. Ashbaugh, J. Bax, F. Bender, M. Bender, M. van den Berg, K. Beylevelt, D.J. Boerwinkel, F.H. Bonset, P. Boyer, F.G. Buckley, P.A. Buckley, S. Burns, G. van Buurt, E. van Campen, D. Canterbury, Mr and Mrs Cavallaro, A. Childs Wells, S. Criens, R. Derix, H. Farber, J. Felida, D.W. Finsch, M. Flikweert, J.A. de Freitas, D. van der Giessen, C. Glendinning, M. del Gomes, P.D. Grant, R. Hoekstra, G. van Hoorn, Y. van Hoorn, T. Hunefeld, T., van Ingen, C. Jansen, K. Job, M. Joubert, T. Koppejan, R. de Kort, R. Lemminga, J. van der Linden, H. Lo-Sioe-Fon, B. Lusse, J. Mather, W. de Mooy, A. del Nevo, R.L. Norton, G. Phillips, L. Pors, M. Pors-da Costa Gomes, C. Powell, E.A.P. de Raadt, I. Roos, J. Roos, V. Roose, B. Rosensteil, P. van Scheepen, A.L. Spaans, D.B. Stavros, K. Thorp, P. Vandormael, J. Vogel, D. Walters, Mr and Mrs Watts, P.S. Weber, R. Wellens, J.V. Wells, A. White, T. White, D. Wille, S. Williams, J. van der Woude, J. Zwaaneveld, and in particular C. Beachell, R. van Halewijn, C.J. Hey, E. Jansen, T. de Kort, D.F. Meijer, R. Messemaker, D.M.C. Poppe, G.J. Rorijst, L. Spoormakers and S. Stapert for never ending, and highly appreciated, records and information. R. Restall identified the subspecies of the Streaked Flycatcher. Special thanks is given to S.G. Mlodinow for all the new information of the birds of Aruba, to B. de Boer for providing information of Curaçao and to Frater Candidus van der Lindent and J. Ligon for their information of the birds of Bonaire. Without their new information the list would be less more informative and up to date. J. Booij is thanked for compiling the database on migrant raptors based on the diaries of K.H. Voous.

From the following museums we received information about their holdings of birds from Aruba, Curaçao and Bonaire and we like to thank the collection managers for their cooperation: American Museum of Natural History, New York; Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; Cornell University Museum of Vertebrates, Ithaca; Field Museum Natural History, Chicago; National Museum of Natural History/Naturalis, Leiden; United States Natural Museum/Smithsonian Institution, Washington.

Many of the photographs illustrating this checklist were kindly and freely provided by G. van Buurt, B. Denneman (Vogelbescherming Nederland), T. Koppejan, S.G. Mlodinow, L. Pors and S. Williams. We are grateful for their help in making this paper more lively and attractive. Some of the figures are based on material provided by D. Wege, BirdLife International.

Our sincere thanks also go to the colleagues at the Zoological Museum Amsterdam: M. Aliabadian, H. van Brandwijk, W. Craandijk, T. Dunselman, A. Rol, C.S. Roselaar, H. Schuurmans, K. Sweers, R. Vonk and A. Walgreen for continuing support and encouragement. R. Altenburg, T. Boersma, G. Gijswijt, E. van Spronsen and H. Veldhuijzen van Zanten from ETI Biolnformatics for IT support and much-appreciated help with the preparation of the illustrations. J. de Sonnaville, J.C. van de Staaij and E. Zwart from the library of the Zoological Museum Amsterdam were instrumental in obtaining the relevant journal articles, books, and documents; H. van Brandwijk's skills in preparing skins and salvaging bird remains allowed us to study important specimens from the islands.

S.G. Mlodinow and C.S. Roselaar commented on various drafts of the manuscript, and their constructive comments and suggestions are highly valued. We sincerely thank all the sponsors who made publication of this checklist possible. Funding for fieldwork in the Netherlands Antilles was obtained from Prins Bernhard Cultuurfonds Nederlandse Antillen en Aruba, P.A. Hens Memorial Fund, Vogelbescherming Nederland (BirdLife International), Martina de Beukelaar Stichting / J.C. van der Hucht Fonds, Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (to R. Vonk), Foundation ProNatura and the AUV Fund of the University of Amsterdam.

