Factores determining the large-scale seasonal abundance of the common kestrel in Central Spain.
Details of landscape variables that determine the large-scale distribution of the common kestrel in Central Spain are provided. The most influential variables largely differ between breeding and wintering seasons, although purely geographical variables decide the overall trend in the species' distribution: the kestrel is more common in northwestern, moderately hilly locations below 900–1,000 m a.s.l. of the study area. Despite its association with farmland, agricultural use variables do not determine the year-round distribution of the kestrel. Moreover, breeding abundance is negatively correlated with farmland. These results exemplify the need to compare seasonal patterns of abundance/distribution in order to be able to state the habitat requirements of a species with precision.