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Appendices

SAMENVATTING

Deze checklist is een volledig overzicht van de vogels van Aruba (190 km2), Curaçao (444 km2) en Bonaire (288 km2), inclusief Klein Curaçao (1,3 km2) en Klein Bonaire (6 km2), in het Caribische gebied. Soortenrijkdom, talrijkheid en voorkomen (tot en met 2008) worden vergeleken met wat er eerder gepubliceerd is in de periode 1893 (Hartert 1893, Ibis (6) 5: 289–338) tot 1983 (Voous 1983, Birds of the Netherlands Antilles, tweede editie, Walburg Pers, Zutphen). De avifauna van de drie eilanden is in grote lijnen gelijk (een overeenkomst in soortensamenstelling van 74–78% voor Standvogels en 65–73% voor trek- en zwerfvogels). Het totale aantal op deze eilanden waargenomen soorten is voor Standvogels toegenomen van 115 (1957) tot 168 (2006), voor trek- en zwerfvogels van 117 (1957) tot 236 (2006). De toename was het grootst op Aruba (Standvogels van 34 naar 56 soorten, trek- en zwerfvogels van 28 naar 166 soorten) en het minst op Curaçao (Standvogels van 42 naar 57, treken zwerfvogels van 55 naar 168 soorten). Oorspronkelijk was Klein Curaçao een belangrijke broedplaats voor zeevogels als genten, meeuwen en sterns. Toen in de negentiende eeuw begonnen werd met de winning van mest van de vogels (guano), verloor het eiland echter al snel zijn betekenis voor de vogels. Klein Bonaire had aanvankelijk veel te lijden van de aanwezigheid van geiten, maar is dankzij de aanwijzing als beschermd gebied nu weer aan het herstellen.

Ondanks het voorkomen van een groot aantal soorten treken zwerfvogels zijn de eilanden niet van grote betekenis als pleisterplaats voor deze soorten. Trek- en zwerfvogels arriveren zowel uit het noorden (soorten uit Noord- en Midden-Amerika) als uit het zuiden (soorten uit Zuid-Amerika). De fenologie van trek- en zwerfvogels wordt geïllustreerd aan de hand van drie vogelgroepen: Noord-Amerikaanse zangers (Parulidae), roofvogels en de meeuwen en sterns. Van vrijwel alle soorten zijn er waarnemingen in alle maanden van het jaar, maar er zijn duidelijke pieken te herkennen. De rrekperiode van Noord-Amerikaanse zangers is geconcentreerd in het voorjaar (maart-april) en in de herfst (oktober-november). De pieken voor roofvogels zijn meer geprononceerd, met name in de wintermaanden, met zeer weinig overzomerende vogels. In tegenstelling tot zangers en roofvogels zijn meeuwen en sterns gedurende het hele jaar waar te nemen, zonder dat er sprake is van duidelijke pieken of dalen.

Tweederde van de Standvogels is algemeen of vrij algemeen. Dit geldt voor alle drie de eilanden. Slechts weinig soorten zijn algemeen of zeer algemeen op één eiland en schaars of zeer schaars op andere. Voorbeelden hiervan zijn de Rode Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber, die talrijk op Bonaire broedt en een regelmatige niet-broedende bezoeker (<200 vogels, met verschillende broedpogingen) op Curaçao is, maar onregelmatig als niet-broeder op Aruba wordt gezien. De Gele Troepiaal Icterus nigrogularis is een algemene broedvogel op Curaçao en tamelijk algemeen op Bonaire, maar schaars op Aruba.

De eilanden huisvesten zes wereldwijd bedreigde (“threatened”) of bijna bedreigde (“near-threatened”) soorten. De Caribische Koet Fulica caribaea en de Geelvleugelamazone Amazona barbadensis zijn, wereldwijd gezien, met aanzienlijke populaties aanwezig. Andere soorten (Dwergplevier Charadrius melodus, Sparrenpiewie Contopus cooped, Azuurzanger Dendroica cerulea en Geelvleugelzanger Vermivora chrysoptera) gebruiken de eilanden alleen als pleisterplaats tijdens de trek of om er te overwinteren. De Geelvleugelamazone wordt voomamelijk op Bonaire aangetroffen (400 exemplaren). Op Aruba worden af en toe kleine aantallen waargenomen, maar het is niet duidelijk of dit zwervers van het Venezolaanse schiereiland Paraguaná zijn of vrijgelaten kooivogels. De Caribische Koet is op alle drie eilanden aanwezig. Het is een talrijker broedvogel dan in de tijd van Voous.

Vanuit het oogpunt van bescherming is het voorkomen van een aanzienlijke broedpopulatie van de Rode Flamingo op Bonaire en een kleinere populatie op Curaçao het vermelden waard. Dit geldt ook voor de broedkolonie van de Amerikaanse Dwergstem Sterna antillarum op Klein Bonaire. Aan de hand van het voorkomen van deze bedreigde en van bescherming afhankelijke soorten kunnen er vijftien belangrijke vogelgebieden (“Important Bird Areas”) worden vastgesteld: vier op Aruba, vijf op Curaçao en zes (inclusief Klein Bonaire) op Bonaire.

Appendix 1

Appendix 1.

List of species recorded on Aruba, Curaçao and Bonaire; data from Harten (1893), Cory (1909), Rutten (1931), Voous (1955, 1957, 1983) and the present study.

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INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES

(page numbers refer to the Systematic List, bold page numbers refer to photographs)

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INDEX OF SCIENTIFIC NAMES

(page numbers refer to the Systematic List, bold page numbers refer to photographs)

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T.G. Prins, J.H. Reuter, A.O. Debrot, J. Wattel, and V. Nijman "Checklist of the Birds of Aruba, Curaçao and Bonaire, South Caribbean," Ardea 97(2), 137-268, (1 October 2009). https://doi.org/10.5253/078.097.0201
Published: 1 October 2009
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